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14. juna 1945

14. juna 1945

14. juna 1945

Juna

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Njemačka

Ribbentrop je uhapšen u Hamburgu

Indija

Objavljena je britanska Bijela knjiga o Indiji

Filipini

Američka 6. armija čisti Orioung prolaz na Luzonu

Rat na moru

Njemačke podmornice U-2506 i U-2511 predale su se u Bergenu



14. jun 1945. - Istorija

Posted on 06.11.2012. 20:04:38 PDT by NEWwoman

Povijesne zastave SAD -a

Sjećate li se kada su se TV stanice odjavljivale na taj dan?

Ako ne, vjerojatno imate manje od 30 godina.

Prije kabla 24 sata dnevno, stanica je završavala svoj dan - kasno navečer ili rano ujutro - obično kratkim, ali inspirativnim ili patriotskim videom. I jedan takav video zapis za odjavu (prikazan ispod) reproducira se u odgovarajućoj melodiji, Zvjezdani zastavica, jer prikazuje evoluciju američke zastave kroz našu povijest - od Jamestowna (1607.) do slijetanja na Mjesec (1969.).

Ovaj gornji isječak je i istorijski i obrazovni danak Dan zastave - koje prepoznajemo svake godine 14. juna. Od prvih dana naše povijesti američka zastava predstavlja slobodu - nešto vrlo krhko u zlom svijetu - i ideale slobode i pravde za sve naše zemlje.

Prije 70 godina.

Sjedinjene Države proslavile su još snažnije Dan zastave, u kojem su sloboda i naša zemlja bili u velikoj opasnosti.

Godina je bila 1942.

Sjedinjene Države su tek ušle Drugi svjetski rat (1939. - 1945.) nakon što su nam Japan i Njemačka objavili rat, umiješavši nas u još jedan svjetski rat s kojim nema premca u ostatku 20. stoljeća.

U tim teškim vremenima, nacistički kriminalci smotali su mapu kontinentalne Evrope. Japan je skoro uništio našu pacifičku flotu napadom na Pearl Harbor 7. decembra 1941. Ipak, upravo smo vodili bitku za Midway prethodne sedmice (4. - 7. juna 1942.) i odnijeli odlučujuću pobjedu protiv Japana, dajući nadu da se situacija promijeni u našu korist u pacifičkom kazalištu.

Predsjednik Franklin Delano Roosevelt, tokom ovih mračnih dana, emitirao je naciju svoj govor o Danu zastave, završavajući molitvom za svijet.

Donji isječak prikazuje odlomak iz posljednjeg dijela te molitve, prikazan s nekim pokretnim slikama Drugog svjetskog rata, koje su iz završnih zapisa serije, Drugi svjetski rat u HD -u.


Duh čovjeka se probudio
Duša čoveka je izašla

Podari nam mudrost i viziju
da shvate veličinu čovjekovog duha
koja toliko pati i trpi zbog cilja
izvan svog kratkog raspona

Svi smo mi djeca Zemlje
Daj nam to jednostavno znanje
Ako su naša braća potlačena,
onda smo potlačeni
Ako oni gladuju, mi gladujemo
Ako im se oduzme sloboda,
naša sloboda nije sigurna

Podari nam zajedničku vjeru,
taj će čovjek spoznati kruh i mir
Da će spoznati pravdu i pravdu,
Sloboda i sigurnost, jednake mogućnosti,
i jednaku šansu da da sve od sebe,
ne samo u našim zemljama, već širom svijeta.

I u toj vjeri, hajdemo, marširaj prema čistom svijetu,
naše ruke mogu napraviti. Amen

Cijeli tekst radio adrese FDR -a možete pronaći ovdje : Franklin D. Roosevelt: & quotRadio adresa na Dan ujedinjene zastave. & Quot 14. jun 1942. Na mreži Gerhard Peters i John T. Woolley, Projekat američkog predsjedništva . http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=16276.

Prošlo je 70 godina otkako su ove riječi koje su završile molitvom prvi put objavljene naciji. uključeno Dan zastave . Bila je to jedna od mnogih molitvi koje su se molile tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. (referenca: Drugi svjetski rat i nacionalna molitva.) Ipak, ova molitva govori o velikim potrebama naše nacije i svijeta u 21. stoljeću.

I neka se nastavimo moliti oslanjajući se na Boga za pomoć i mudrost dok se suočavamo s velikim izazovima i teškim danima koji su pred nama, i s njegovom beskrajnom milošću i milosrđem, prevladavaju. Amen.

Molite se i dalje za Ameriku
for.

Blago narodu čiji je Bog Gospod.
Psalam 33:12
(NIV)


Danas u istoriji Drugog svjetskog rata - 14. juna 1940. i#038 1945. godine

Prije 80 godina - 14. juna 1940 .: Njemačke trupe zauzimaju Pariz i prenose svastiku s Ajfelovog tornja i preko Slavoluka pobjede.

Nacisti šalju prve zatvorenike u koncentracioni logor Auschwitz - političke zatvorenike iz Poljske.

Britanija zabranjuje zvonjenje crkvenih zvona, što je rezervirano za upozorenja o invaziji.

96. divizija SAD-a na vrhu brda Yaeju-Dake, Okinawa, Japan, 18. juna 1945. (fotografija američke vojske)

Prije 75 godina - 14. juna 1945 .: Britanci su u Hamburgu u Njemačkoj uhapsili nacističkog ministra vanjskih poslova Joachima von Ribbentropa, koji će biti pogubljen nakon Nirnberškog procesa.

Na Okinawi, Deseta armija Sjedinjenih Država zauzima vrh Yaeju-Dake, a američki marinci zauzimaju greben Kunishi.

Premijera Franka Capre Rat stiže u Ameriku, posljednji dokumentarac iz serije Zašto se borimo.


14. avgusta 1945. Poljubac na Times Squareu

Upaljena poruka koja se provlačila po Times Buildingu glasila je: „VJ, VJ, VJ, VJ ” dok je George Mendonsa zgrabio stranca i poljubio je. Dve sekunde kasnije trenutak je nestao, ali Alfred Eisenstaedt i njegova kamera bili su na pravom mestu u pravo vreme.

Najrazorniji rat u istoriji završio je na današnji dan 1945. godine, bezuslovnom predajom Japanskog carstva.

Bilo je jutro na istočnoj obali. Predsjednik Harry Truman još nije dobio formalnu predaju. Zvanična najava Bijele kuće bila je udaljena još nekoliko sati, ali glasine su letele od ranih jutarnjih sati.

Rođena i odrasla u Austriji, Greta Zimmer je 1939. imala 16 godina. Vidjevši kako ih rat vodi, Gretini roditelji su nju i njezine dvije sestre poslali u Ameriku, ne znajući hoće li ih ikada više vidjeti. Šest godina kasnije bila je zubni asistent, radeći u uredu dr. J. L. Berkea na Manhattanu.

Greta je za pauzu za ručak došla nešto iza 1:00 tog dana. Pacijenti su cijelo jutro dolazili u ordinaciju sa glasinama da je rat gotov. Krenula je na Times Square, znajući da će joj upaljeni i pokretni tip na patentnom zatvaraču za Times dati najnovije vijesti.

George Mendonsa, Greta Zimmer-Friedman

Podoficir prve klase George Mendonsa bio je na posljednjem danu odmora na obali, provevši dan sa svojom novom djevojkom, Ritom Petry. I oni su čuli glasine, ali upravo su sada uživali u posljednjem zajedničkom danu. Rat bi mogao pričekati do sutra.

Par je otišao na film u Radio City Music Hall, ali film je prekinuo uposlenik kazališta koji je upalio svjetlo i najavio da je rat završio. Napustivši pozorište, par se pridružio plimi čovječanstva koja se kretala prema Times Squareu. Par se zaustavio u restoranu Childs na 7. Ave & amp; 49., gdje su barmeni sipali sve što im je pod ruku u čaše za čekanje. Guverneri su ih hvatali onoliko brzo koliko su se čaše napunile.

Mendonsina šetnja/trčanje iz restorana na alkohol s alkoholom ostavila je Ritu iza sebe, ali činilo se da to nikome nije smetalo. Times Square je podivljao.

Mornar sa USS Sullivans vidio je krvoproliće. Bio je tamo 11. maja, dok su se avioni kamikaza razbijali o USS Bunker Hill. Eksplozije i požari ubili su 346 mornara tog dana. 43 njihova tijela nikada ne bi bila pronađena. Mendonsa je pomogao izvući preživjele, neke od njih užasno spaljene, iz vode. Gledao je dok mornaričke sestre brinu o povrijeđenima i umirućima.

