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Cahokia Mounds

Cahokia Mounds


Mjesto Cahokia Mounds bilo je prvi grad u Americi

Skoro 25 godina vozio sam se pored znakova autoputa na I-55 najavljujući skretanje za historijsko mjesto Cahokia Mounds kada sam ikad#8211 otputovao iz Chicaga u svoju kuću iz djetinjstva u Ozarksima. Oklijevao bih, sjetio se pet sati vožnje koja je pred nama, obećao da ću sljedeći put stati, a zatim voziti dalje. Uostalom, posjetio sam indijske humke od Wisconsina do Kentuckyja. Koliko bi Cahokia mogla biti drugačija? Nisam ni znao da prolazim pokraj mjesta prvog grada Sjeverne Amerike i grada#8211.

Od 800. do 1400. godine, mjesto koje je sada poznato pod imenom Cahokia Mounds, u Collinsvilleu, Ill. Amerika sjeverno od Meksika. Na svom vrhuncu, oko 1150. godine, Cahokia je imala procijenjenu populaciju od 20.000 ljudi, veću od Londona u to vrijeme.

Iste prednosti zbog kojih su europski doseljenici 500 godina kasnije izgradili St. Louis omogućili su rast Kahokije. Konvergencija tri rijeke - Mississippija, Missourija i Illinoisa - stvorila je bogatu poplavnu ravnicu s dobrim tlom za poljoprivredu i bogatstvom lova i ribolova. Mreža manjih plovnih puteva koji su se ulijevali u ove rijeke olakšala je putovanje, a tri susjedna ekosistema - planine Ozark, prerija i istočna šuma - pružala su mnoge sirovine.

Ekonomija Cahokiana temeljila se na kukuruzu, usjevu visokog prinosa koji je učinjen još produktivnijim uvođenjem motika, specijalizirane kremene motike bile su karakteristične za kulturu Misisipija. Veći prinosi sa zemlje doveli su do povećanja broja stanovnika. Gradovi su se počeli formirati i širiti, donoseći veću društvenu složenost i centraliziranu vlast.

Sa stabilnom opskrbom hranom, Misisipi iz Kahokije uspjeli su podržati vješte majstore i povećanu trgovinu materijalima i robom. Artefakti pronađeni na tom mjestu prikazuju izvrsnu vještinu izrade: desetine hiljada perlica od školjaka, statuete od kremene gline u ljudskim i životinjskim oblicima, dramatične boce i zdjele s likovima i ugravirane bakrene ploče. Umjetnici su imali pristup egzotičnim materijalima kojima se trgovalo na znatnim udaljenostima: bakrom iz gornjih Velikih jezera, liskunom iz južne Apalačije i školjkama iz Meksičkog zaljeva.

Ostaci Kahokije, nazvani po indijanskom plemenu koje je živjelo u tom području 1600 -ih godina, prostiru se na 3300 hektara u poplavnoj ravnici poznatoj kao američko dno. Pravokutni trg od 40 jutara, umjetno poravnat i ispunjen, služio je i kao tržnica i kao svečani centar grada. Oko trga sagrađenog humka ravnih vrhova sagrađen je oko brda od dvije milje. Očigledno sagrađena za odbranu, stokara je takođe bila arhitektonski prikaz hijerarhijskog društva. Hram i domovi elite bili su odvojeni unutar ograde, dok su manji trgovi i rezidencije bili grupirani vani.

Kahokija je bila okružena vanjskim zajednicama koje su činile „veće područje Kahokije“. Ostaci 120 humki nalaze se tamo, više nego na bilo kojem drugom misisipijskom nalazištu, napravljeni od nabijene zemlje iskopane iz rupa poznatih kao posude. Budući da Misisipijanci nisu imali tovarne životinje, radnici su nosili zemlju u korpama na leđima, od 50 do 60 kilograma odjednom.

Monks Mound je najveći od humki ravnih vrhova u Kahokiji. Nazvana po francuskim monasima trapistima koji su se bavili vrtnom barakom početkom 1800 -ih, nalazi se na sjevernom kraju središnjeg trga i prostire se na 14 hektara zemlje. Arheolozi procjenjuju da je samo za Monks Mound bilo potrebno 15 miliona korpi zemlje za izgradnju.

