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Stella Adler

Stella Adler

Stella Adler rođena je u New Yorku 10. veljače 1901. Pridružila se grupnom kazalištu koje su osnovali u New Yorku Harold Clurman i Lee Strasberg 1931. Ostali uključeni u grupu bili su Elia Kazan, Stella Adler, John Garfield, Howard Da Silva , Franchot Tone, John Randolph, Joseph Bromberg, Clifford Odets i Lee J. Cobb. Članovi grupe imali su tendenciju da drže ljevičarske političke stavove i željeli su proizvesti predstave koje se bave važnim društvenim pitanjima.

Adler, koji se kasnije oženio Haroldom Clurmanom, igrao je glavne uloge u filmu Nežna žena (John Howard Lawson) i Probudite se i pevajte! i Izgubljeni raj (Clifford Odets).

Tokom rada sa grupom Lee Strasberg razvio je ono što je postalo poznato kao Metoda. Zasnovan na idejama ruskog reditelja, Konstantina Stanislavskog, to je bio sistem obuke i probe za glumce koji svoju predstavu zasniva na unutarnjem emocionalnom iskustvu, otkrivenom uglavnom posredstvom improvizacije. Adler je bio pod utjecajem Strasbergovog pristupa glumi, a to se može vidjeti po njenim nastupima u filmovima, Ljubav na zdravici (1938), Senka mršavog čoveka (1941) i Moja devojka Tisa (1948).

Nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, većinu članova grupe istraživao je Odbor Doma neameričkih aktivnosti (HUAC). Neki poput Elije Kazan, Clifforda Odetsa i Lee J. Cobba svjedočili su i imenovali druge članove ljevičarskih grupa 1930-ih. Oni koji su to odbili, poput Stele Adler, Johna Garfielda, Howarda Da Silve, Johna Randolpha i Josepha Bromberga, stavljeni su na crnu listu.

Kako nije mogao pronaći posao u kinu i na televiziji, Adler je postao prvenstveno učitelj drugim glumcima. Dok je Lee Strasberg stavio naglasak na sebe, Adler je pozvao studente da nadiđu vlastita iskustva i istraživanjem okolnosti predstave, a ne vlastitih. Njeni učenici su bili Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, Warren Beatty i Harvey Keitel.

Stella Adler umrla je u Los Angelesu u Kaliforniji 21. decembra 1992.


Irene Gilbert i Stella Adler Papers, Odjel za kazalište Billy Rose, New York Public Library.

Spremište Billy Rose Theatre Division Divizija Pristup materijalima Neke zbirke koje drže Odsjeci za ples, muziku, snimljeni zvuk i kazalište u New York Public Library for Performing Arts drže se izvan mjesta i moraju se zatražiti unaprijed. Molimo provjerite evidenciju o prikupljanju u mrežni katalog NYPL za detaljne informacije o lokaciji. Za opće smjernice u vezi sa zahtjevima za materijale izvan web mjesta, pogledajte: https://www.nypl.org/about/locations/lpa/requesting-archival-materials

Stella Adler (1901-1992) bila je poznata američka glumica na sceni i ekranu, ali je možda najpoznatija kao jedna od najutjecajnijih učiteljica glume u Sjedinjenim Državama. Dokumente Irene Gilbert i Stelle Adler prikupila je Irene Gilbert tokom svog vremena dok je bila direktorica škole Stella Adler u Los Angelesu, trenutno poznate kao The Stella Adler Academy of Glume and Theatre. Radovi dokumentuju mnoge Adlerove časove koji su se predavali u periodu od 1959. do 1990., pisanje Adlerove knjige Tehnika glume i neke dužnosti koje je Irene Gilbert obavljala dok je bila direktor škole. Vrste materijala u ovoj zbirci uključuju ličnu i profesionalnu prepisku, transkripte, rukopise, poslovne datoteke, programe, isečke iz novina i časopisa i fotografije.


IV. STELLA ADLEROV PUT U STANISLAVSKI

Put Stelle Adler do Stanislavskog bio je direktan. Upoznala ga je u Parizu. Pre njihovog sastanka, Boleslavsky i Ouspenskaya su je upoznali sa njegovim „sistemom“ u Američkom laboratorijskom teatru. Pridružila se njihovom pozorištu 1925. i tamo studirala dvije godine (Adler, Tehnika 118). Takođe je došla u dodir sa konceptima Stanislavskog u Grupnom pozorištu čiji je osnivač (Meisner 9). Adler je pregledao sve prikaze "sistema" Stanislavskog koji je doživjela. Kad ga je ipak srela u Parizu, direktno mu je izrekla presudu: „Mr. Stanislavski, volio sam kazalište dok nisi došao, a sad ga mrzim ”(Adler, Tehnika 120)! Stanislavsky je odgovorio: „[Ako vam] sistem ne pomogne, zaboravite. Ali možda ga ne koristite pravilno ”(Garfield 33).

Adler je putovala u Pariz jer je voljela posjećivati ​​Evropu kad je to mogla (Adler, Tehnika 118). Bila je tamo s Haroldom Clurmanom za kojeg se kasnije udala. Godina je bila 1934. (Garfield 33). Clurman ju je obavijestio: "[Znaš], Stella, Stanislavski je ovdje" (Adler, Tehnika 119). Dogovorili su se da provedu neko vrijeme s njim. Nakon prvotno neugodnog sastanka i njezine naglašene izjave o mržnji prema kazalištu, Stanislavsky je pristao zapravo raditi s njom. Bilo je u predstavi, Nežne žene Don Powella (120). Njih dvojica su proveli period od pet sedmica ispitujući scenarij i različite aspekte njegovog 'sistema' (Garfield 33).

Adler je okarakterizirao njihov radni odnos „Stanislavski i ja bili smo u najvećoj blizini režisera i glumice, a vrlo brzo smo to bili samo glumac i glumica“ (Adler, Tehnika 120)! Tokom treninga, Stanislavsky je naglašavao upotrebu glumčeve mašte. Adler je objasnio: „Posebno mi je jasno stavio do znanja da glumac mora imati ogromnu maštu koja je slobodna i koju ne može spriječiti samosvijest. Shvatio sam da je on u velikoj mjeri glumac kojeg je hranila mašta ”(120).

Zatim je objasnio Adleru “koliko je važno iskoristiti okolnosti” (120). Dok ona predstavlja razgovor, on se osvrnuo na šest osnovnih pitanja: „Rekao je da ste tamo gdje jeste ono što jeste i kako ste i šta možete biti. Nalazite se na mjestu koje će vas hraniti, koje će vam dati snagu, koje će vam dati mogućnost da radite sve što želite ”(120).

On ju je također angažirao u vježbi koja se odnosila na njegovu metodu fizičke akcije, gdje je glumac nizao radnje koje je predstava predložila. Rekao joj je da „samo uradi nekoliko stvari i oko toga napravi zaplet“ (121). Adler je nanizao nekoliko radnji poput, premještanja do prozora i ugledavanja nečega „u što sam bio emocionalno, odmah uključen“ (121). Preselila se do stola i „potpisala svoje ime na dnu slova. Ponovo sam bio dramatično, duboko uključen u radnju […] ”(121).

Stanislavsky joj se povjerio o svom nastupu kao Stockmann u Ibsenovoj Neprijatelj naroda, performans koji sam naveo u svom odjeljku ovog rada. Kao Stockmann, postigao je veliki umjetnički trijumf da bi na kraju ostao izgubljen u ulozi, mehanički se krećući bez smisla. Adler je rekao da joj je rekao „trebalo mu je deset godina da pronađe ulogu. Dok je skupljao Elemente za tehniku ​​koja bi olakšala glumu, pronašao je odgovor na problem koji je u suštini kroz život doživio kao glumac […] ”(121).

Ona je sažela njihovo zajedničko vrijeme: “[Radili smo] intimno na scenama i na improvizacijama, a ja sam mogao biti potpuno opušten, potpuno kod kuće. Osećao sam se kao da sam s njim radio čitav život. Bio je nježan i 'apsolutno teatar': ništa osim kazališta nije prošlo. Ljubaznost i interesovanje - majstor sa studentom ”(121). Stanislavsky je takođe sažeo srž onoga što ju je naučio: „U datim okolnostima ne tražim osećanja. Ako se potrudim i učinim psihološko, forsiram radnju. Moramo napasti psihološki sa stanovišta fizičkog života kako ne bismo poremetili osjećaj. […] U svakoj psihološkoj radnji postoji neki fizički element. Tražite liniju, u smislu radnje, a ne osjećaja ”(Garfield 33).