Kad je mornar ugledao Gretu Zimmer, stomatološki asistent bio je odjeven na isti način. Mora da mu se činila kao jedan od onih anđela milosrđa u bijelim odjećama iz tih ranijih mjeseci.

Reporteri iz AP, NY Times, NY Daily News i drugi spustili su se na Times Square da zabilježe spontanu proslavu.

Kao njemački Židov 1930 -ih, Alfred Eisenstaedt je fotografirao nadolazeću oluju. Fotografirao je prvi susret Benita Mussolinija s Adolfom Hitlerom u Veneciji 1934. Sada su on i njegova kamera za mjerenje udaljenosti Leica Illa radili za Life Magazine, koji je krenuo na Times Square u potrazi za “slikom”.

Upaljena poruka koja se provlačila po Times Buildingu glasila je: „VJ, VJ, VJ, VJ ” dok je George Mendonsa zgrabio stranca i poljubio je. Dve sekunde kasnije trenutak je nestao, ali Eisenstaedt i njegova kamera bili su na pravom mestu u pravo vreme.

Slika mornara koji ljubi medicinsku sestru postala bi poznata kao i fotografija Joea Rosenthala na kojoj se zastava podiže na Iwo Jimi, ali tek nekoliko godina kasnije.

Njemački fotoaparat koji je napravio ikoničnu sliku nedavno je na aukciji u aukcijskoj kući Westlicht u Beču, gdje se očekivalo da će se prodati za 30.000 dolara. Dobitna ponuda iznosila je skoro 150.000 dolara.

Nakon rata, Greta Zimmer je saznala da su joj oba roditelja umrla u logorima. Kasnije se udala i doselila u Frederick, Maryland. Greta Zimmer Friedman se nikada nije vratila u Austriju, a preminula je u septembru prošle godine, u 92. godini.

George Mendonsa i Rita Petry kasnije su se vjenčali. George nikada nije vidio slavnu fotografiju sve do 1980. U početku nije bio siguran da li se prepoznaje. Danas njegove uramljene kopije vise na zidu njihove kuće na Rhode Islandu.

Ove godine par slavi 68. godišnjicu braka. Rita kaže da se nije ljutila što je njen muž poljubio drugu ženu na njihovom prvom sastanku. Ističe da je viđena kako se ceri u pozadini poznate slike. Priznat će, međutim, ‘Svih ovih godina George me nikad nije tako poljubio. ’


Historija: Bitka kod Iwo Jime, 1945

Fotografija Spomen obilježja Iwo Jima u Washingtonu DC Ovaj mjesec obilježava godišnjicu bitke, koja je završena 1945. Fotografija iz Kongresne biblioteke

Krajem februara 1945. godine Sjedinjene Države su postigle značajan napredak u kampanji skakanja ostrva kako bi djelovale bliže japanskom kopnu. Od 1942., general Douglas MacArthur nastavio je pokret preko Tihog okeana koji je vidio kako Amerikanci slijeću na ostrva poput Guadalcanala i Tarawe, zajedno s ponovnim zauzimanjem Filipina. Ova borba je vođena protiv neprijatelja koji se odbio predati i bio je spreman podnijeti velike gubitke.

Za američke vojne i političke vođe ovo je razdoblje bilo izuzetno krvavo. U Europi su Sjedinjene Države počele sporo napredovati u Njemačku nakon Hitlerova posljednjeg pokušaja da podijeli zapadne saveznike kroz bitku za Bulge. Za MacArthura i Nimitza, uzimanje Iwo Jime predstavljalo je oštru dilemu za Japance. Ako su američka mornarica i marinci zauzeli ovo ostrvo, doveli su naše snage 750 milja od glavnih japanskih ostrva. Sada bi njihovo tlo, ljudi, biljke municije i car Hirohito bili direktno napadnuti tokom posljednjeg dijela ovog rata.

Zauzimanje Iwo Jime također je odbilo Japancima korištenje aerodroma za napade na američke bombardere B-29 Superfortress. U to vrijeme ovi bombarderi nisu imali podršku američkih borbenih aviona za zaštitu od japanskih aviona Mitsubishi Zero. Pobjeda na ovom ostrvu omogućila je vazdušnim snagama Kopnene vojske kopnene zrakoplove za njegove bombardere i borbene avione da povećaju pritisak na sve japanske ratne napore.

Dok su američke snage nastavile napredovati, japanski otpor je postajao sve jači zbog aviona kamikaza koji su gađali naša glavna pomorska plovila. Pogled na ove neprijateljske avione koji su gađali američke brodove bio je užasan podsjetnik da rat nije daleko od kraja.

Bob Feller zvao se As najveće generacije i bio je stacioniran na bojnom brodu USS Alabama na Pacifiku. Ovaj bacač Kuće slavnih i dobitnik nagrade Cy Young, nazvani su herojima kada su se vratili u Cleveland Indijance 1946. Podsjećajući na odlučnost Japanaca, čvrsto je rekao da nije heroj, već da je "preživio" borbu protiv ovaj narod. Za Fellera i druge veterane Drugog svjetskog rata, oni su stalno bili na meti ovih neprijateljskih pilota koji su potopili 47 savezničkih brodova.

Iako je japanska vlada poslala malo pojačanja i zaliha u svoje garnizone, ostavljeni su na ovim otocima da se bore do smrti. Japanci su, za razliku od Nijemaca, shvatili da nisu u stanju zaustaviti snagu američke ratne mašine. Ali shvatili su da naši građani mrze gubitke i da su Japanci bili odlučni u namjeri da povećaju krv. U bitkama poput Iwo Jime, japanski oficiri su poučavali neophodnost svojih vojnika da ubiju najmanje 10 Amerikanaca prije nego što ih pregaze naše snage.

Tokom faza planiranja Iwo Jime nedostajalo je informacija američkih pilota koji nisu mogli vidjeti nikakve znakove japanskih vojnika na ovom otoku. Umjesto toga, promatrali su krševit teren od stijena i planina koji je nudio malo luksuza za bilo koga od njegovih stanovnika. Ali Japanci su rasporedili gotovo 22.000 vojnika da se suprotstave bilo kojem američkom iskrcavanju. Djelovali su u pećinama, nizu tunela i postavljali teške topove u dobro skrivene položaje. Stekli su dragocjeno vrijeme u izgradnji ovih linija odbrane odgađanjem američkog osvajanja Filipina.

Prije nego što su američki vojni planeri napali Iwo Jimu, naredili su svojim "žabacarima" - ili najranijim tuljanima - da napadnu Japance u nastojanju da otkriju ta mjesta naoružanja. U očekivanju jakog otpora, marinci su zatražili da mornarica 10 dana puca na sumnjiva područja japanskih utvrđenja i oružja. Umjesto toga, bilo je samo tri dana pomorskog bombardiranja, što je rezultiralo kasnijim ekstremnim gubicima za američke kopnene snage. Flotila od oko 450 brodova položila se uz obalu Iwo Jime, gdje je 60.000 marinaca i 10.000 mornaričkih i vojnih snaga korišteno za zauzimanje ovog malog ostrva. 19. februara, kada su marinci iskrcali svoje talase ljudi i materijala, Japanci su se jedva oduprli tim ranim američkim akcijama.

Predvođena japanskim vođom vetera, generalom Tadamichijem Kuribayashijem, namjera mu je bila dopustiti iskrcavanje da dođe do obale bez protivljenja. Amerikancima je bilo dozvoljeno da se kreću u unutrašnjost zemlje gdje bi bile na meti japanskih snaga. Kuribayashi je vjerovao da se, ako njegove snage stvore velike američke gubitke, očekuje da će naši oficiri izgubiti volju da nastave borbe na Iwo Jimi. Iskoristio je strmi teren plaža, jer je prvi val od 8.000 ljudi morao proći na obalu kroz duboke plaže. Ovaj pijesak je takođe bio težak za rad motornim američkim vozilima, jer su tenkovi, kamioni i džipovi bili na meti japanskih topova.