Neobičniji kupasti humci i vrhovi vrhova korišteni su za ukope i označavanje važnih lokacija. Iskopavanja su usredsređena na humku 72 u kojoj je bilo smješteno gotovo 300 ukopa. Najdramatičniji od njih bilo je ceremonijalno sahranjivanje muškarca u srednjim četrdesetim godinama za kojeg se vjeruje da je bio rani vođa Kahokije. Bio je položen na platformu od 20.000 zrna morskih školjki, raspoređenih u obliku sokola - slika koja se često pojavljuje na grnčariji i ritualnim predmetima koji se nalaze na lokacijama Misisipija.

Ostaci u Kahokiji takođe uključuju pet velikih krugova ravnomerno raspoređenih stupova crvenog kedra, svaki okružujući centralni stup. Čini se da su ovi „drveni drvovjeci“ bili sunčani kalendari: Određeni postovi poravnavaju se s izlazećim suncem za vrijeme ekvinocija i solsticija kada se gledaju iz središta. Woodhenges su također mogli služiti kao mjernici, koji su se koristili za pravilno postavljanje novih svečanih trgova i humki u gradu. (Agencija za očuvanje historije Illinoisa rekonstruirala je drvnu kućicu na mjestu i održava javne službe izlaska sunca kako bi proslavila ravnodnevnicu i solsticij.)

Kahokija je počela opadati oko 1250. godine, smanjivši se i broj stanovnika i površina do 1400. godine kada je grad napušten. Iskopavanja ne pokazuju znakove epidemije, invazije ili prirodne katastrofe koja bi uzrokovala propast grada. Paradoksalno, naučnici vjeruju da je ekonomija zasnovana na kukuruzu koja je bila temelj Cahokijinog uspjeha konačni uzrok njenog neuspjeha. Kukuruz je bio produktivniji od domaćih gajenih biljaka, ali je bio i osjetljiviji na promjene vremenskih uslova. Štaviše, povećanje prinosa dovelo je do povećanja populacije koju je bilo teško izdržati u vrijeme propadanja usjeva. Vremenski obrasci počeli su se mijenjati oko 1200. godine, donoseći hladnija, sušnija ljeta, kraću sezonu rasta i nedostatak hrane.

U godinama opadanja Kahokije, neka su se naselja udaljila od poplavne ravnice na viša tla. Studije izotopa ugljika na ljudskim kostima s novih lokacija otkrivaju da je kukuruz nadopunjen ponovnim oslanjanjem na izvorno sjeme i orahe. Manja naselja s raznovrsnijom prehrambenom bazom nisu imala ni mogućnosti ni potrebe da podrže složenu društvenu organizaciju Cahokia. Kako to opisuju arheolozi David Rindos i Sissel Johannessen, "Cahokia se nije srušila, već je isparila".

Pad Kahokije nije, međutim, značio i kraj misisipske kulture. Kada je Fernando De Soto sletio u zaljev Tampa 1539. godine, pronašao je cvjetajuća misizipska poglavarstva od Floride do doline gornje rijeke Tennessee, sa procijenjenom populacijom većom od 1 milion. Polako desetkovana godinama zbog evropskih bolesti, poglavice su konačno uništene u nizu ratova s ​​Francuzima između 1716. i 1731., više od 300 godina nakon pada Kahokije.

1982. Cahokia je proglašena svjetskom baštinom Ujedinjenih nacija za obrazovanje, nauku i kulturu (UNESCO) zbog svog značaja u praistoriji Sjeverne Amerike.

Prvobitno objavljeno u izdanju aprila 2008 American History. Za pretplatu kliknite ovdje.