Adler se vratila u Grupu sa svojim nalazima u vezi s naglaskom Stanislavskog na datim okolnostima, mašti i akciji te da bi glumac trebao "tražiti u datim okolnostima [sic] a ne osjećaje" (33). Stanislavsky je za nju iznio Metodu fizičkog djelovanja (Benedetti, Uvod 99). Iako Garfield primjećuje, „Stanislavski [...] joj je objasnio središnje mjesto„ radnji i zadataka “[…]. Međutim, tačna priroda promjena koje je širio tek je trebala biti razjašnjena, a trebalo je proći još četiri godine tijekom kojih će učvrstiti taj pristup koji će formalno biti označen kao „Metoda fizičkih radnji“ “(176).

Njeno objašnjenje o novom naglasku Stanislavskog na Akciji nad emocionalnim sjećanjem bila je "jedna od najkontroverznijih epizoda u povijesti Grupe […]" (Garfield 33). Ona je donijela grafikon koji prikazuje sve što ju je Stanislavsky naučio i ustvrdio da je „kompanija [Grupa] zloupotrijebila vježbu„ afektivnog pamćenja “, koju je Stanislavski sada preporučio samo kao posljednje sredstvo i da su date okolnosti i radnje, prema ruskom teoretičaru, treba posvetiti primarnu pažnju ”(33).

Strasberg je reagirao na njenu vijest i "bio je ljut zbog njenog izvještaja i optužbe za zloupotrebu posla, te zaključio da je ili pogrešno razumjela ono što joj je rekao Stanislavski ili da se ruski majstor" vratio na sebe "(33). Adlerov sukob sa Strasbergom smanjio je njegov utjecaj na Grupu i doveo do njegovog konačnog povlačenja iz njenih redova 1935. (Meisner 10).

Za Adlera je izravno znanje iz izvora, Stanislavsky, bilo moć, moć neovisnosti iz stiska Leeja Strasberga koji je bio primarni tumač "sistema" Stanislavskog za Grupno kazalište (Garfield 25). Međutim, Sanford Meisner je tvrdio da je Adler smatrao Strasberga neprijateljem i prije početka Grupe (Meisner 182). Za Adlera su ideje bile najvažnije: "Ništa nije jače od Ideje - ni Stela, ni bilo ko, čak ni Bog" (Adler, Art 26).

Howard Kissel, urednik Adlerove knjige Glumačka umjetnost, osjećala je svoj pravi dizajn za kazalište, a glumac nije ništa drugo do biblijski. On je zabilježio njezino odstupanje od Strasbergovog naglašenog emocionalnog sjećanja usmjerenog prema unutra prema vanjskom naglasku na djelovanju na ovaj način:

  • Naglasak na činjenju, a ne osjećaju čini Adlerov pristup praktičnijim. Razumno je, tvrdili su ona i#8211 i Stanislavsky –, očekivati ​​da će glumac moći izvesti radnje, nije razumno očekivati ​​da izazove emocije. Naglasak na činjenju također ima vrlo starozavjetnu kvalitetu. Ono što se smatralo legalističkim tonom Petoknjižja proizlazi iz njegovog insistiranja da božanstvo nije apstrakcija. On je živa sila koja postavlja posebne zahtjeve – Ako učiniš ovo, nećeš učiniti ono. Neko potvrđuje svoju vjeru ne samo u molitvu ili meditaciju, već u vrlo specifične radnje, poput ostavljanja dijela polja neobranog kako bi ga siromašni mogli sakupiti. […] Ideja da radnje imaju duboke podticaje i da je priroda radnje vrijedna prigušivanja oba su u osnovi Adlerovog pristupa glumi. U tom smislu njeno učenje bilo je sekularna verzija interpretativnih bitaka u kojima su Jevreji bili uključeni milenijumima. Takvi su bili i njeni sporovi s drugim alumnistima Grupe koji su postali učitelji. (Adler Art, Epilog)

Prema Kisselu, Adlerova borba protiv Strasbergove unutrašnje verzije sistema Stanislavskog bila je borba za prirodu glumca, njegovu komandu (koju je Adler nazvao "veličinom"), što ga je učinilo figurom vrijednom da komentira svijet. Gledala je na kazalište ne samo kao na smetnju, već na veliki društveni kompakt koji bi mogao oplemeniti pali svijet, tj. Mandat za kazalište i glumca koje nije mogla ostaviti u rukama svog intelektualnog neprijatelja Strasberga. (Adler Art, Epilog). Ona je to jasno rekla:

  • I sam sam bio dio Grupnog kazališta, gdje se navodno koristila tehnika. Ali kao glumica koja je imala veliko iskustvo drugdje, zamjerila sam glumi prema nekim principima koji su korišteni u Grupnom kazalištu. Zbog toga sam postao stranac, isključio sam se iz načina na koji su vježbali i načina na koji su predstave režirane. […] Znali su da sam protiv onoga što se događa u Grupnom kazalištu (Adler, Tehnika 119).

Da bi učvrstila svoju vlastitu verziju "sistema", Adler je sortirala sve njegove reprezentacije koje je doživjela, a zatim je kovala vlastiti put. Uprkos pohvalama koje je upućivala Stanislavskom, ona je takođe proglasila svoju nezavisnost od njega. Zapravo je svojim studentima rekla:

  • Ne čitajte njegovu knjigu, jer ona apsolutno nema smisla. On je došao iz kulture koja vam je potpuno strana, a vi to nećete razumjeti. […] Metoda je nešto što ćete pronaći kroz mene. Ja sam jedan od dva miliona ljudi koji su to inspirisali. Ali moj poseban doprinos bit će da vas učinim nezavisni metode. Imat ćete snage to preformulisati i krenuti svojim putem. (13 - 14)

Važno je napomenuti da je Adler koristio "metodu" kako bi označio "sistem" Stanislavskog i njenu vlastitu verziju tog "sistema".

Suština Adlerove tehnike

„Sistem“ Stanislavskog i Strasbergova metoda inspirirali su Stelu Adler. Ipak, ironično, čovjek koga je osudila - Stanislavsky – dominirao je njenim budućim radom. Tom Oppenheim, u svom odjeljku Obuka Amerikanaca Glumac objašnjava: „Stanislavski […] ju je oslobodio obaveze da radi na osjećaju u korist odabira i igranja radnji i da maštovito živi u datim okolnostima predstave. […] Istinu je trebalo pronaći ne samo u nečijoj ličnoj prošlosti, već kroz svoju maštu i u datim okolnostima […] ”(Bartow 45).

Odselila je Emotion Memory tako što se odlučila fokusirati na glumačke radnje u predstavi. Da bi odabrala akciju, prvo je ohrabrila svoje učenike da odgovore na pitanja o akciji. Pitanja su u osnovi bila šest osnovnih pitanja iz „sistema“ Stanislavskog. Adler je učio da glumac mora znati pojedinosti o datim okolnostima da bi se mogao posvetiti radnji. (Adler, Tehnika 36). Adler je izjavio: "[Vi] ste došli naučiti kako se ponašati, a ja vam stalno govorim da vas želim naučiti kako se ne ponašati - osim u vrlo preciznom smislu izvršavanja radnji" (Adler, Art 115).

Njeno istraživanje Akcija bilo je svojevrsna vježba proučavanja riječi. Akcija, "brinuti se o njoj" mogla bi postati učenicima o prirodi učenicima s razredom na pozornici koji pokušava spasiti zamišljenu mladunčad koja je pala iz gnijezda (115). Uputila je: „[Postoje mnoge radnje koje vrijedi proučiti - brinuti se, učiti, poučavati, proučavati, otkrivati, priznavati, pobuđivati ​​[…]“ (115). Glumac je trebao istražiti i ojačati Akciju kroz čvrsto shvaćanje danih okolnosti kroz vlastitu maštu. Adler objašnjava „[...] duboko razumijevanje okolnosti, stvara neizostavnu potrebu da on [glumac] koristi svoju maštu. Priroda njegove mašte je da pokuša što je moguće potpunije vizualizirati likove i okolnosti u kojima igra “(Adler, Tehnika 116). Njena tehnika se fluidno kretala između razumijevanja punoće Datih okolnosti kroz nečiju imaginaciju kako bi se zamislila akcija.

Adler je pojasnila svoje viđenje glumčeve mašte: „Devedeset devet posto onoga što vidite i koristite na sceni dolazi iz mašte. […] Svaka okolnost u kojoj se nađete bit će imaginarna. […] Svaka radnja mora potjecati iz glumčeva mašta. Osim ako neka činjenica ne prođe kroz vas [...], to je laž. [...] Najvažnije vježbe su one koje se odnose na korištenje mašte ”(16). Za Adlera je mašta bila neophodan ulaz u život, recimo, engleskog plemića, francuske aristokratkinje ili časne sestre. Mašta i istraživanje danih okolnosti predstave, a ne sjećanja na emocije, omogućili su glumcu da prikaže uloge izvan svog iskustva (Adler, Art 81)

Adler ističe svoje protivljenje isključivom fokusu na Emotion Memory u Glumačka umjetnost. Kako bi to istakla, ona raspravlja o liku Hamleta.