Prvog dana napada bilo je 2.400 žrtava koje su iznenadile američko vojno vodstvo, jer su ti gubici bili manji od gubitaka koji su pretrpjeli u Tarawi i Saipanu. Najveća greška koju su Japanci učinili ovog dana bila je pucnjava sa položaja na planini Suribachi. Japansko gađanje po vrhu otoka pokazalo se kobnim za neprijatelja, jer je omogućilo američkoj mornarici, lovačkim avionima i kopnenim snagama da pogode ove neprijateljske trupe i njihove topove. Četvrti dan borbi, fotograf Joe Rosenthal snimio je možda najstariju vojnu sliku ikada snimljenu. Prikaz "podizanja zastave" na vrhu planine Suribachi predstavlja predanost marinaca da postave boje ove nacije. Budući da je Amerikance ova slika oduševila, opasna je stvarnost za marince bila da ovo natjecanje nije bilo gotovo.

Za razliku od drugih bitaka koje su pokazale spremnost Japanaca da napadnu banzai protiv američkih položaja, Kuribayashi je obeshrabrio ove metode. Kad bi velike grupe japanskih vojnika izašle na otvoreno da napadnu marince, na kraju bi bile ubijene, a to bi samo oslabilo njegove snage. Dok su se neke borbe vodile noću, Japanci su ostali blizu svojih tunela, oružja i pokrivača, što je spriječilo ranu pobjedu marinaca. Naše vojno rukovodstvo postajalo je sve zabrinutije zbog otpora koji su Japanci pokazali na sjevernom dijelu Iwo Jime. Japanci su koristili veće minobacače što je povećalo gubitke, a marinci su počeli koristiti napalm protiv neprijatelja. Bio je napad mornarice kamikaze s ostrva, pri čemu su japanski avioni ciljali USS Bismarck Sea i USS Saratoga. Za obje strane, 36 dana ratovanja u Iwo Jimi pokazalo se kao bitka koja je savijena na potpunom pokolju.

Iako su američke snage bile daleko superiornije, Japanci su često čekali da vide marince prije nego što otvore vatru. General Holland McTyeire "Howlin 'Mad" Smith nekoliko je puta izlazio na obalu kako bi osobno promatrao borbe, te je vjerovao da su marinci u možda najgoroj bici koju su ikada doživjeli. Procjenjuje se da je 14 od 24 zapovjednika pješadijskog bataljona marinaca poginulo ili ranjeno vodeći svoje ljude na prvim linijama fronta. Uglavnom kroz borbu prsa u prsa, ovo je bio jedini način da se obori odbrana Japana.

Do 14. marta marinci su se uvjerili da su Iwo Jima preuzele američke snage. Iako su Japanci izgubili većinu svojih položaja, još je bilo trenutaka da su se infiltrirali u stražnje dijelove američkih linija kako bi ubili marince. Gubici su s obje strane bili veliki, s tim da su Japanci imali više od 20.000 žrtava. Procjenjuje se da je 30% Amerikanaca stradalo, a većina štete nanesena je pješaštvu. Gubici u ovoj bitci nikada nisu bili diskriminisani, jer je istaknuti borbeni lik John Basilone, vodnik oružja i dobitnik Medalje časti, ubijen u njegovim najranijim trenucima na Iwo Jimi. Svaki tip marinaca borio se na ovom otoku od najodlikovanijih, do 16-godišnjaka koji je proživio neke od najtežih ratova.

Prije nekih 76 godina ovog mjeseca, više od 6.000 marinaca ubijeno je u izuzetno izazovnom periodu u istoriji ove grane službe.

Studenti Rocky Pointa Chloe Fish, Sean Hamilton, Carolyn Settepani i Madelyn Zarzycki dali su svoj doprinos ovom članku.


Nakon razornog Drugog svjetskog rata, 1945-1947

Njemački general Wehrmachta Anton Dostler vezan je za kolac prije pogubljenja strijeljanjem u jednoj stovari u Aversi, u Italiji, 1. decembra 1945. Vojska Sjedinjenih Država osudila je generala, komandanta 75. armijskog korpusa Komisija u Rimu jer je naredila strijeljanje 15 nenaoružanih američkih ratnih zarobljenika u La Speziji, Italija, 26. marta 1944. Pročitajte više o priči ove slike .

Na kraju rata, milioni ljudi su mrtvi, a milioni beskućnici, evropska ekonomija je doživjela kolaps, a veliki dio evropske industrijske infrastrukture je uništen. Sovjetski Savez je također bio teško pogođen. Granice su precrtane i u toku su dolasci, protjerivanja i sahrane. Ali ogromni napori za obnovu tek su počeli.

Uprkos njihovom ratnom savezu, napetostima između Sovjetskog Saveza i Sjedinjenih Država i saveznika Velike Britanije tokom Drugog svjetskog rata, SAD i SSSR su postali konkurenti na svjetskoj sceni i uključeni u Hladni rat, takozvani jer to nikada nije rezultiralo otvorenim, objavio je vrući rat između dvije sile, ali su ga umjesto toga karakterizirali špijunaža, politička subverzija i posrednički ratovi. Zapadna Evropa i Japan obnovljeni su američkim Maršalovim planom, dok su centralna i istočna Evropa potpale pod sovjetsku sferu uticaja i na kraju pod željeznom zavjesom ”. Evropa je bila podijeljena na Zapadni blok predvođen SAD-om i Istočni blok na čelu sa Sovjetom.

Na međunarodnom planu, savezi s dva bloka postepeno su se promijenili, pa su neke nacije pokušavale ostati izvan hladnog rata kroz Pokret nesvrstanih. Hladni rat je također vidio utrku u nuklearnom naoružanju između dviju velesila, što je dio razloga što Hladni rat nikada nije postao vrući rat zato što su Sovjetski Savez i Sjedinjene Države imale nuklearna odvraćanja jedna protiv druge, što je dovelo do međusobnog osigurano uništavanje uništenja.

Kao posljedica rata, saveznici su osnovali Ujedinjene nacije, organizaciju za međunarodnu saradnju i diplomatiju, sličnu Ligi naroda. Članovi Ujedinjenih nacija složili su se da zabrane agresivne ratove kako bi izbjegli treći svjetski rat. Uništene velike sile Zapadne Evrope formirale su Evropsku zajednicu za ugalj i čelik, koja se kasnije razvila u Evropsko zajedničko tržište i na kraju u sadašnju Evropsku uniju. Ovi napori su prvenstveno započeli kao pokušaj da se ekonomskom saradnjom i integracijom izbjegne još jedan rat između Njemačke i Francuske, te zajedničko tržište važnih prirodnih resursa.

Kraj rata također je povećao stopu dekolonizacije velikih sila, pri čemu je nezavisnost dodijeljena Indiji (iz Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva), Indoneziji (iz Nizozemske), Filipinima (iz SAD -a) i brojnim arapskim državama, prvenstveno od posebnih prava koja su dodijeljena velikim silama iz mandata Lige naroda u razdoblju nakon Prvog svjetskog rata, ali su često de facto postojala i prije ovog vremena. S tim u vezi je i SAD koji je u godinama neposredno nakon rata pomagao Izraelu da stekne kontroverznu nezavisnost od svog prethodnog statusa u sastavu Palestine. Nezavisnost nacija podsaharske Afrike dolazila je sporije. Poslije Drugog svjetskog rata došlo je i do porasta komunističkog utjecaja u jugoistočnoj Aziji, s Narodnom Republikom Kinom, jer su kineski komunisti izašli kao pobjednici iz Kineskog građanskog rata 1949. godine.

Sovjetski vojnici sa sniženim standardima poraženih nacističkih snaga tokom parade povodom Dana pobjede u Moskvi, 24. juna 1945.

Iscrpljeni i mršavi, ali sretni zbog izlaska iz japanskog zarobljeništva, dva saveznička zarobljenika spakiraju svoje oskudne stvari, nakon što su ih 11. rujna 1945. u blizini Yokohame u Japanu oslobodili ljudi američke eskadrile milosrđa američke mornarice.

Povratak pobjedničkih sovjetskih vojnika na željezničku stanicu u Moskvi 1945.

Pogled iz vazduha na Hirošimu u Japanu, godinu dana nakon eksplozije atomske bombe, pokazuje malu količinu obnove usred velike propasti 20. jula 1946. Spori tempo obnove pripisuje se nedostatku građevinske opreme i materijala.

Japanac usred spaljenih olupina i ruševina koje su mu nekada bile u Yokohami u Japanu.

Fotograf Crvene armije Jevgenij Haldej (u sredini) u Berlinu sa sovjetskim snagama, u blizini Brandenburških vrata u maju 1945.

P-47 Thunderbolt iz 12. zrakoplovstva američke vojske leti nisko iznad izmrvljenih ruševina nekadašnjeg Hitlerovog povlačenja u Berchtesgadenu, u Njemačkoj, 26. maja 1945. Mali i veliki krateri bombi rasuti su oko olupine.