Povijest humaka Cahokia

Kahokijski humci datiraju iz 700. godine nove ere s prvim doseljenicima za koje se zna da su kasni šumski Indijanci. Živjeli su u selima duž potoka Cahokia gdje su lovili, pecali i uzgajali hranu. Počevši oko 1000. godine, kultura Mississippija, definirana kao indijanska civilizacija koja gradi humke, počela je oživljavati sa visoko strukturiranim zajednicama sa svojim političkim i društvenim sistemima. Zbog stabilne baze hrane koja se mogla razviti, nasipi Cahokia počeli su podržavati veće, stalnije stanovništvo. Na vrhuncu civilizacije, između 1050. i 1200. godine, prostirao se na šest kvadratnih milja i dostigao procijenjenu populaciju od 20.000.

Sami humci okruženi su misterijom. Šta je uopće privuklo ove ljude na web lokaciju? Iako stanovnici Kahokijskog humka nisu ostavili pisane zapise osim simbola napisanih na grnčariji, školjkama, drvetu, bakru i kamenu, vjeruje se da je izvornih 120 humki izgrađeno za ritualne, grobne i elitne skloništa. Napravljene su od zemlje iskopane iz "posuđenih jama" i transportovane u korpama na leđima doseljenika do mjesta nasipa. Danas humci i dalje prikazuju faze izgradnje, uključujući posuđene jame. Možete samo zamisliti intenzivan rad koji je uložen u razvoj ovih složenih struktura.

Od 70 humki i zemljanih radova na lokaciji u Kahokiji, sljedeći su najslavniji:

  • Monks Mound: Monks Mound je najveća građevina u Cahokia Mounds -u i prostire se na više od 14 hektara u njenom podnožju. To je bio dom vladajućeg poglavara i takođe je bio mesto važnih ceremonija. Monks Mound je dobio ime po francuskim monasima trapistima koji su živjeli u blizini i obrađivali terase humka od 1809. do 1813. godine.
  • Humka 72: Grobnica Kahokije, humka 72, jednom iskopana, otkrila je 300 svečanih sahrana uglavnom mladih žena. Na vrhu humka, položenog na podignutu platformu od 20.000 zrnca u obliku ptice grabljivice, nalazio se mužjak otprilike 20 godina, položen na krevet od perli, a ispod njega ženka stara oko 20 godina. Na mjestu su također otkriveni satelitski grobovi u tri mala humka prekrivena kapom zemlje koja im se pridružuje.
  • The Stockade: Stockade je impresivan zid dugačak gotovo dvije milje koji je izgrađen korištenjem procijenjenih 20.000 trupaca za zaštitu od neprijatelja. Takođe je služio kao prepreka eliti koja je živjela u njoj. Bastioni ili stražarski tornjevi stajali su u cijelim dijelovima zida u pravilnim razmacima kako bi bili osmatrači protiv neprijatelja. Ljudi iz humke Cahokia zamijenili su zid najmanje četiri puta između 1175. - 1275. godine.
  • Woodhenge: Iskopavanja na lokalitetu u Kahokiji otkrila su pet djelomično kružnih sunčanih kalendara koji se zovu woodhenges koji se koriste za izračunavanje kalendara i svečanih datuma. Izgrađen između 1100. i 1200. godine, Woodhenge je odličan primjer domišljatosti ljudi koji su se nastanili u Kahokiji, njihove kreativnosti koristeći zemljište i raspoložive resurse te njihovog posebnog interesa za ceremonije u zajednici.

Važno je napomenuti da, iako su humke dobile ime po plemenu Cahokia iz konfederacije Illiniwek koje je stiglo u 17. stoljeću, one nisu bile izvorni stanovnici. Originalni naziv grada obavijen je misterijom.


Državno historijsko mjesto Cahokia Mounds

Na putu za vjenčanje u St. Louis mislili smo da će ovo biti zanimljiva zabava na sat vremena. Na kraju smo ostali tri sata i poželjeli smo da imamo još više vremena. Ranije nismo imali pojma da je tako veliko domorodačko naselje postojalo ovdje, u središtu zemlje, stotinama godina.

Muzejski/interpretativni centar izgrađen je prema Smithsonian standardima - svaki prikaz, posebno diorama, lijep je koliko i informativan.