  • Imam osjećaj da niko od vas nije postao uvjeren da je vašeg oca ubio vaš ujak. […] Ovo su vrlo specifične okolnosti. Posao glumca je da se udubi u njih, zamisli ih, a ne samo da pronađe okolnosti u svom životu koje im odgovaraju. Nema ih. Osjećali ste se jadno kad vam je voljena baka umrla. Bili ste neutješni kad je psa kojeg ste imali cijelo djetinjstvo pregazio automobil. Sjećanje na ove stvari može vam dati tragove o očevoj smrti, ali samo tragove. Sve što rekonstruirate iz svog emocionalnog pamćenja nije zamjena za pokretanje mašte. (81)

Zanimljivo je da nije u potpunosti odbacila emocionalnu memoriju, ali ju je učinila manje važnom od mašte. Iz gornjeg citata priznala je da "sjećanje na te stvari", poput mrtvog ljubimca ili djeda i bake, "može vam dati tragove o smrti njegovog [Hamletovog] oca, ali samo tragove". Prihvatila je tragove koje Emotion Memory može pružiti. Emotion Memory imao je drugu primjenu u Adlerovoj tehnici. Nazvala ju je „zlatnom kutijom koja je sadržala glumčev lični izvor osjećaja potrebnih u sceni“ (Bartow 45).

Adler je takođe izuzetno poštovao istorijsku civilizaciju i njen oblik. Predavala je svojim studentima o grčkoj arhitekturi i njenim veličanstvenim stupovima. To ju je dovelo do kostima i integriteta svećenika i časnih sestara. Ona je rekla: „[Kad smo] pogledali grčke stubove vidjeli smo snažnu čvrstu podlogu. Osetili smo snagu korena. Isto bismo se trebali osjećati i kod onih koji nose kostime vjerskog reda. Članovi naloga su poput kolona. Odijevaju se potpuno slično. […] Bio je trenutak u istoriji kada je čovječanstvo kroz crkvu pronašlo oblik – […] ”(Adler, Art 199). Svojom maštom istraživala je stvarnosti prošlosti i sadašnjosti civiliziranog svijeta kako bi potaknula svoje studente da preuzmu uloge “veličine”.

U cijeloj svojoj knjizi Adler je željela "veličinu" od svojih učenika. Rekla je: „[Ipak] mjesto glumca u njegovoj profesiji je jasno i neosporno. Na njemu leži velika odgovornost […] igranja likova veličine kao što su Edip, Hamlet, Hedda Gabler, Jovanka Orleanka i Vili Loman ”(Adler, Tehnika 5). Rekla je: „Zapišite ovo: morate razviti veličinu. To je ono na čemu smo ovdje da radimo ”(22). Takođe, „Pomoći ću vam da razvijete navike koje će vam dati veličinu“ (22). Željela je da njezini glumci imaju "veličinu" za velike uloge. Ona je nastavila: „[Moramo] vratiti pozorište njegovoj istorijskoj svrsi, podići ga na nivo na kojem je postojalo širom svijeta hiljadama godina. Do te mjere da razumijemo da je ono što je pisac govorio bilo, ovo su pravila, ovo su kosmička pravila ”(33).

U njenim knjigama Glumačka umjetnost i Glumačka tehnika, Adler je izraz veličina koristio na dvosmislene načine. Jedan od načina da se pojam pojasni na njenom narodnom jeziku je da se primijeni na neke od osnovnih gradivnih elemenata njene tehnike: S obzirom na okolnosti, opravdanje i djelovanje. Prije nego što nastavim, trebao bih pojasniti da je opravdanje u Adlerovoj tehnici jednostavno bilo opravdanje za radnju ili razlog da će glumac poduzeti radnju u svojoj ulozi (Adler, Art 125). Adler je izjavio: „Vaš talent sastoji se u tome koliko dobro„ kupujete “za opravdanje. Vaše opravdanje je ono što daje veličinu vašim postupcima. Morate svaku radnju koju izvedete učiniti epskom ”(125). Adler je zajedno sa Stanislavskim vjerovao da je "istina u umjetnosti istina vaših okolnosti" (Adler, Tehnika 31). Identificiranje vaših datih okolnosti kao glumca cijeli je kontekst veličine tog glumca, kako ga je ona definirala.

Dok su Strasberg, Stanislavsky i Meisner organsku, emocionalno istinitu predstavu nazvali nadahnutom, Adlerova ideja o glumcu u vrhunskoj izvedbi bio je glumac veličine. Njena želja za tom veličinom dovela ju je i do "sistema" Stanislavskog, baš kao što je želja za nadahnutom glumom dovela Strasberga i Meisnera. Zajedništvo između ova dva teška pojma, "veličine" i "inspiracije", nalazi se u njihovim takozvanim "vječnim" osobinama.

Nadahnuta predstava, u kojoj glumac izgleda organski živi na sceni, predstava je koja secira stvarnost svih ljudi. Kada glumac izvodi sjajne uloge koje zahtijevaju Adlerovu veličinu, taj glumac također zamjenjuje sve muškarce. Nadahnuta predstava koja posjeduje veličinu govori čovjeku kakav je oduvijek bio i kakav će biti, opsjednut patnjom i borbom da je prevlada. Ovo je "vječni čovjek" ili čovjek kao arhetip. Meisner, Strasberg i Stanislavsky, svjedočeći tome, vidjeli su emocionalno ispunjen, organski, život sličan performansu. I Adler je to učinio, ali ga je nazvao "veličinom". Svi uključeni govorili su o "vječnoj" kvaliteti koju dobra umjetnost posjeduje.

Adler je najbliže iscrpljivanju svoje upotrebe izraza veličina napisala uvod u svog supruga, Harolda Clurmana, Ferventne godine. Važno je napomenuti da je Jacob P. Adler bio otac Stelle Adler. On se u ovoj izjavi spominje:

  • I Harold je sanjao o većem i privlačnijem američkom pozorištu, kako objašnjava u svom predgovoru Ferventne godine. Uvidio je da je super veličina potrebna i našao ju je u ličnosti Jacoba P. Adlera, koji je mogao hipnotizirati publiku svojim kolosalnim kvalitetom. To je bila suština kazališta koje je Harold tražio: monumentalni rast i univerzalnost. […] Drugi način da iznesem svoju tačku je da ga opišem kao potragu za univerzalnom veličinom, većom od života, veličinom koju posjeduju Lear ili Shylock. (Clurman, Gorljivo vi - vii)

Adler je koristio izraze epska, kosmički poredak, monumentalna veličina, univerzalnost u svim prethodnim citatima koje sam spomenuo. Odražavaju njen način komuniciranja o veličini. Ovakvi uvjeti dodatno je usklađuju s razmišljanjima Stanislavaskyja, Strasberga i Meisnera o inspiraciji. Njena upotreba pseudo religioznih izraza podsjeća na način na koji Stanislavsky upućuje na inspiraciju koju glumac nije mogao sam postići, već se morao osloniti na "tu čudesnu vilinsku prirodu" (Stanislavsky, Priručnik 85), da pozove inspiraciju u glumačku izvedbu.

Kao što sam pokazao, Stella Adler je imala jedinstvenu interpretaciju "sistema" Stanislavskog koja je uključivala njeno odbacivanje Strasbergovog tumačenja. Ona je također duboko utjecala na Sanforda Meisnera koji je u ranoj karijeri ovisio o Strasbergu da definira djelo Stanislavskog. Nakon što se Adler vratio iz Pariza s podacima od samog Stanislavskog, Strasbergov intelektualni utjecaj na Meisnera je smanjen. Meisner je stala na stranu Adlera kada je „odbacila Strasbergov naglasak na afektivnom pamćenju u korist korištenja mašte“ (Malague 117).


Stella Adler

Stella Adler, zvijezda jidiš teatra, godine Senka mršavog čoveka.

Stella Adler transformirala je generaciju američkih glumaca svojim razumijevanjem Metodske glume. Rođena u porodici koja je poznata po tome što je pozorište na jidišu uzdigla u nijansiraniju umjetnost, Adler je brzo sama po sebi stekla status zvijezde. Alder je bio pod utjecajem studija metode Stanislavsky u Američkoj laboratorijskoj kazališnoj školi i otputovao je u Pariz kako bi direktno izazvao Stanislavskog. Iznenađen što Amerikanci koriste njegove tehnike, Stanislavsky je pomogao Adleru da preispita mogućnosti Metodovog djelovanja. Nakon što se vratio u Ameriku kako bi glumio u nekoliko filmova i režirao nekoliko predstava, Adler je otvorio Glumački konzervatorij Stella Adler kako bi prenio novu metodu, obučavajući Warrena Beattyja, Roberta De Nira i Marlona Branda i napisao bitnu knjigu o svom zanatu, Glumačka tehnika.