Hermann Goering, nekoć vođa zastrašujuće Luftwaffea, a drugi koji je zapovijedao njemačkim Reichom pod Hitlerom, pojavljuje se na spisu u spisu Centralnog registra ratnih zločinaca i osumnjičenih za sigurnost u Parizu, 5. novembra 1945. Goering se predao američkim vojnicima u Bavarskoj, 9. maja 1945., i na kraju je odveden u Nirnberg na suđenje za ratne zločine.

Unutrašnjost sudnice na suđenjima za ratne zločine u Nirnbergu 1946. tokom suđenja velikim ratnim zločincima, procesuirajući 24 vladina i civilna vođe nacističke Njemačke. Ovdje je vidljiv Hermann Goering, bivši vođa Luftwaffea, sjedi u kutiji desno u sredini, nosi sivu jaknu, slušalice i tamne naočale. Pored njega sjede Rudolf Hess, bivši zamjenik njemačkog firera, zatim Joachim von Ribbentrop, bivši nacistički ministar vanjskih poslova, Wilhelm Keitel, bivši lider njemačke Vrhovne komande (zamućeno lice), i Ernst Kaltenbrunner, najviši preživjeli SS -vodja. Goering, von Ribbentrop, Keitel i Kaltenbrunner osuđeni su na smrt vješanjem sa još 8 osoba##1212 Goering je izvršio samoubistvo noć prije pogubljenja. Hess je osuđen na doživotnu robiju, koju je služio u zatvoru Spandau u Berlinu, gdje je umro 1987. godine.

Mnogi njemački zarobljeni novi i eksperimentalni avioni bili su izloženi na izložbi u sklopu Londonske sedmice Dana zahvalnosti 14. septembra 1945. Među avionima je veliki broj aviona na mlazni i raketni pogon. Ovdje je bočni pogled na Heinkel He-162 “Volksjaeger ”, pogonjen turbo-mlaznom jedinicom postavljenom iznad trupa, u Hyde parku, u Londonu.

Godinu dana nakon iskrcavanja na Dan D u Normandiji, njemački zatvorenici su 28. svibnja 1945. uređivali prvo američko groblje u Saint-Laurent-sur-Meru u Francuskoj, blizu plaže “Omaha ”.

Sudetski Nijemci odlaze na željezničku stanicu u Liberecu, u bivšoj Čehoslovačkoj, da bi ih u julu 1946. godine prebacili u Njemačku. Nakon završetka rata, milioni njemačkih državljana i etničkih Nijemaca bili su prisilno protjerani s obje teritorije koju je Njemačka anektirala, te bivših njemačkih zemalja koje su prebačene u Poljsku i Sovjetski Savez. Procijenjeni broj uključenih Nijemaca kreće se od 12 do 14 miliona, s daljnjom procjenom između 500.000 i 2 miliona koji su umrli tokom protjerivanja.

Preživjela prva atomska bomba koja je ikada korištena u ratovanju, Jinpe Teravama zadržava ožiljke nakon izlječenja opekotina od eksplozije bombe, u Hirošimi, juna 1947. godine.

Autobusi sa invaliditetom koji su zatrpani ulicama Tokija koriste se za ublažavanje akutne nestašice stanova u japanskoj prijestonici 2. oktobra 1946. Beskućnici Japanci koji su autobuse prevezli na prazno mjesto pretvaraju ih u domove za svoje porodice.

Američki G.I. stavlja ruku oko jedne Japanke dok posmatraju okolinu parka Hibiya, u blizini tokijske carske palate, 21. januara 1946.

Ovo je pogled iz zraka na London koji se nalazi oko katedrale sv. Pavla i prikazuje područja oštećena bombom u aprilu 1945.

General Charles de Gaulle (u sredini) rukovao se s djecom, dva mjeseca nakon kapitulacije Njemačke u Lorientu u Francuskoj, u julu 1945. Lorient je bio lokacija njemačke baze podmornica (podmornica) tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Između 14. januara i 17. februara 1943. godine, na Lorient je bačeno čak 500 visoko eksplozivnih vazdušnih bombi i više od 60 000 zapaljivih bombi. Grad je gotovo potpuno uništen, s gotovo 90% grada poravnatim.

Super transportni brod, general W.P. Richardson, pristao u New Yorku, sa veteranima evropskog rata koji su navijali 7. juna 1945. Mnogi vojnici bili su veterani afričke kampanje, Salerna, Anzija, Cassina i zimskog rata u planinama Italije.

Ova fotografija iz zraka prikazuje dio Levittowna u New Yorku 1948. godine, nedugo nakon što je masovno proizvedeno predgrađe završeno na poljoprivrednom zemljištu Long Island u New Yorku. Ova prototipska prigradska zajednica bila je prva od mnogih masovno proizvedenih stambenih zgrada koje su porasle za vojnike koji su se vraćali kući iz Drugog svjetskog rata. Također je postao simbol poslijeratnog predgrađa u SAD -u

Ovaj televizor, koji se prodaje po cijeni od 100 USD, navodno je prvi količinski proizveden prijemnik po umjerenim cijenama. Rose Clare Leonard gleda ekran, koji reproducira sliku 5 ࡭, dok se uključuje na prvu javnu poslijeratnu emisiju u njujorškoj robnoj kući, 24. kolovoza 1945. Iako je televizija izmišljena prije Drugog svjetskog rata, rat je spriječio masovnu proizvodnju. Ubrzo nakon rata, prodaja i proizvodnja su porasli, a do 1948. godine počelo je redovno programiranje komercijalne mreže.

Američki vojnik pregledava statuu od čvrstog zlata, dio privatnog plijena Hermanna Geringa, koji je 7. američka armija pronašla u pećini na planini u blizini Schonau am Konigssee, Njemačka, 25. maja 1945. Tajna pećina, druga do sada pronađena , također sadrži ukradene neprocjenjive slike iz cijele Evrope.

U Evropi su neke crkve potpuno uništene, ali druge još uvijek stoje usred potpune pustoši. Katedrala u Munchengladbachu stoji ovdje u ruševinama, iako još uvijek treba popravke, viđena u Njemačkoj, 20. novembra 1945.

Pukovnik Bird, zapovjednik logora Belsen, 21. maja izdao je naredbu za spaljivanje posljednje kolibe u koncentracionom logoru Belsen. Pucanj je ispaljen u čast mrtvih, britanska zastava je podignuta u istom trenutku kada je bacač plamena zapalio posljednju kolibu. Njemačka zastava i portret Hitlera planuli su u kolibi u junu 1945.

Njemačke majke šetaju svoju djecu u školu ulicama Aachena u Njemačkoj, 6. juna 1945. godine, radi registracije u prvoj javnoj školi koju je nakon rata otvorila američka vojna vlada.

Opšti pogled na sastanak Međunarodnog vojnog suda za Daleki istok u Tokiju u aprilu 1947. 3. maja 1946. saveznici su započeli suđenje 28 japanskih civilnih i vojnih vođa za ratne zločine. Sedmorica su obešena, a drugi osuđeni na zatvorske kazne.

Sovjetski vojnici su marširali u sjevernoj Koreji u oktobru 1945. Japan je vladao Korejskim poluotokom 35 godina, do kraja Drugog svjetskog rata. U to vrijeme, saveznički čelnici odlučili su privremeno okupirati državu dok se ne održe izbori i uspostavi vlada. Sovjetske snage okupirale su sjever, dok su američke snage okupirale jug. Planirani izbori nisu održani, jer je Sovjetski Savez uspostavio komunističku državu u Sjevernoj Koreji, a SAD su uspostavile prozapadnu državu u Južnoj Koreji, a svaka država tvrdi da je suverena na cijelom poluotoku. Ovaj sukob doveo je do Korejskog rata 1950. godine, koji je okončan 1953. potpisivanjem primirja —, ali, do danas, dvije zemlje su i dalje tehnički u međusobnom ratu.

Na ovoj fotografiji iz oktobra 1945. iz službene Korejske centralne novinske agencije Sjeverne Koreje, komunistički vođa Kim Il Sung razgovara sa poljoprivrednikom iz Qingshanlija, okrug Kangso, Južni Pjongjang u Sjevernoj Koreji.