Željeli smo prošetati jednom od mnogih planiranih šetnji po dobro uređenim terenima, ali smo imali vremena samo se popeti na najveću humku (Monk's Mound) za prekrasan pogled na cijelo nalazište. Znakovi na ovoj humci omogućili su nam da zamislimo kako je to biti Chieftan koji živi na vrhu.

SAVJET: Planirajte svoju posjetu bolje nego mi. Po sunčanom danu s blagim temperaturama, imate što vidjeti i raditi barem pola dana.

Državno historijsko mjesto Cahokia Mounds, u blizini Collinsvillea, Illinois, prekrasno je okruženje poput parka otvoreno svakodnevno od jutra do mraka. (800 hektara od 2200 hektara originalnog mjesta otvoreno je za javnost i uključuje 100 metara visoki Monks Mound i Woodhenge, rekonstruirani drevni sunčev kalendar.)

Kad smo stigli, puno se ljudi penjalo uz humke (stepenice) i vjerovatno je imalo mnogo bolji osjećaj o veličini urbanog centra koji je nekad postojao od nas.

Budući da nismo ambulantni koliko bismo htjeli, morali smo ograničiti posjetu Interpretacijskom centru, koji je ponovo otvoren u julu. Srećom, bili smo tamo u četvrtak - jedan od dana kada je centar otvoren. (Provjerite rasporede unaprijed i obavezno ponesite masku.) Invalidska kolica su na raspolaganju za one koji su manje ambulantni od nas.

Prikazi i diorame pružili su kontekst i uvjerljivu priču koja nas je držala do kraja. Definitivno je bilo vrijedno truda. Nekoliko roditelja dovelo je svoju malu djecu, koja su izgleda bila oduševljena.

Nadali smo se da ćemo pogledati 17-minutnu video turneju po Kahokiji, koja je dostupna za osobe s invaliditetom, ali je kazalište zatvoreno u sklopu gašenja pandemije u Illinoisu. Rečeno nam je da je video dostupan na internetu.

Neki drugi recenzenti su gunđali, ali mislimo da mislimo da Državno historijsko nalazište Cahokia Mounds dobro uspijeva pogoditi različite nivoe arheološkog interesa i razumijevanja posjetitelja.


Bijeli naseljenici zakopali su istinu o misterioznim gradovima na sjeverozapadu

Oko 1100. ili 1200. godine, najveći grad sjeverno od Meksika bila je Cahokia, koja je sjedila u današnjem južnom Illinoisu, preko rijeke Mississippi od St. Sagrađena oko 1050. godine i okupirana do 1400. godine, Kahokia je imala najveću populaciju između 25.000 i 50.000 ljudi. Sada je UNESCO -ov popis svjetske baštine, Cahokia se sastojala od tri okruga (Cahokia, East St. Louis i St. Louis) koji su međusobno povezani vodenim putevima i pješačkim stazama koje su se prostirale preko plavne ravnice rijeke Mississippi za oko 20 kvadratnih kilometara. Njegovo stanovništvo činili su poljoprivrednici koji su uzgajali velike količine kukuruza i zanatski stručnjaci koji su izrađivali prekrasne saksije, nakit od školjaka, strelice i figurice od kremene gline.

Grad Cahokia jedan je od mnogih velikih kompleksa zemljanih humki koji krase pejzaže dolina rijeka Ohio i Mississippi i diljem jugoistoka. Unatoč prevladavanju arheoloških dokaza da su ti kompleksi humki djelo sofisticiranih domorodačkih civilizacija, ova bogata povijest bila je zamagljena Mitom o graditeljima humki, pričom koja je nastala tobože da objasni postojanje humki. Ispitujući i povijest Kahokije i povijesne mitove koji su nastali kako bi je objasnili, otkriva se zabrinjavajuća uloga koju su rani arheolozi igrali u umanjivanju, ili čak iskorjenjivanju postignuća predkolumbijskih civilizacija na sjevernoameričkom kontinentu, baš kao što je bila i američka vlada šireći se prema zapadu preuzimanjem kontrole nad domorodačkim zemljama.