Kad je Stella Adler umrla 1992., Robert Brustein je u Novoj republici napisao: „Smrt Stelle Adler ... predstavlja veliki gubitak u panteonu pozorišnih velikana. Snagom svojih uvjerenja, integritetom svog karaktera i sjajem svog uma, Adler je utjelovio umjetnost dramske profesije i ostao utjecajna ličnost tokom cijele karijere koja je obuhvaćala veći dio stoljeća. ”

Stella Adler rođena je 10. februara 1902. u New Yorku, najmlađa kći Jacoba P. i Sare Adler, najistaknutijih glumaca na jidiš sceni na prijelazu stoljeća. Četvrta među petoro braće i sestara (Frances, Jay, Julia i Luther) i mlađa od svojih poznatih polubrata i sestara (Charles, Abe i Celia Adler), Adler je upisana u očevu trupu kao dijete. Sa četiri godine uzela je ulogu jednog od mladih prinčeva u Shakespeareovom filmu Richard III, a sa devet godina igrala je mladog Spinozu. Njeno obrazovanje u javnim školama u New Yorku uvijek je zauzimalo drugo mjesto po probama i predstavama. Igrala je Naomi Elisha ben Avuya u Pavilion Theatre u Londonu 1919. godine, a po povratku u Sjedinjene Američke Države imala je komercijalni hit kao Butterfly u Svijet u kojem živimo. 1920 -ih godina Adler je postigao status zvijezde na pozornici jidiš, pojavljujući se u više od stotinu uloga u takvim predstavama kao Jevrej Süss, Bog osvete, i Liliom, kao i u klasicima Shakespearea i Tolstoja, s istaknutim glumcima jidiškog teatra, uključujući Davida Kesslera, Siegmunda Moguleska, Berthu Kalich, Keni Liptzin i Jacoba Ben-Amija. Uslijedio je period na putu, uključujući turneje po Evropi i Latinskoj Americi. U New Yorku se upisala na novoosnovanu Američku kazališnu laboratorijsku školu, gdje je učila kod Richarda Boleslavskog i Marije Ouspenske, koji su tada svoje učenike upoznali s revolucionarnom glumačkom tehnikom Konstantina Stanislavskog. Adler je već bio veteran, rekao je da ju je Laboratorijsko kazalište, sa korijenima u Moskovskom umjetničkom kazalištu, "otvorilo" i dalo joj novi život.

U kazalištu Laboratory upoznala je Harolda Clurmana i Leeja Strasberga, koji su također došli na sate glume. Godine 1931. Clurman, Strasberg i Cheryl Crawford osnovali su Grupno kazalište. Namjera im je bila stvoriti ansambl igrača, redatelja, dizajnera i pisaca za proizvodnju društveno relevantnih predstava koje bi dale alternativu komercijalnom kazalištu. Da bi razvili pravu glumu ansambla, odlučili su da se svi povezani s produkcijom - dramaturg, glumac, scenograf - moraju složiti oko smisla i perspektive predstave. Strasberg je usmjeravao obuku glumaca na osnovu metoda naučenih u American Laboratory Theatre, naglašavajući "afektivno pamćenje" - aktivno prisjećanje na incidente u glumačkom životu kako bi potaknuo njenu emociju na sceni. Clurman je pozvao Adlera da se pridruži novom pozorištu, započinjući odnos ljubavi i mržnje između izrazito individualističke zvijezde i zajednički posvećene Grupe. Iako je napisala da joj je Clurman bio spasitelj, Adler je mrzio da svoju ličnost mora uroniti u ansambl, rotirajući se između glavnih uloga i bitnih dijelova. Clurman je tvrdio da je disciplina zdrava, ali Adler je smatrao da su žene u društvu prisiljene da idu zajedno s muškarcima. Prisjećajući se Adlera godinama kasnije, Clurman ju je u to vrijeme opisao kao „poetski teatralnu, koja podsjeća na neku prošlu ljepotu u kulturi koju možda nikada nisam vidio, ali to je bio dio atavističkog sna. Sa svom vladajućom raskošnošću starije pozorišne tradicije - evropske u korijenima - bila je nekako krhka, ranjiva, homoseksualna s majčinskom duhovitošću i scenskim mirisom. ”

Najraniji članovi grupe uključivali su tridesetak glumaca i dramaturga, od kojih su mnogi postali zvijezde, uključujući Morrisa Carnovskog, Clifforda Odetsa i Franchota Tonea. Elia Kazan pridružila se kasnije kao šegrt. Grupne kazališne produkcije, uključujući Kuća Connelly, Noć nad Taosom, i Uspjesna prica, bili su visoko hvaljeni od kritičara, a metoda djelovanja pokrenuta je u Sjedinjenim Državama. Adler se oženio Clurman, ali se od Strasberga odvojila zbog različitih tumačenja učenja Stanislavskog.

Uprkos kritičkom i ličnom uspjehu u Odecovoj predstavi iz 1935. Probudite se i pevajte, Adler nije bila zadovoljna metodom niti načinom na koji se njena karijera odvijala. Uzevši odsustvo iz kompanije, otputovala je u Evropu, gde se osećala energično zbog novih pozorišnih tehnika koje su se razvijale u Sovjetskom Savezu. U Parizu je izazvala samog Stanislavskog. Prema njenim memoarima, optužila ga je da je upropastio pozorište. Odgovorio je da možda nije dobro razumjela njegovu metodu i (vjerovatno na osnovu legende o porodici Adler) dao joj je nekoliko sedmica privatnih pouka. Očigledno, izrazio je iznenađenje što režiseri u Americi još uvijek predaju teorije koje je napustio, poput upotrebe afektivnog pamćenja za aktiviranje uloge. Adler, kojeg sada pojačava Stanislavsky, vjerovao je da je dočaravanje stvarnih ličnih tragedija radi prikazivanja tjeskobe na pozornici "bolesno". "Ne koristite svoju svjesnu prošlost", pozvala je kompaniju po povratku. "Iskoristite svoju kreativnu maštu da stvorite prošlost koja pripada vašem liku." Prema članovima Grupe, njihovo formalno predstavljanje revidirane teorije potaknulo ih je i poboljšalo njihov rad. Adler je sada i sama počela davati časove glume. Posljednji put u grupnom kazalištu nastupila je 1935. u drugoj predstavi Odets, Izgubljeni raj

Adler je 1937. godine otišla u Hollywood, gdje je snimila nekoliko filmova: Ljubav na zdravici, Senka mršavog čoveka, i Moja devojka Tisa. Glamurizirana od strane šminkera i krštena "Ardler", izgledala je daleko od drame iz djetinjstva koja je nastala na jidišu. Kasnije je bila pridruženi producent na nekoliko filmova MGM -a, kao npr DuBarry je bila dama, madam Kiri, i Za mene i moju Galu. Godine 1938. vratila se u grupu na jednu sezonu da režira nekoliko predstava, uključujući kritički hvaljenu produkciju Odetsovih Zlatan dečko, koje je odnela u London i Pariz. Četrdesetih se vratila na Broadway, preuzimajući ulogu Catherine u filmu Maxa Reinhardta Sinovi i vojnici, kao Zenaida u Leonidu Andrejevu Onaj ko dobije šamar, i kao gđa. Rosepettle u crnoj komediji Arthura Kopita Oh, tata, jadni tata, mama te objesila u ormaru i osjećam se tako tužno. Ponovnu ulogu je ponovila 1961. godine, kao svoj posljednji profesionalni nastup.

Adler je godinama gradila svoju reputaciju kazališne redateljice. 1956. režirala je antiratni mjuzikl Paul Green/Kurt Weill Johnny Johnson. Postala je poznata posebno po razvoju talenta novih mladih glumaca. Kršeći američke glumačke standarde, kritikovala je savremene glumce zbog toga što ne razumeju šta je pozorište. Počela je predavati u Dramskoj radionici Erwina Piscatora u Novoj školi za društvena istraživanja početkom 1940 -ih. Nakon nekoliko godina otišla je osnovati kazališni studio Stella Adler, gdje je osmislila nastavni plan i program koji uključuje ne samo govor, produkciju glasa i šminku, već i analizu igara, karakterizaciju i stilove glume. U radionicama koje su bile središnje u nastavnom planu i programu učenici su improvizirali ili izvodili scene pred pozvanom publikom pozorišnih profesionalaca. Adler je podučavala svoje studente da grade likove od materijala navedenog u tekstu dramatičara, u kontekstu povijesnog razdoblja prikazanog u predstavi, a motivirano glumačkom maštom, a ne ličnim iskustvom.