Vojnici kineske komunističke armije Osme rute na vježbalištu u Yananu, glavnom gradu ogromnog područja u sjevernoj Kini kojim upravlja Komunistička partija Kine, viđeno 26. marta 1946. Ovi vojnici su pripadnici “Night Tiger &# Bataljon 8221. Kineska komunistička partija (CPC) vodila je rat protiv vladajućeg Kuomintanga (KMT ili kineska nacionalistička partija) od 1927. godine, boreći se za kontrolu nad Kinom. Japanske invazije tokom Drugog svjetskog rata prisilile su dvije strane da ostave većinu svojih borbi u borbi protiv zajedničkog stranog neprijatelja, iako su se s vremena na vrijeme ipak borile. Nakon završetka Drugog svjetskog rata, i Sovjetskog Saveza koji se povukao iz Mandžurije, građanski rat punog razmjera izbio je u Kini u junu 1946. KMT je na kraju poražen, s milionima ljudi koji su se povukli na Tajvan, dok je vođa CPC -a Mao Zedong uspostavio Narodnu Republiku Kine 1949.

Ova fotografija iz 1946. prikazuje ENIAC (elektronički numerički integrator i računar), prvi elektronički računar opće namjene i#8211 mašinu od 30 tona smještenu na Univerzitetu u Pennsylvaniji. Razvijen u tajnosti od 1943. godine, ENIAC je dizajniran za izračunavanje artiljerijskih tablica za balističku istraživačku laboratoriju američke vojske. Završena mašina objavljena je javnosti 14. februara 1946. Pronalazači ENIAC -a promovirali su širenje novih tehnologija kroz niz utjecajnih predavanja o izgradnji elektronskih digitalnih računara na Univerzitetu u Pensilvaniji 1946., poznatih kao Moore Školska predavanja.

A test nuclear explosion codenamed “Baker”, part of Operation Crossroads, at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, on July 25, 1946. The 40 kiloton atomic bomb was detonated by the U.S. at a depth of 27 meters below the ocean surface, 3.5 miles from the atoll. The purpose of the tests was to study the effects of nuclear explosions on ships. 73 ships were gathered to the spot — both obsolete American and captured ships, including the Japanese battleship “Nagato”. Read more about this picture .

Northrop’s Flying Wing Bomber known as the XB-35 in flight in 1946. The XB-35 was an experimental heavy bomber developed for the U.S. Army Air Force during World War II. The project was terminated shortly after the war, due to its technical difficulties.

Japanese ammunition being dumped into the sea on September 21, 1945. During the U.S. occupation, almost all of the Japanese war industry and existing armament was dismantled.

These unidentified German workers in Decontamination clothing destroy toxic bombs on June 28, 1946, at the U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service Depot, at St. Georgen, Germany. The destruction and disposal of 65,000 dead weight tons of German toxics, including mustard gas, was accomplished in one of two ways: Burning or dumping the empty shells and bombs into the North Sea.

U.S. military authorities prepare to hang Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, 74, at Landsberg, Germany, on May 28, 1946. In a Dachau war crimes trial he was convicted of using 1,200 concentration camp prisoners for malaria experimentation. Thirty died directly from the inoculations and 300 to 400 died later from complications of the disease. His experiments, all with unwilling subjects, began in 1942.

The new cemetery at Belsen, Germany on March 28, 1946, where 13,000 people who died after Belsen Concentration Camp was liberated are buried.

Jewish survivors of the Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp, some still in their camp clothing, stand on the deck of the refugee immigration ship Mataroa, on July 15, 1945 at Haifa port, during the British Mandate of Palestine, in what would later become the State of Israel. During World War II, millions of Jews were fleeing Germany and its occupied territories, many attempting to enter the British Mandate of Palestine, despite tight restrictions on Jewish immigration established by the British in 1939. Many of these would-be immigrants were caught and rounded up into detention camps. In 1947, Britain announced plans to withdraw from the territory, and the United Nations approved the Partition Plan for Palestine, establishing a Jewish and a Palestinian state in the country. On May 14, 1948, Israel declared independence and was immediately attacked by neighboring Arab states, beginning the Arab-Israeli conflict which continues to this day.

Some of Poland’s thousands of war orphans at the Catholic Orphanage in Lublin, on September 11, 1946, where they are being cared for by the Polish Red Cross. Most of the clothing, as well as vitamins and medicines, are provided by the American Red Cross.

The Empress of Japan visits a Catholic Orphanage staffed by Japanese Nuns for children who have lost their parents in the war and air raids over Tokyo. The Empress inspected the grounds and paid a visit to the chapel. Children wave Japanese flags to greet the Empress during her visit in Fujisawa in Tokyo, on April 13, 1946.

New buildings (right) rise out of the ruins of Hiroshima, Japan, on March 11, 1946. These single story homes built along a hard-surfaced highway are part of the program by the Japanese government to rebuild devastated sections of the country. At left background are damaged buildings whose masonry withstood the effects of the first atomic bomb ever detonated as a weapon.

Clocks are being readied for export to Allied countries, shown as collateral for imported goods needed by Japan. Thirty-four Japanese factories produced 123,000 clocks during April of 1946. Photo taken on June 25, 1946.

U.S. General George S. Patton acknowledges the cheers of thousands during a parade through downtown Los Angeles, California, on June 9, 1945. Shortly thereafter, Patton returned to Germany and controversy, as he advocated the employment of ex-Nazis in administrative positions in Bavaria he was relieved of command of the 3rd Army and died of injuries from a traffic accident in December, after his return home. Joe Rosenthal’s famous Iwo Jima flag-raising photograph is visible on the war bonds billboard.

This 1945 photo shows German women clearing up the debris on Berlin’s Tauentzienstrasse, with the ruins of the Kaiser Wilhelm Church in the background. The absence of able bodied men meant that the responsibility for clearing the wreckage fell mainly to civilian women, which were called “Truemmerfrauen,” or rubble ladies. The signs on the left mark the border between the British-occupied sector and the U.S. sector of the city.

The scene in Berlin’s Republic Square, before the ruined Reichstag Building, on September 9, 1948, as Anti-Communists, estimated at a quarter of a million, scream their opposition to Communism. At the time, the Soviet Union was enforcing the Berlin Blockade, blocking Allied access to the parts of Berlin under Allied control. In response, Allies began the Berlin Airlift until the Soviets lifted the blockade in 1949, and East Germany and West Germany were established. When the meeting pictured here broke up, a series of incidents between Anti-Red Germans and Soviet troops brought tension to a fever pitch as shootings took place, resulting in the deaths of two Germans.

In March of 1974, some 29 years after the official end of World War II, Hiroo Onoda, a former Japanese Army intelligence officer, walks out of the jungle of Lubang Island in the Philippines, where he was finally relieved of duty. He handed over his sword (hanging from his hip in photo), his rifle, ammunition and several hand grenades. Onoda had been sent to Lubang Island in December of 1944 to join an existing group of soldiers and hamper any enemy attacks. Allied forces overtook the island just a few months later, capturing or killing all but Onoda and three other Japanese soldiers. The four ran into the hills and began a decades-long insurgency extending well past the end of the war. Several times they found or were handed leaflets notifying them that the war had ended, but they refused to believe it. In 1950, one of the soldiers turned himself in to Philippine authorities. By 1972, Onoda’s two other compatriots were dead, killed during guerrilla activities, leaving Onoda alone. In 1974, Onoda met a Japanese college dropout, Norio Suzuki, who was traveling the world, and through their friendship, Onoda’s former commanding officer was located and flew to Lubang Island to formally relieve Onoda of duty, and bring him home to Japan. Over the years, the small group had killed some 30 Filipinos in various attacks, but Onoda ended up going free, after he received a pardon from President Ferdinand Marcos. Read more about this story .