Danas je teško shvatiti veličinu i složenost Kahokije, sastavljene od oko 190 humki u platformi, na vrhu grebena i kružnih oblika poravnatih prema planiranoj gradskoj mreži orijentiranoj pet stepeni istočno od sjevera. Ovo poravnanje, prema Timu Pauketatu, profesoru antropologije na Univerzitetu u Illinoisu, vezano je za izlazak Sunca ljetnog solsticija i južni maksimalni izlazak Mjeseca, orijentirajući Kahokiju na kretanje Sunca i Mjeseca. Susjedske kuće, nasipi, trgovi i humci namjerno su poravnati s ovom gradskom mrežom. Zamislite da na svom izlasku iz centra grada Kahokije naiđete na četvrti pravokutnih, polu-podzemnih kuća, vatre na centralnim ognjištima, jame za skladištenje i manje trgove u zajednici isprepletene ritualnim i javnim zgradama. Znamo da je populacija Kahokije bila raznovrsna, a ljudi su se doseljavali u ovaj grad sa cijelog srednjeg kontinenta, vjerovatno govoreći različitim dijalektima i donoseći sa sobom neke od svojih starih načina života.

Pogled na Cahokiju sa brdašca zmijolike grgeče oko 1175. godine, nacrtao Glen Baker (Slika ljubaznošću Sarah E. Baires)

Najveći humak u Kahokiji bio je Monks Mound, četveroslojni nasip od platforme visok oko 100 stopa koji je služio kao centralna tačka grada. Na vrhu tog vrha nalazila se jedna od najvećih pravokutnih zgrada ikada izgrađenih u Kahokiji, koja je vjerovatno služila kao ritualni prostor.

Ispred Monks Mounda bio je veliki, otvoreni trg koji je držao dvorište za igranje popularnog sporta chunkey. Ovu igru, koju je pratilo hiljade gledatelja, igrale su dvije velike grupe koje bi trčale preko trga bacajući koplja na valjani kameni disk. Cilj igre je bio da koplje spuste na mjesto gdje bi disk prestao da se kotrlja. Uz dvorište za komade, uz rubove plaza bili su postavljeni uspravni stubovi za označavanje i dodatni nasipi na platformi. Grobnice na grebenima postavljene su uz centralnu organizacijsku rešetku Kahokije, obilježenu ulicom Zvečarke, i duž granica grada.

Cahokia je izgrađena brzo, sa hiljadama ljudi koji su se okupili da učestvuju u njenoj izgradnji. Koliko arheolozi znaju, umjesto toga nije bilo prisilnog rada za izgradnju ovih humki, ljudi su se okupljali na velikim gozbama i okupljanjima koja su slavila izgradnju humki.

Sjaj humki bio je vidljiv prvim bijelim ljudima koji su ih opisali. Ali mislili su da američki Indijanci poznati ranim bijelim doseljenicima nisu mogli sagraditi bilo koji od velikih zemljanih radova koji su prošarali srednji kontinent. Pa se postavilo pitanje: Ko je sagradio humke?

Rani arheolozi koji su radili na odgovoru na pitanje ko je izgradio humke pripisivali su ih Toltecima, Vikinzima, Velšanima, Hindusima i mnogim drugima. Činilo se da bi bilo koja grupa osim američkih Indijanaca mogla poslužiti kao vjerojatni arhitekti velikih zemljanih radova. Utjecaj ove pripovijesti doveo je do neke od najrigoroznijih arheoloških podataka u ranoj Americi, jer je potraga za utvrđivanjem odakle su ti humci postali slatki dijelovi razgovora za srednju i višu klasu Amerike. Zemljani radovi u Ohaju, kao što je Newark Earthworks, nacionalna historijska znamenitost koja se nalazi neposredno izvan Newarka, OH, na primjer, smatrao je John Fitch (graditelj prvog broda na paru u Americi 1785. godine) kao utvrde u vojnom stilu. To je doprinijelo shvaćanju da su prije indijanskih Amerikanaca visokokvalificirani ratnici nepoznatog porijekla naseljavali sjevernoamerički kontinent.