By the 1960s, the renamed Stella Adler Conservatory of Acting numbered more than a dozen faculty and included among its more famous students Eddie Albert, Margaret Barker, Warren Beatty, Robert DeNiro, and Marlon Brando. The latter wrote the laudatory introduction to Adler’s book The Technique of Acting. During the 1966–1967 academic year, Adler was an adjunct professor of acting at Yale University’s School of Drama. The New School for Social Research awarded her a doctor of humane letters degree, and Smith College granted her a doctor of fine arts degree in 1987.

Witnesses to Adler’s workshop performances recall them as the most energetic in New York. Her teaching style can be seen in a video recorded in 1989, in which she exemplifies her own advice to students: “Get a stage tone, darling, and energy. Never go on stage without your motor running.” Filmed in part in her Manhattan apartment, the video presents an energetic and witty woman who looks thirty years younger than her eighty-plus years. Clurman, who went on to become a Broadway impresario and theater critic, describes this apartment in his own video as being decorated in a style that was “part Venetian, part Madame Pompadour.”

Adler married several times, the first time at age eighteen to Horace Eleascheff, with whom she had a daughter, Ellen. That marriage ended in divorce. In 1943, she married Harold Clurman, a union that was creatively productive but which also ended in divorce in 1960. Her third husband, Mitchell Wilson, a physicist and novelist, died in 1973. Adler died in Los Angeles on December 22, 1992.

Unlike her older half-sister Celia Adler, who remained in the Yiddish theater, with its roots in Europe and the nourishing soil of the immigrant generation, Stella Adler entered the larger world of the English-speaking American theater. From the older tradition, she brought her passionate attachment to the craft and her profound understanding of the dynamics of the profession, learned at the knees of its greatest practitioners, her parents. American-born and educated, she made the transition to the English-language stage successfully at a time when Yiddish theater was dying. Far from leaving the Yiddish experience behind, she used its strengths to develop her own persona and acting skills, and had the intelligence to modify these through her experience with Stanislavsky. More important for the development of theater in America, she transmitted the new acting techniques to her students and energized a generation of younger actors who shared her passion for the theater

Awake and Dream. Videorecording (1989).

The Technique of Acting (1988).

“The World of My Parents: Reminiscences.” YIVO Annual 23 (1996).


Modern Methods

To this day there are loyal followers of Strasberg, Adler i Meisner. But like anything, things can change with time. There have been new methods and approaches to acting that pay homage to these three pioneers, but also have their own twist. Na primjer, David Mamet i William H. Macy created “Practical Aesthetics”. Both had studied Meisner and used his teachings as a basis for their new approach. Meisner used to say “the action is in the doing”, so Mamet i Macy fleshed that out and pressed their actors to focus on what is happening in the scene, what is the character doing, and what is it that the characters desire.

Another notable acting instructor is Uta Hagen. Hagen created a method that was a mixture of the three aforementioned methods and used sense memory, improvisation, body work and daydreaming. Hagen received her inspiration from director Harold Clurman, who was also a member of the original Group Theater. While the three different methods spawned these offshoots, one thing is abundantly clear: all roads to modern acting lead back to Stanislavski.


7 Basic Facts About Stella Adler

Stella Adler (February 10, 1901- December 21, 1992) may have come from a famous family of performers, but it was Stella who would go on to have perhaps the greatest influence on the craft of acting. Through her books, schools, theories and teachings, Stella Adler helped shape the way actors approach the craft of acting and she forcefully voiced new ideas that challenged even legendary acting teachers like Lee Strasberg.

Here are 7 basic facts about the life and influence of Stella Alder:

#1: Stella Adler was a born actress

Stella Adler was born to act. Literally. It was hard for her not to be. She came from a famous family of performers, the Jewish American Adler acting family dynasty, including her parents Sara and Jacob P. Adler and all her siblings.

“ The actor has to develop his body. The actor has to work on his voice. But the most important thing the actor has to work on is his mind. ”

(Stella Adler)

Stella began acting at age four in productions put on by her parents’ company, the Independent Yiddish Art Company, which flourished in the Yiddish Theater District in New York in the early to mid-1900s.

#2: Konstantin Stanislavski was her greatest influence

Though Adler had been an established actress for most of her young life, into her 20’s, she was not prepared for the performances she witnessed when Konstantin Stanislavski brought the Moscow Art Theatre on tour in the United States in 1922. Their performances, which were built on Stanislavski’s acting theories had a lasting impact on her, as it did on many actors.

The powerful performances of the Moscow Art Theatre, or M.A.T., drove Adler to join the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925 – the only school in the states that taught Stanislavski’s theories at that time. Studying under Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya, former members of M.A.T., Adler was introduced to the collection of acting techniques that would later become known as the “Stanislavski System”.

#3: Stella was one of the original founders of Group Theatre

While studying at the American Laboratory Theatre, Adler also met other hungry young actors, including Sanford Meisner, Lee Strasberg, Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford. Together they would create perhaps the most influential theatre company in the history of the United States, Group Theatre.

Their work further built on techniques developed by Stanislavski, including Affective Memory, which calls upon actors to recall experiences in their personal lives and relate them to their characters’ experiences to bring truth to their performances.

#4: Stanislavski altered the course of her career

Over time, Stella Adler grew weary of the use of Affective Memory. She believed it limited an actor’s performance to rely solely on their own personal experiences. She began to believe that the use of imagination would allow an actor to find creativity, meaning and truth well beyond their own experiences.

“ Don’t use your conscious past. Use your creative imagination to create a past that belongs to your character. I don’t want you to be stuck with your own life. It’s too little. ”

(Stella Adler)

This led to clashes with Group Theatre’s director, Lee Strasberg, who believed that Affective Memory was one of the “golden keys” of acting.

Stella sought advice from the technique’s creator, Konstantin Stanislavski. After visiting with Stanislavski in France, she discovered that Stanislavski had long abandoned the technique and would only advise actors to use it as a last resort – when all other acting techniques fail to achieve desired results.

Armed with this knowledge, from Stanislavski, himself, Adler began to break away from Group Theatre. The company eventually dissolved altogether in 1941.

#5: Stella found success as an actress and acting teacher


After leaving Group Theatre, Adler moved to Hollywood to act in films under the name Stella Ardler. She would eventually return to New York to teach at schools – even occasionally at Group Theatre before it dissolved – and eventually opened her own school, Stella Adler Conservatory of Theatre, in 1949. She also taught at the Yale School of Drama, becoming one of the country’s most prominent acting teachers.

“ The word “theatre” comes from the Greeks. It means the seeing place. It is the place people come to see the truth about life and the social situation. The theatre is a spiritual and social X-ray of its time. ”

(Stella Adler)

#6: Stella left behind an outstanding legacy

Stella Adler left behind and impressive legacy, one that includes schools, books, awards and some very famous disciples.

Her teachings inspired several books on the craft of acting, including:

The Technique of Acting (published in 1988)

Creating a Character: A Physical Approach to Acting (published in 1993)

Stella Adler: the Art of Acting (published in 2000)

She and her studio founded several schools, including:

The Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City in 1949

The Stella Adler Studio of Acting in Los Angeles in 2010

In 1993, Stella Adler was inducted into the Theatre Hall of Fame. She even posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2006, placed in front of the Stella Adler Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard.

#7: Stella influenced many famous actors

In addition to her works, Adler also left behind many passionate disciples. Adler influenced a who’s who of successful and iconic actors. Perhaps none was more impactful than her influence on Marlon Brando.

“ Stella Adler was much more than a teacher of acting. Through her work she imparts the most valuable kind of information—how to discover the nature of our own emotional mechanics and therefore those of others. ”

(Marlon Brando)

Other actors who studied under Adler directly or who trained at her acting studios include:

• Robert DeNiro
• Mark Ruffalo
• Benicio Del Toro
• Salma Hayek
• Judy Garland
• Elizabeth Taylor
• Warren Beatty
• Martin Sheen


Bližašie rodstvenniki

About Stella Adler

A member of the Jewish-American Adler acting dynasty, Stella Adler was one of the premiere acting coaches in the United States. Among her students were some of this country's most popular stars, including Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, Warren Beatty, and Harvey Keitel. In 2006, she was honored with a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in front of the 'Stella Adler Theater' on Hollywood Boulevard.

She was born on February 10, 1901 in New York City, New York, the youngest daughter of Sara and Jacob P. Adler, the sister of Luther and Jay Adler, and half-sister of Charles Adler in fact all her five siblings were actors. They were a significant part of a vital ethnic theatrical scene that thrived in New York from the late 19th century well into the 1950s. Adler would become the most famous and influential member of her family.