LDS Church History

-- Sep 2, 1945
Formal ceremonies of surrender, ending World War II â€" history's deadliest and most far-reaching conflict â€" were held aboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. Japan had surrendered on Aug. 14 (V-J Day) Germany on May 8 (V-E Day). (2)

-- Sep 23, 1945
The Idaho Falls Temple was dedicated by President George Albert Smith. (2)

Idaho Falls Temple dedicated by George Albert Smith. (1)

Idaho Falls Idaho Temple Location: Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA Announcement: 3 March 1937 Dedication: 23 September 1945 by George Albert Smith Style: Modern, center spire - designed by John Fetzer, Sr. (3)

-- During 1945 September
The First Presidency began calling mission presidents for areas vacated during the war. This process continued through 1946. The sending of missionaries soon followed the appointment of mission presidents. By the end of 1946, 3,000 missionaries were in the field. (2)

Church began calling new mission presidents and reopening missions closed during World War II. (1)

-- Oct 5, 1945-7
The first general, unrestricted conference of the Church in four years was held in the Tabernacle in Salt Lake City. (During World War II, general conferences were limited to general, stake, and ward priesthood leaders.) (2)

-- Oct 11, 1945
[Quorum of the Twelve] Matthew Cowley ordained. (4)

-- Nov 3, 1945
President George Albert Smith met with U.S. President Harry S. Truman in the White House and presented the Church's plans to use its welfare facilities to help relieve the suffering of Latter-day Saints in Europe. (2)

George Albert Smith met with U.S. president Harry S Truman to discuss shipment of Church welfare supplies to Europe. (1)

-- Nov 6, 1945
The Temple Endowment is presented in Spanish, the first time the scared ceremonies are presented in a language other than English. (5)

-- Nov 15, 1945
The Poem "My Father in Heaven" by Eliza R. Snow is published. This poem was eventually put to music, and became one of our popular hymns "O My Father" [LDS Hymn Book, #292]. (5)


When the Eclipse Happened Worldwide — Timeline

Lunar eclipses can be visible from everywhere on the night side of the Earth, if the sky is clear. From some places the entire eclipse will be visible, while in other areas the Moon will rise or set during the eclipse.

DogađajUTC TimeTime in Voronezh*Visible in Voronezh
Penumbral Eclipse began14 июн 15:34:1114 июн 18:34:11No, below the horizon
Partial Eclipse began14 июн 16:44:1914 июн 19:44:19No, below the horizon
Full Eclipse began14 июн 17:53:1614 июн 20:53:16Da
Maximum Eclipse14 июн 18:38:4914 июн 21:38:49Da
Full Eclipse ended14 июн 19:24:2414 июн 22:24:24Da
Partial Eclipse ended14 июн 20:33:2214 июн 23:33:22Da
Penumbral Eclipse ended14 июн 21:43:2615 июн 00:43:26Da

* The Moon was below the horizon in Voronezh some of the time, so that part of the eclipse was not visible.

The magnitude of the eclipse is 1.398.

The penumbral magnitude of the eclipse is 2.466.

The total duration of the eclipse is 6 hours, 9 minutes.

The total duration of the partial phases is 2 hours, 18 minutes.

The duration of the full eclipse is 1 hour, 31 minutes.

An Eclipse Never Comes Alone!

A solar eclipse always occurs about two weeks before or after a lunar eclipse.

Usually, there are two eclipses in a row, but other times, there are three during the same eclipse season.


John Carlos (1945- )

John Carlos is best known for his black-gloved fist salute on the winner’s podium (with Tommie Smith) at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Born on June 5, 1945, in Harlem, New York, Carlos was a promising student-athlete in high school. Following graduation, attended East Texas State University (ETSU) on a track and field scholarship. After a year at ETSU, Carlos transferred to San Jose State University.

Carlos attended San Jose State during the late 1960s at the time of the “revolt of the Black athlete.” This revolt was symbolized by a black student-athlete boycott which forced the university to cancel its opening day football game with the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) on September 18, 1967. At the time, Carlos was a world-class sprinter and member of the United Black Students for Action.

As a track and field athlete, Carlos was not directly affected by the student boycott of the football game. He continued to successfully compete and was chosen for the United States Olympic team that would participate in the Mexico City Games in 1968.

The Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR), organized by former San Jose State athlete Harry Edwards, attempted to persuade black athletes to boycott the Summer Olympics. However, many black athletes chose to compete, including John Carlos and Tommie Smith, teammates at San Jose State who made it to the finals of the 200-meter dash. Tommie Smith won the gold medal, and Carlos won the bronze. The men showed their solidarity with the OPHR movement from the winner’s podium, raising black-gloved fists when the American national anthem was played. After shocking the world with their defiant act, Carlos and Smith were suspended from the Olympic Village and given forty-eight hours to return to the United States. Later, they were banned from amateur athletics and were subjected to death threats. Their protest, however, created an easier path for black athletes to follow in amateur and professional sports. In 1969, the ban was lifted, and Carlos had his best year in track and field in the 100, 200, and 4 x 110-yard relay, leading San Jose State to its first NCAA championship.

After graduating from San Jose State in 1970, Carlos briefly played professional football–with the Philadelphia Eagles in the National Football League and the Montreal Alouettes and Toronto Argonauts in the Canadian Football League. In retirement, he worked for Puma (shoes) and ironically, the United States Olympic Committee. He worked with the United States Olympic Committee during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Carlos was also a counselor and track and field coach at Palm Springs High School in California.


Warship Builders: An Industrial History of U.S. Naval Shipbuilding, 1922-1945

There has been a deluge of new books and recent articles focusing on American wartime shipbuilding, 1939-1945, witness Evan Mawdsley’s The War for the Seas: A Maritime History of World War II (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2019) and Jamie McGrath ‘s “Peacetime Naval Rearmament, 1933-39: Lessons for Today,” Naval War College Review 72(2): Article 7. (2019).

Combining information from industrial mobilization, shipbuilding, and construction technologies with business, labor, and political histories is unique in that an author must understand the interrelationships among these complex components. Heinrich is able to do just that, providing well-researched and documented scholarship resulting in his unique, clearly written Warship Builders: An Industrial History of U.S. Naval Shipbuilding, 1922-1945. In the latter part of this review, I shall summarize the contents of this book and illustrate some aspects of its uniqueness.

Heinrich’s volume is a masterful and magnificent achievement and it is refreshing that a scholar, who focuses upon business history, rather than military conflict history, has undertaken this highly complicated task. He creates the first academic study of U.S. naval shipbuilding during World War II, focusing on the topic from the early 1920s to the end of the war in 1945. The author clearly demonstrates how American industry was mobilized to create the world’s largest fleet that helped defeat the Axis powers in both the European and Pacific Theaters of war. In this volume, he concentrates on U.S. naval ship construction but also compares and contrasts the similarities and differences in American, British, German, and Japanese naval construction both in government-owned shipyards and private and corporately-owned shipbuilding facilities. In addition, his narrative incorporates information regarding the U.S. government’s investments into shipbuilding facilities in both private and government-owned shipyards. This is a well-crafted book covering business aspects but also informs the reader about ship designs and the construction of warships which, in turn, enlightens us about differing naval performances, technological innovations, labor history and industrial development. This is a significant contribution to maritime history, World War II era military and industrial history illustrating the challenges faced by America to win a “Two-Ocean War.”

Currently, the author is Associate Professor of U.S. Business and Labor History at Baruch College, City University of New York. German-born Heinrich received his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania and maintains an obvious keen interest in naval history. Heinrich teaches a general course on American history and four advanced classes: Naval Battles, American Business Enterprise, World War II, and Cold War. He has written books on the consumer revolution and Philadelphia shipbuilding, and contributes to the journal Business History Review and recently co-authored a textbook, A Concise American History (Abingdon, UK and New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2021). Heinrich is also the author of Ships for the Seven Seas: Philadelphia Shipbuilding in the Age of Industrial Capitalism (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997, reissued in 2020). In this volume he examines the complex industry of shipbuilding from the workshop level to subcontracting networks spanning the Delaware Valley. Heinrich describes entrepreneurial strategies and industrial change that facilitated the rise of major shipbuilding firms how naval architecture, marine engineering, and craft skills evolved as iron and steel overtook wood as the basic construction material and how changes in domestic and international trade and the rise of the American steel navy helped generate vessel contracts for local builders. He also examines the formation of the military-industrial complex in the context of naval contracting. Much of the history of the Delaware Valley shipbuilding is also found in his new book.

Warship Builders contains an “Introduction,” six chapters, “Conclusion,” “Bibliography,” and seven-page “Index.” There are 15 illustrations, 13 tables, 13 charts, 11 figures, and 585 endnotes the “Bibliography” includes Primarni izvori (250 items within six categories including 22 American and European archival collections, plus documents and books) and Secondary Sources (288 books, articles, or book chapters, etc.). The author clarifies that numerical data such as U.S. Navy vessel tonnage is expressed as the weight of water displaced, while corporate tonnage reflects industry parlance. And, the New York Navy Yard was officially called that by naval authorities, however, the designation never caught on among New Yorkers, who still refer to it as the “Brooklyn Navy Yard,” a convention followed in this book. When data is available, the chapters also include comparisons with British, German, and Japanese naval construction policies and practices which pinpoint distinct features of U.S. warship building.

In his “Introduction” The Workshop of American Sea Power (pp. 1-6), Heinrich points out that “American builders produced a fleet that was instrumental in defeating the Axis in the war at sea,” delivering eight million tons of naval combatants, more than their British, Japanese, and German counterparts combined. This effort required a virtual army of workers and was performed in more than three dozen shipyards. At the time, most Americans were unaware of this colossal undertaking which was complicated because the Navy often changed blueprints and specifications while the ships were already under construction to ensure that designs incorporated recent combat experience.

Chapter 1 “A Highly Specialized Art” The Decline and Recovery of Interwar Shipbuilding (pp. 7-18). While World War I had precipitated phenomenal growth in American shipbuilding, with tonnage exceeding that of all other nations except Great Britain, the following postwar decade saw dramatic declines naval shipbuilding orders and even more during the Great Depression and postwar naval arms control agreements. The industry had begun slowly to recover because of demands for merchantmen but American naval shipbuilders mostly benefited from New Deal policies enacted by President Roosevelt’s administration. The Royal Navy and both Japan and Germany were undergoing naval rearmament which coincided with a merchant shipbuilding boom, and America would follow suit. Heinrich argues persuasively that a vital core of experienced combatant builders “existed long before Pearl Harbor and weathered the interwar years with government work, particularly naval work.” A similar trend is documented in the aircraft industry, notably companies like Boeing, Grumman, and Douglas survived due to small military contracts from the U.S. Army Air Forces. Military and civilian production was generally combined so that builders acquired highly specialized design and production expertise, which laid the groundwork for industrial mobilization in World War II.

The subsequent chapter is “An Unending Effort to Satisfy the Needs for High Speed and Great Strength” Warship Design, Welding, and Marine Engineering between the Wars” (pp. 53-85). Industrial technological changes and the training of naval architects and marine engineers resulted in the development of electric arc welding techniques, light weight alloys, and new prefabrication methods. More efficient propulsion systems such as turbines had significant implications for production systems and industrial organization. The Naval Academy at Annapolis, Lehigh University in Pennsylvania, MIT and the universities of Michigan, California, and Cornell were the primary providers of marine engineers. Preassembly was more common in the United States and Germany, where welding was introduced on a large scale, than in Britain and Japan. New propulsion technology, reduction gear, decreasing boiler scaling, and a very high degree of standardization and interchangeability facilitated servicing.

Chapter 3, “Superior to the Combined Strength of Our Enemies” Naval Strategy, Shipbuilding Programs, and Navy Department Reforms, 1940-1945 (pp. 86-121) focuses on the monumental task of planning and creating a two-ocean navy, the origins of which are examined in the context of political controversies, strategic developments, and major reforms of U.S. Navy procurement policies. War Plan Orange, the strategic offensive in the Pacific in the event of war with Japan, dated to the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the possibility of further Japanese aggression, and issues regarding the redeployment of ships from the East Coast via the Panama Canal. The British likewise feared simultaneous conflicts in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Far East. American shipbuilding programs launched in 1940 produced massive capabilities for fleet action, but failed to prepare the Navy for antisubmarine warfare in the Atlantic because they did not provide for oceangoing escorts. Heinrich characterizes the National Defense Appropriation Acts, Navy Department and administrative contract reforms, and facilities improvements in privately owned shipyards and naval and private armor plants during 1940. It wasn’t until January 1942 that a proposal to build 250 American destroyer escorts received congressional authorization, the precise time when German submarines commenced their assault on unprotected American coastal shipping during Operation Paukenschlag (Drumbeat). Plans for the invasion of Europe necessitated landing ships and by 1944 shipbuilders had delivered 1,088 landing ships in addition to 2,371 landing craft (LSD, LST, LSM, LCI, LCS, and LCT). The author also reviews marked differences of British from American production, Germany’s inadequate submarine construction program due to fact that German strategy and construction schemes of the 1942-45 period constituted the exact opposite of the U.S. Navy’s approach, and the Japanese inability to replace aircraft carriers lost at the Battle of Midway – 20 new carriers had been planned. He concludes that the formation of organizations like the Bureau of Ships was a sensible response to internal problems in the Navy’s procurement apparatus that resulted from insufficient design coordination between the Bureaus of Engineering and Construction & Repair.

In Chapter 4, “We Can Build Anything” Wartime Navy Yards (pp. 122-167), the narrative focuses on warship building and repair in government-owned and -operated navy yards, which were among the nation’s best-equipped shipbuilding facilities as a result of major investments before and during the war. Four smaller yards at Puget Sound, Washington Mare Island, California Charleston, South Carolina and Boston were primarily responsible for destroyers. Four smaller yards at Puget Sound, Washington Mare Island, California Charleston, South Carolina and Boston were primarily responsible for destroyers. The Philadelphia Navy Yard specialized in recommissioning mothballed destroyers and submarines, converted merchantmen for naval service, and repaired and overhauled American, British, French, Dutch, Canadian, and Norwegian ships, some of which were built according to the metric system and required appropriate tools. Specializations at Brooklyn, Boston, Norfolk, and Charleston on the East Coast, and Mare Island and Puget Sound are, likewise, documented. Management structure, physical plant and facilities improvements, and the construction of Iowa-class battleships provide insights into design routines, project administration, and worker skills at the point of construction. The chapter also examines the shipbuilding process in workshops and on slipways during the construction of Iowa-class battleships to provide insights into design routines, project administration, and worker skills at the point of construction. Heinrich also reports the work of Britain’s Royal Dockyards at Chatham, Portsmouth, and Devonport Japan’s navy yards at Yokosuka in Tokyo Bay, Kure near Hiroshima, Sasebo at Nagasaki, and Maizuru in Kyoto Prefecture and Germany’s sole navy yard at Wilhelmshaven. In conclusion, government-owned industrial facilities played a major role in American naval construction. The author demonstrates that shipbuilding in navy yards was closely intertwined with specialty production in private firms, relying on subcontracting with producers of armor, hull steel, turbines, and many subsystems required to build complex weapons platforms.

“The Government Pays for Everything in There”

Private Builders and Contractor-Operated Yards (pp. 168-226) turns to the private sector, which received considerable Navy investments into facilities to equip yards for a massive expansion of tonnage output during the war. Following a discussion of management and industrial relations, Heinrich considers subcontracting networks that were composed of specialty firms that supplied everything from ship steel to steam valves. Established shipyards with decades-long experience in naval shipbuilding constituted the core of private-sector warship construction. The narrative begins with discussions and relevant examples of facilities improvements following the Neutrality Act of November 1939. Table 5.1 provides data on Navy investments of nearly $230 million in 49 private shipyards. The layouts of shipyards illustrate construction specializations and limitations. Topics covered include managers and workers, apprenticeship programs, industrial relations, design and subcontracting examples (cruiser and carrier construction), and prefabrication and modular construction. The latter was significant for American and British escorts and German submarines were built in serial formats for example, the Buckley design produced the largest number of destroyer escorts with 154 units completed by nine builders. Patrol frigates of the Tacoma class were built in nine yards primarily in the American Midwest, but purchasing and distributing material for all builders was centralized with Kaiser Cargo in Oakland, CA, however, lift crane capacities for moving prefabricated units in the Midwest, rail transportation limitations, and serious quality problems hampered construction. Comparisons with British Admiralty reliance on merchant yards for Loch-class frigates, and German and Japanese naval construction policies and practices show that U.S. shipyards relied extensively on subcontractors and suppliers of subsystems — these formats were not unique to naval shipbuilding or military aircraft production.

Warship Building, Batch Production, and the U.S. Industrial Economy (pp. 227-233). Heinrich’s final essay summarizes the major points made in previous chapters and provides additional, insights. He documents the industrial underpinnings of American sea power, and characterizes key features of naval shipbuilding before and during World War II. Heavy combatants like battleships, fleet carriers, and cruisers were usually built in small batches, in the most extreme case battleships of the Iowa class, only four of which were actually completed. Destroyers, destroyer escorts, and submarines were constructed in larger numbers, but design freezes were rare. Tank landing ships (LSTs), more than eight hundred of which had been delivered by 1944, were built with only slight variations within each class.