Adler began her acting career at the age of four in the play Broken Hearts at the Grand Street Theater on the Lower East Side, as a part of her parents 'Independent Yiddish Art Company'. She grew up acting alongside her parents, often playing roles of boys and girls. Her work schedule allowed little time for schooling, but when possible, she studied at public schools and New York University. She made her London debut, at the age of 18, as 'Naomi' in the play Elisa Ben Avia with her father's company, in which she appeared for a year before returning to New York. In London she met her first husband, Englishman Horace Eliashcheff their brief marriage however ended in a divorce.

She made her English-language debut on Broadway in 1922, as the Butterfly in the play The World We Live In, and also spent a season in the vaudeville circuit. In 1922-1923, the renowned Russian actor-director Constantin Stanislavski made his only US tour with his Moscow Art Theatre. Adler and many others saw these performances this had a powerful and lasting impact on her career, as well as the 20th century American theatre. She joined the American Laboratory Theatre School in 1925 there she was introduced to Stanislavski's theories, from founders and Russian actor-teachers and former members of the Moscow Art Theater - Richard Boleslavski and Maria Ouspenskaya. In 1931 she joined the Group Theatre, New York, founded by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford, through theater director and critic, Clurman, whom she later married in 1943. With Group theatre she worked in plays like Success Story by John Howard Lawson, two Clifford Odets plays, Awake and Sing! i Izgubljeni raj, and directed the touring company of Odets's Golden Boy i More to Give to People. Members of Group Theatre were leading interpreters of the Method acting technique based on the work and writings of

Adler summered at Pine Brook Country Club in Nichols, Connecticut. Pinebrook was the summer rehearsal headquarters of the Group Theatre (New York). Some of the other artists who worked there were Elia Kazan, Harry Morgan, John Garfield, Lee J. Cobb, Will Geer, Clifford Odets, Howard Da Silva and Irwin Shaw.

In 1934, Adler went to Paris with Harold Clurman and studied intensively with Stanislavski for five weeks. During this period, she learned that Stanislavski had revised his theories, emphasizing that the actor should create by imagination rather than memory. Upon her return, she broke away from Strasberg on the fundamental aspects of Method acting.

In January 1937, Adler moved to Hollywood. There she acted in films for six years under the name Stella Ardler, occasionally returning to the Group Theater until it dissolved in 1941. Eventually she returned to New York to act, direct and teach, the latter first at Erwin Piscator's Dramatic Workshop at the New School for Social Research, New York City, before founding Stella Adler Studio of Acting in 1949. In the coming years, she taught Marlon Brando, Judy Garland, Dolores del Río, Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Manu Tupou, Harvey Keitel, Melanie Griffith, Peter Bogdanovich and Warren Beatty, among others, the principles of characterization and script analysis. She also taught at the New School, and theYale School of Drama. For many years, Adler led the undergraduate drama department at New York University, and became one of America's leading acting teachers.

Adler was Marlon Brando's first professional acting teacher. In 1988, she published The Technique of Acting (Bantam Books), with a foreword by Brando. From 1926 until 1952, Adler appeared regularly on Broadway. Her later stage roles include the 1946 revival of He Who Gets Slapped and an eccentric mother in the 1961 black comedy, Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mama's Hung You in the Closet i I'm Feelin' So Sad. Among the plays she directed was a 1956 revival of the Paul Green-Kurt Weill antiwar musical Johnny Johnson. Acting Now: Conversations on Craft and Career, by Edward Vilga. She appeared in only three films, Love on Toast (1937), Shadow of the Thin Man (1941), and My Girl Tisa (1948).

She was the only American actor to study with Konstantin Stanislavski. She was a prominent member of the Group Theatre, but differences with Lee Strasberg over the Stanislavski System (later developed by Strasberg into Method acting) made her leave the Group.

Adler married three times, first to Horace Eliascheff, the father of her only child Ellen, then from 1943 to 1960 to Harold Clurman, the famous director and critic and one of the founders of the Group Theatre, and finally to Mitchell A. Wilson, the physicist and novelist who died in 1973.

From 1938 to 1946 she was a sister-in-law to actress Sylvia Sidney. Sidney was married to her brother Luther at the time and provived Stella with a niece and nephew. Ever after Sidney and Luther divorced she and Sylvia remained close friends.

She died on December 21, 1992, from heart failure at the age of 91, in Los Angeles, California. Adler was survived by her daughter Ellen, her sister Julia, and two grandchildren, including Tom Oppenheim,current president and artistic director of Stella Adler Studio of Acting, New York City. She was interred in the Mount Carmel Cemetery, Glendale, New York.

Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) was an American actress and an acclaimed acting teacher, who founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City (1949) and the The Stella Adler Academy of Acting in Los Angeles (1985) with long-time protégé Joanne Linville, who continues to teach and furthers Adler's legacy. Her grandson Tom Oppenheim now runs the school in New York, which produced alumni including Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, and Jenny Lumet, daughter of Sidney Lumet. Irene Gilbert, long-time protégé and close personal friend, founded the Stella Adler Academy of Acting and Theatre in Los Angeles, and was instrumental in bringing Stella Adler to the West Coast to teach on a permanent basis. The LA school continues to flourish as an acting studio and houses several theaters, alumni of the Stella Adler-Los Angeles school include Mark Ruffalo, Benicio Del Toro, Brion James, Salma Hayek, Clifton Collins Jr., and Sean Astin.

Born in New York City's Lower East Side, Adler was a member of the Jewish-American Adler acting dynasty, the youngest daughter of Sara and Jacob P. Adler, the sister of Luther and Jay Adler, and half-sister of Charles Adler in fact all her five siblings were actors. They were a significant part of a vital ethnic theatrical scene that thrived in New York from the late 19th century well into the 1950s. Stella Adler would become the most famous and influential member of her family. She began acting at the age of four as a part of the "Independent Yiddish Art Company" of her parents, and concluded it 55 years later, in 1961. During that time, and for years after, Stella Adler taught acting as well.

She began her acting career at the age of four in the play Broken Hearts at the Grand Street Theatre on the Lower East Side, as a part of her parents' Independent Yiddish Art Company. She grew up acting alongside her parents, often playing roles of boys and girls. Her work schedule allowed little time for schooling, but when possible, she studied at public schools and New York University. She made her London debut, at the age of 18, as Naomi in the play Elisa Ben Avia with her father's company, in which she appeared for a year before returning to New York. In London she met her first husband, Englishman Horace Eliashcheff their brief marriage however ended in a divorce.

She made her English-language debut on Broadway in 1922, as the Butterfly in the play The World We Live In, and also spent a season in the vaudeville circuit. In 1922-1923, the renowned Russian actor-director Constantin Stanislavski made his only US tour with his Moscow Art Theatre. Adler and many others saw these performances this had a powerful and lasting impact on her career, as well as the 20th century American theatre.[8] She joined the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925 there she was introduced to Stanislavski's theories, from founders and Russian actor-teachers and former members of the Moscow Art Theater - Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya. In 1931 she joined the Group Theatre, New York, founded by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford, through theater director and critic, Clurman, whom she later married in 1943. With Group theatre she worked in plays like Success Story by John Howard Lawson, two Clifford Odets plays, Awake and Sing! and Paradise Lost, and directed the touring company of Odets's Golden Boy and More to Give to People. Members of Group Theatre were leading interpreters of the Method acting technique based on the work and writings of Stanislavski.

In 1934, Adler went to Paris with Harold Clurman and studied intensively with Stanislavski for five weeks. During this period, she learned that Stanislavski had revised his theories, emphasizing that the actor should create by imagination rather than memory. Upon her return, she broke away from Strasberg on the fundamental aspects of Method acting.

In January 1937, Adler moved to Hollywood. There she acted in films for six years under the name Stella Ardler, occasionally returning to the Group Theater until it dissolved in 1941. Eventually she returned to New York to act, direct and teach, the latter first at Erwin Piscator's Dramatic Workshop at the New School for Social Research, New York City, before founding Stella Adler Studio of Acting in 1949. In the coming years, she taught Marlon Brando, Judy Garland, Dolores del Río, Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Manu Tupou, Harvey Keitel, Melanie Griffith, Peter Bogdanovich and Warren Beatty, among others, the principles of characterization and script analysis. She also taught at the New School, and the Yale School of Drama. For many years, Adler led the undergraduate drama department at New York University, and became one of America's leading acting teachers.

"Stella Adler was much more than a teacher of acting. Through her work she imparts the most valuable kind of information - how to discover the nature of our own emotional mechanics and therefore those of others. She never lent herself to vulgar exploitations, as some other well-known so-called "methods" of acting have done. As a result, her contributions to the theatrical culture have remained largely unknown, unrecognized, and unappreciated."