A key element for America’s shipbuilding success is that batch formats involved a high degree of production flexibility in workshops and on slipways to accommodate design changes and combatants of various types. Most shipyards featured general-purpose facilities and shop floor equipment suitable for a range of projects but flexible specialization was evident in most yards and there was a heavy reliance on skilled and well-trained labor. An example is assembling, testing, and installing the fire-control apparatus of the ships’ guns. Unlike the cookie-cutter “Liberty” ship builders, Navy welders often underwent training in advanced techniques. In addition, by World War II, the builders’ procurement networks extended across the country, with East Coast naval builders relying on specialty suppliers located as far away as California. Batch formats, flexible specialization, extensive use of skilled labor, and subcontracting were common among naval builders in the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany, but comparisons reveal that American warship building enjoyed a multitude of advantages over its foreign counterparts. Heinrich elaborates four advantages: specialization, federal investment, experimentation, and better organization. Notably, Americans avoided radical departures from established shipbuilding practice during the war. He also explains why mass production was unlike Henry Ford’s automotive assembly lines and dissimilar to the Kaiser shipbuilding yards. Lastly, he provides evidence supporting the case for a revisionist interpretation of American industrial mobilization to include batch formats, but it also adds important caveats. As historian Philip Scranton has observed, “Batch and custom efforts intersected with bulk manufacturing at virtually every step in the creation of the nation’s transportation, power, and communications systems.”

Heinrich has written a highly significant military and business history on World War II naval shipbuilding.

Each chapter revisits interpretive questions raised by historians of industrial mobilization: How did prewar developments shape the American war economy? Were the armed services instigators of technological innovation or mere beneficiaries of civilian initiatives, as some scholars have argued? What was the role of the state in industrial mobilization? (p. 2). He cogently provides careful responses to these queries. My only caveat: I would have wished for more information on U.S. submarine builders and their production data (Chapters 4 and 5).

Final Comment: Readers should recall that “Liberty” ships were NOT naval ships but commercial merchant vessels there were mentioned only three times in the narrative as being fabricated sometimes along with Navy ships in private and corporately-owned facilities such as the Kaiser shipyards. The following sources, alphabetically listed by author, provide the readers of this review with the more significant sources on these ships several of these books are published by the Naval Institute Press, which published Heinrich’s book.

David Doyle (2020) Liberty Ships: America’s Merchant Marine Transport in World War II (Legends of Warfare: Naval). Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History.

Peter Elphick (2001 and 2006) Liberty: The Ships that Won the War. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press London: Chatham.

John Henshaw (2019) Liberty’s Provenance: The Evolution of the Liberty Ship from its Sunderland Origins. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press Barnsley, Yorkshire: Seaforth Publishing Havertown, PA: Pen & Sword Books Ltd.

A. H. Hoehling (1990) The Fighting Liberty Ships: A Memoir (Bluejacket Books). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Frederic Chapin Lane (1951 and 2001) Ships for Victory : A History of Shipbuilding under the U.S. Maritime Commission in World War II. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Michael Lindberg and Daniel Todd (2004) Anglo-American Shipbuilding in World War II: A Geographical Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Peter J. Marsh (2021) Liberty Factory: The Untold Story of Henry Kaiser’s Oregon Shipyards. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Herman E. Melton (Will Melton, editor) (2017) Liberty’s War: An Engineer’s Memoir of the Merchant Marine, 1942-1945. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Leonard A. Sawyer and William H. Mitchell (1970) The Liberty Ships: The History of the “Emergency” Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States during World War II. Newton Abbott: David and Charles. (1985) 2nd ed. The Liberty Ships: The History of the “Emergency” Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States during the Second World War. London: Lloyd’s of London Press San Francisco: The National Ship Memorial, the SS ‘Jeremiah O’Brien.’

Greg H. Williams (2014) The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O’Brien. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.


Harold on History | Historical Perspectives on Hypertension

The unveiling of the new 2017 High Blood Pressure Guideline at the AHA Scientific Sessions in Anaheim (see cover story) prompts a look back at the history of hypertension. After all, Confucius said: &ldquoStudy the past if you would define the future.&rdquo

Awareness of the clinical aspects of hypertension dates to antiquity. The Chinese Yellow Emperor&rsquos Classic of Internal Medicine (2600 BCE) noted: &ldquo&hellipIf too much salt is used in blood, the pulse hardens.&rdquo Treatment of &lsquohard pulse disease&rsquo during ancient times included acupuncture, venesection and bleeding by leeches. The relationship between the palpated pulse and the development of heart and brain afflictions was described by ancient Egyptian physicians in the Ebers Papyrus (1550 BCE).

Post-BCE, William Harvey first described the circulation of the blood in his book Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (On the Motion of the Heart and Blood) in 1628. It was in 1733 that English clergyman Stephen Hales invented a manometer and made the first published measurements of arterial blood pressure in the horse.

The recognition of hypertension as a clinical entity came with the invention of the cuff-based mercury sphygmomanometer by Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci in 1896. He measured the peak systolic blood pressure by noting the cuff pressure at which the radial pulse was no longer palpable. In 1905, Russian physician Nikolai Korotkoff described the sounds that are heard when an artery is auscultated with a stethoscope while the sphygmomanometer cuff is deflated. These sounds, dubbed the Korotkoff sounds, helped to define systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements and clinical recording of blood pressure.

Between 1910 and 1914, physicians made headway in defining both essential hypertension (elevated blood pressure when no other cause could be determined) and malignant hypertension (a syndrome of severe hypertension associated with target organ damage and high mortality from strokes, heart failure or kidney failure). It wasn&rsquot until President Franklin D. Roosevelt that the impacts of untreated hypertension gained public attention.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Kongresna biblioteka)

Roosevelt was documented as having hypertension at age 54, but did not receive treatment for another four years when he was prescribed phenobarbital and massage therapy for a blood pressure of 188/105 in 1941. In February 1945, Roosevelt had recorded blood pressures up to 260/150 at the time of the Yalta Conference, where he was noted to be in failing health with evidence of heart failure, including shortness of breath, orthopnea, lethargy and drowsiness. On the morning of April 12, 1945, a blood pressure of 300/190 was recorded after Roosevelt reported a severe occipital headache while sitting for a portrait session. He subsequently lost consciousness and died.

Roosevelt&rsquos death highlighted the fact that prior to World War II there were few effective antihypertensive drugs and available agents were poorly tolerated. Non-pharmacologic methods to treat hypertension included strict sodium restriction, while other treatments included injections of pyrogens such as typhoid bacilli and surgical methods such as sympathectomy and adrenalectomy. Sodium thiocyanate was the first chemical used for hypertension in the 1900s but toxicity and marginal effectiveness limited its use. Additionally, physicians did not uniformly recognize the need to aggressively treat this potentially lethal disease.

Despite actuarial data from insurance companies available from the 1930s demonstrating the relationship between hypertension and mortality from cardiovascular or renal disease, it was not until the 1950s that hypertension management became more widely practiced. Paul Dudley White noted in 1937 that: &ldquoHypertension may be an important compensatory mechanism which should not be tampered with, even were it certain that we could control it&hellip&rdquo Subsequent prospective longitudinal epidemiologic studies such as the Framingham Heart Study confirmed the risk of hypertension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and the need for therapeutic intervention.

On the drug front, hexamethonium, hydralazine and reserpine were used after World War II. A breakthrough occurred in the 1950s with the introduction of the diuretic chlorothiazide, which was well tolerated and clearly prolonged life in hypertensive patients. British physician James Black developed beta blockers in the early 1960s. Calcium blockers subsequently followed. The discovery of the renin-angiotensin system led to the development of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which then led to angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors. With modern pharmacotherapy, we now have a powerful therapeutic arsenal to treat all forms of hypertension.

Until now, hypertension treatment guidelines were developed by the Joint National Commission (JNC) under the auspices of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health. The first JNC report was published in 1977 and focused on treating elevated diastolic blood pressures, with the last official JNC report issued in 2003 as the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). The ACC and AHA have assumed development of these guidelines with this month&rsquos release.

The history of contemporary hypertension management is an exciting story of a major successful effort in preventive cardiology. There is no doubt we will only continue to make progress, building on the research and efforts of those who have come before.

Ključne riječi: ACC Publications, Cardiology Magazine, Animals, Antihypertensive Agents, Blood Pressure, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Reserpine, Sodium, Hexamethonium, Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists, Pyrogens, Calcium, Mercury, Renin, Chlorothiazide, Renin-Angiotensin System, Diuretics, Hypertension, Malignant, Phlebotomy, Consciousness, Stethoscopes, Massage, Leeches, World War II, Inventions, Adrenalectomy, Prospective Studies, Lethargy, Egypt, Typhoid Fever, Hypertension, Thiocyanates, Blood Pressure Determination, Sphygmomanometers, Hydralazine, Sympathectomy, Stroke, Heart Failure, Renal Insufficiency, Arteries, National Institutes of Health (U.S.), Brain, Sleep Stages, Headache, Dyspnea


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