Adler was Marlon Brando's first professional acting teacher. In 1988, she published 'The Technique of Acting' (Bantam Books), with a foreword by Brando. From 1926 until 1952, Adler appeared regularly on Broadway. Her later stage roles include the 1946 revival of 'He Who Gets Slapped' and an eccentric mother in the 1961 black comedy, 'Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mama's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad.' Among the plays she directed was a 1956 revival of the Paul Green-Kurt Weill antiwar musical 'Johnny Johnson'. Acting Now: Conversations on Craft and Career, by Edward Vilga. She appeared in only three films, Love on Toast (1937), Shadow of the Thin Man (1941), and My Girl Tisa (1948).

Stanislavski and The Method

Adler was the only American actor to study with Constantin Stanislavski. She was a prominent member of the Group Theatre, but differences with Lee Strasberg over the Stanislavski System (later developed by Strasberg into Method acting) made her leave the Group.

Adler once said: 'Drawing on the emotions I experienced, for example, when my mother died to create a role, is sick and schizophrenic. If that is acting, I don't want to do it.'

Adler met with Stanislavsky again later in his career and questioned him on Strasberg's interpretation. He told her that he had abandoned emotional memory (which had been Strasberg's dominant paradigm) but they both believed that the actor did not have what is required to play a variety roles already instilled inside them, extensive research was needed to understand the experiences of characters who have different values originating from different cultures. For instance if a character talks about horse riding you need to know something about horse riding as an actor, other wise you will be faking. More importantly one must study the values of different people to understand what situations would have meant to people, that in the actor's own culture might mean nothing. Without this work she said an actor walks onto the stage "naked." This approach is what one of her students, Robert De Niro, became famous for. She also trained actors sensory imagination to help make the characters' experiences more vivid (a commonality between her and Strasberg). Mastery of the physical and vocal aspects of acting, she believed, was necessary for the actor to command the stage: all body language should be carefully crafted and voices need to be clear and expressive. She often referred to this as an actor's "size" or "worthiness of the stage." Her biggest mantra was perhaps, 'in your choices lies your talent,' she would encourage actors to find the most grand character interpretation possible in a scene, another favourite phrase of hers regarding this was 'don't be boring.'

Adler married three times, first to Horace Eliascheff, the father of her only child Ellen, then from 1943 to 1960 to Harold Clurman, the famous director and critic and one of the founders of the Group Theatre, and finally to Mitchell A. Wilson, the physicist and novelist who died in 1973.

From 1938 to 1946 she was a sister-in-law to actress Sylvia Sidney. Sidney was married to her brother Luther at the time and provided Stella with a niece and nephew. Even after Sidney and Luther divorced, she and Sylvia remained close friends.

She died on December 21, 1992, from heart failure at the age of 91, in Los Angeles, California. Adler was survived by her daughter Ellen, her sister Julia, and two grandchildren, including Tom Oppenheim,current president and artistic director of Stella Adler Studio of Acting, New York City. She was interred in the Mount Carmel Cemetery, Glendale, New York.

Stella Adler's technique, based on a balanced and pragmatic combination of imagination as well as memory, is hugely credited with introducing the subtle and insightful details and a deep physical embodiment of a character. Elaine Stritch once said: "What an extraordinary combination was Stella Adler - a goddess of full of magic and mystery, a child full of innocence and vulnerability." In the book Acting: Onstage and Off, Robert Barton wrote: "[Adler] established the value of the actor putting himself in the place of the character rather than vice versa . More than anyone else, Stella Adler brought into public awareness all the close careful attention to text and analysis Stanislavski endorsed."

In 2004, The University of Texas at Austin's Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center acquired Adler's complete archive. It includes correspondence, manuscripts, typescripts, video and audiotapes, photographs and other materials. The archive traces her career from her start in the New York Yiddish Theater to her encounters with Stanislavski and the Group Theatre to her lectures at the Stella Adler Studio of Acting.

In 2006, she was honored with a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in front of the 'Stella Adler Theatre' at 6773 Hollywood Boulevard.

The Acting schools Adler founded still operate today in New York City and Los Angeles. Her method, based on use of the actor's imagination, has been studied by many renowned actors, such as Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Diana Muldaur, Dolores del Rio, Roy Scheider, Vincent D'Onofrio, Mark Ruffalo, Warren Beatty, Michael Imperioli, Salma Hayek, Sean Astin, Barbara Stuart, Joyce Meadows, Stephen Bauer and Benicio del Toro, in addition to Marlon Brando, who served as the New York studio's Honorary Chairman until his death, and was replaced by another pupil, Warren Beatty.

Career on Broadway, Works, and Quotes

Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) was an American actress and an acclaimed acting teacher, who founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City (1949) and the The Stella Adler Academy of Acting in Los Angeles (1985) with long-time protégé Joanne Linville, who continues to teach and furthers Adler's legacy. Her grandson Tom Oppenheim now runs the school in New York, which produced alumni including Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, and Jenny Lumet, daughter of Sidney Lumet. Irene Gilbert, long-time protégé and close personal friend, founded the Stella Adler Academy of Acting and Theatre in Los Angeles, and was instrumental in bringing Stella Adler to the West Coast to teach on a permanent basis. The LA school continues to flourish as an acting studio and houses several theaters, alumni of the Stella Adler-Los Angeles school include Mark Ruffalo, Benicio Del Toro, Brion James, Salma Hayek, Clifton Collins Jr., and Sean Astin.

Born in New York City's Lower East Side, Adler was a member of the Jewish-American Adler acting dynasty, the youngest daughter of Sara and Jacob P. Adler, the sister of Luther and Jay Adler, and half-sister of Charles Adler in fact all her five siblings were actors. They were a significant part of a vital ethnic theatrical scene that thrived in New York from the late 19th century well into the 1950s. Stella Adler would become the most famous and influential member of her family. She began acting at the age of four as a part of the "Independent Yiddish Art Company" of her parents, and concluded it 55 years later, in 1961. During that time, and for years after, Stella Adler taught acting as well.

She began her acting career at the age of four in the play Broken Hearts at the Grand Street Theatre on the Lower East Side, as a part of her parents' Independent Yiddish Art Company. She grew up acting alongside her parents, often playing roles of boys and girls. Her work schedule allowed little time for schooling, but when possible, she studied at public schools and New York University. She made her London debut, at the age of 18, as Naomi in the play Elisa Ben Avia with her father's company, in which she appeared for a year before returning to New York. In London she met her first husband, Englishman Horace Eliashcheff their brief marriage however ended in a divorce.

She made her English-language debut on Broadway in 1922, as the Butterfly in the play The World We Live In, and also spent a season in the vaudeville circuit. In 1922-1923, the renowned Russian actor-director Constantin Stanislavski made his only US tour with his Moscow Art Theatre. Adler and many others saw these performances this had a powerful and lasting impact on her career, as well as the 20th century American theatre. She joined the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925 there she was introduced to Stanislavski's theories, from founders and Russian actor-teachers and former members of the Moscow Art Theater - Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya. In 1931 she joined the Group Theatre, New York, founded by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford, through theater director and critic, Clurman, whom she later married in 1943. With Group theatre she worked in plays like Success Story by John Howard Lawson, two Clifford Odets plays, Awake and Sing! and Paradise Lost, and directed the touring company of Odets's Golden Boy and More to Give to People. Members of Group Theatre were leading interpreters of the Method acting technique based on the work and writings of Stanislavski.

In 1934, Adler went to Paris with Harold Clurman and studied intensively with Stanislavski for five weeks. During this period, she learned that Stanislavski had revised his theories, emphasizing that the actor should create by imagination rather than memory. Upon her return, she broke away from Strasberg on the fundamental aspects of Method acting.

In January 1937, Adler moved to Hollywood. There she acted in films for six years under the name Stella Ardler, occasionally returning to the Group Theater until it dissolved in 1941. Eventually she returned to New York to act, direct and teach, the latter first at Erwin Piscator's Dramatic Workshop at the New School for Social Research, New York City, before founding Stella Adler Studio of Acting in 1949. In the coming years, she taught Marlon Brando, Judy Garland, Dolores del Río, Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Manu Tupou, Harvey Keitel, Melanie Griffith, Peter Bogdanovich and Warren Beatty, among others, the principles of characterization and script analysis. She also taught at the New School, and the Yale School of Drama. For many years, Adler led the undergraduate drama department at New York University, and became one of America's leading acting teachers.

"Stella Adler was much more than a teacher of acting. Through her work she imparts the most valuable kind of information - how to discover the nature of our own emotional mechanics and therefore those of others. She never lent herself to vulgar exploitations, as some other well-known so-called "methods" of acting have done. As a result, her contributions to the theatrical culture have remained largely unknown, unrecognized, and unappreciated."

Adler was Marlon Brando's first professional acting teacher. In 1988, she published 'The Technique of Acting' (Bantam Books), with a foreword by Brando. From 1926 until 1952, Adler appeared regularly on Broadway. Her later stage roles include the 1946 revival of 'He Who Gets Slapped' and an eccentric mother in the 1961 black comedy, 'Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mama's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad.' Among the plays she directed was a 1956 revival of the Paul Green-Kurt Weill antiwar musical 'Johnny Johnson'. Acting Now: Conversations on Craft and Career, by Edward Vilga. She appeared in only three films, Love on Toast (1937), Shadow of the Thin Man (1941), and My Girl Tisa (1948).

Stanislavski and The Method

Adler was the only American actor to study with Constantin Stanislavski. She was a prominent member of the Group Theatre, but differences with Lee Strasberg over the Stanislavski System (later developed by Strasberg into Method acting) made her leave the Group.

Adler once said: 'Drawing on the emotions I experienced, for example, when my mother died to create a role, is sick and schizophrenic. If that is acting, I don't want to do it.'

Adler met with Stanislavsky again later in his career and questioned him on Strasberg's interpretation. He told her that he had abandoned emotional memory (which had been Strasberg's dominant paradigm) but they both believed that the actor did not have what is required to play a variety roles already instilled inside them, extensive research was needed to understand the experiences of characters who have different values originating from different cultures. For instance if a character talks about horse riding you need to know something about horse riding as an actor, other wise you will be faking. More importantly one must study the values of different people to understand what situations would have meant to people, that in the actor's own culture might mean nothing. Without this work she said an actor walks onto the stage "naked." This approach is what one of her students, Robert De Niro, became famous for. She also trained actors sensory imagination to help make the characters' experiences more vivid (a commonality between her and Strasberg). Mastery of the physical and vocal aspects of acting, she believed, was necessary for the actor to command the stage: all body language should be carefully crafted and voices need to be clear and expressive. She often referred to this as an actor's "size" or "worthiness of the stage." Her biggest mantra was perhaps, 'in your choices lies your talent,' she would encourage actors to find the most grand character interpretation possible in a scene, another favourite phrase of hers regarding this was 'don't be boring.'

Adler married three times, first to Horace Eliascheff, the father of her only child Ellen, then from 1943 to 1960 to Harold Clurman, the famous director and critic and one of the founders of the Group Theatre, and finally to Mitchell A. Wilson, the physicist and novelist who died in 1973.

From 1938 to 1946 she was a sister-in-law to actress Sylvia Sidney. Sidney was married to her brother Luther at the time and provided Stella with a niece and nephew. Even after Sidney and Luther divorced, she and Sylvia remained close friends.

She died on December 21, 1992, from heart failure at the age of 91, in Los Angeles, California. Adler was survived by her daughter Ellen, her sister Julia, and two grandchildren, including Tom Oppenheim,current president and artistic director of Stella Adler Studio of Acting, New York City. She was interred in the Mount Carmel Cemetery, Glendale, New York.

Stella Adler's technique, based on a balanced and pragmatic combination of imagination as well as memory, is hugely credited with introducing the subtle and insightful details and a deep physical embodiment of a character. Elaine Stritch once said: "What an extraordinary combination was Stella Adler - a goddess of full of magic and mystery, a child full of innocence and vulnerability." In the book Acting: Onstage and Off, Robert Barton wrote: "[Adler] established the value of the actor putting himself in the place of the character rather than vice versa . More than anyone else, Stella Adler brought into public awareness all the close careful attention to text and analysis Stanislavski endorsed."

In 2004, The University of Texas at Austin's Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center acquired Adler's complete archive. It includes correspondence, manuscripts, typescripts, video and audiotapes, photographs and other materials. The archive traces her career from her start in the New York Yiddish Theater to her encounters with Stanislavski and the Group Theatre to her lectures at the Stella Adler Studio of Acting.

In 2006, she was honored with a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in front of the 'Stella Adler Theatre' at 6773 Hollywood Boulevard.

The Acting schools Adler founded still operate today in New York City and Los Angeles. Her method, based on use of the actor's imagination, has been studied by many renowned actors, such as Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Diana Muldaur, Dolores del Rio, Roy Scheider, Vincent D'Onofrio, Mark Ruffalo, Warren Beatty, Michael Imperioli, Salma Hayek, Sean Astin, Barbara Stuart, Joyce Meadows, Stephen Bauer and Benicio del Toro, in addition to Marlon Brando, who served as the New York studio's Honorary Chairman until his death, and was replaced by another pupil, Warren Beatty.


Stella Adler

Stella Adler was the most outstanding personality on the American stage this century. For almost ninety years, she was involved in theater, including a successful career in acting, directing and teaching.

She was born on February 10, 1902, into one of the most distinguished and celebrated acting families in theater. Her mother, Sarah, was a successful actress-manager, while her father, Jacob B. Adler was a noted tragedian, who had immigrated to America at the turn of the century. By 1939, there were fifteen members of the Adler family contributing to the Yiddish Theater and the Group Theater in New York.

Adler made her stage debut with her father in "Broken Hearts" when she was four years old. While growing up, she performed in her father's repertory theater. She would play the parts of boys as well as girls. This theatrical group would put on classical plays, translated into Yiddish, of Shakespeare, Ibsen, and Tolstoy, as well as other modern and classical playwrights.

She attended New York University and later studied with Maria Ouspenskaya and Richard Boleslavski, both former members of the Moscow Art Theater.

She made her debut in London, in 1919, in the role of Naomi, in Elisha Ben Avia. Adler returned to New York to star in a number of plays. She toured Europe and South America with the Yiddish Art Theater of New York. From 1927 through 1931, Adler played over a 100 roles in various productions.

Her association with the Group Theater began in 1931. This famous organization was formed by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford. Adler won high praise for her performances in Success Story by John Howard Lawson, and later in two seminal Clifford Odets plays: Awake and Sing i Izgubljeni raj.

She married Harold Clurman in 1943, having previously married and divorced Horace Eleascheff. Her marriage to Clurman ended in divorce in 1960.

She stayed with the Group Theater for a decade and lamented and deplored the fact that there was a dearth of good roles for women. She felt that the theater was geared for men and that the plays were written for men only. However, she credited the company for bringing the best out of her and for revitalizing her life in theater.

Adler appeared in the movies Love 0n Toast (1938), Shadow of the Thin Man (1941), and My Girl Tisa (1948). In between films, she appeared in many stage plays which included an engagement in London.

She founded the Stella Adler Conservatory of Acting in New York City in 1949. She taught here for a decade. Some of her most famous students were Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro and Warren Beatty. She later became an adjunct professor of acting at the School of Drama at Yale University. She wrote a book, "Stella Adler on Acting," which defined her theories of acting.

Adler died on December 21, 1992, of heart failure in her home in Los Angeles, California. For over ninety years her theories on acting have been the center of controversy and stimulation in developing new and talented performers. She will always be remembered for her contributions to the theater and the arts.

Izvori: This is one of the 150 illustrated true stories of American heroism included in Jewish Heroes & Heroines of America : 150 True Stories of American Jewish Heroism, © 1996, written by Seymour "Sy" Brody of Delray Beach, Florida, illustrated by Art Seiden of Woodmere, New York, and published by Lifetime Books, Inc., Hollywood, FL.

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Stella Adler

Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) [1] was an American actress and acting teacher. [2] She founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City in 1949. [3] Later in life she taught part time in Los Angeles, with the assistance of her protégée, actress Joanne Linville, [4] who continued to teach Adler's technique. [5] [6] Her grandson Tom Oppenheim now runs the school in New York City, [2] which has produced alumni such as Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, Elaine Stritch, Kate Mulgrew, Kipp Hamilton, Jenny Lumet, and Jeff Celentano. [ citation needed ]

Irene Gilbert, a longtime protégée and friend, ran the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in Los Angeles, until her death. [4] [7] Škola u Los Angelesu nastavlja funkcionirati kao studio za glumu i ima nekoliko kazališta. Alumni škole Stella Adler-Los Angeles uključuju Mark  Ruffalo, Benicio  del  Toro, Brion  James, Salma  Hayek, Clifton  Collins  Jr., Herschel  Sava.


Glavne knjige Stelle Adler

Jedna od najpoznatijih glumačkih knjiga, Tehnika glume, autor je Stelle Adler. Forward je napisao Marlon Brando.

U mnogim poglavljima raspravlja o svom nastavničkom iskustvu s Marlonom Brandom. Knjigu morate pročitati za svakog glumca koji želi iskusiti šta je glumačka tehnika Stelle Adler.

Osim ove knjige, Umjetnost glume i Stella Adler o Ibsenu, Strindbergu i Čehovu su još dvije knjige Stelle Adler.
Ako vam se sviđa naš blog, pretplatite se na nas i pratite na Instagramu, @methodactingforme.


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