Ovo je bilo posebno istaknuto na srednjem zapadu i jugoistoku, gdje zemljani humci iz arhaičnih, hopevelskih i misisipskih vremenskih perioda prelaze srednji kontinent. Ovi pejzaži i humci izgrađeni na njima brzo su postali mjesta fantazije, gdje su nagađanja o njihovom porijeklu nastala iz travnatih prerija i velikih poplavnih ravnica, baš kao i sami humci. Prema Gordonu Sayreu (Graditelji humki i mašta američke antike u Jeffersonu, Bartramu i Chateaubriandu), priče o nastanku humki često su bile zasnovane na “fasciniranosti antikom i arhitekturom, ” kao “ruins daleke prošlosti, ” ili kao “prirodne ” manifestacije krajolika.

Kad su William Bartram i drugi snimili lokalne indijanske narative o humkama, naizgled su potvrdili ovo mitsko porijeklo humki. Prema prvim časopisima Bartrama's#8217s (Putovanja, prvobitno objavljen 1791.) Creek i Cherokee koji su živjeli oko humka pripisivali su svoju gradnju starim ljudima, mnogo godina prije njihovog dolaska i posjedovanja ove zemlje. ” Bartramov izvještaj o istoriji Creeka i Cherokeeja doveo je do stav da su ti Indijanci bili kolonizatori, baš kao i Euro-Amerikanci. Ovo je poslužilo kao još jedan način da se opravda uklanjanje domorodaca iz njihovih predaka: ako su i Indijanci bili rani kolonizatori, logika je išla, onda su bijeli Amerikanci imali jednako pravo na zemlju kao i autohtoni narodi.

Lokacija lokacija Cahokia, East St Louis i St Louis na američkom dnu (Mapa ljubaznošću Sarah E. Baires)

Stvaranje Mit o gomilama paralelno je s ranim američkim ekspanzionističkim praksama, poput državno odobrenog uklanjanja domorodačkih naroda sa njihovih predaka, kako bi se napravio prostor za kretanje “novih ” Amerikanaca na zapadnu “ granicu. ” Dio ovog prisilnog uklanjanja uključivalo je brisanje domorodačkih veza s njihovim kulturnim pejzažima.

U 19. stoljeću evolucijska teorija počela je preuzimati tumačenja prošlosti, jer su se arheološka istraživanja udaljila od naslonjača u područje znanstvenog istraživanja. Unutar ovog referentnog okvira, antikvari i rani arheolozi, kako ih je opisao Bruce Trigger, pokušali su pokazati da se Novi svijet, poput Starog svijeta, može pohvaliti autohtonim kulturnim dostignućima koja se mogu mjeriti s evropskim. ” Otkrića drevnih kamenih gradova u Centralnoj Americi i Meksiku poslužili su kao katalizator ove potrage, prepoznajući društva Novog svijeta kao kulturno i tehnološki uporediva s evropskim.

Ali ta se perspektiva sudarila s tekstom Lewisa Henryja Morgana iz#8217 iz 1881 Kuće i kućni život američkih Aboridžina. Morgan, antropolog i društveni teoretičar, tvrdio je da su mezoamerička društva (poput Maja i Asteka) primjer evolucijske kategorije najvišeg stupnja kulturne i tehnološke evolucije koju je postigla bilo koja autohtona grupa u Americi . Nasuprot tome, Morgan je rekao da su Indijanci koji se nalaze na rastućim teritorijima novih Sjedinjenih Država suštinski primjeri neprogresivne i statične zajednice koje nisu sposobne za tehnološki ili kulturni napredak. Ove ideologije uokvirile su tadašnja arheološka istraživanja.

U usporedbi s ovim evolucijskim modelom, postojala je nelagoda oko “ nestajanja Indijaca, ” mitske povijesti 18. i 19. stoljeća koja je prikazivala Indijance kao nestajuću rasu nesposobnu prilagoditi se novoj američkoj civilizaciji. Sentimentalni ideal nestalih Indijanaca koji su smatrani plemenitim, ali na kraju osuđeni na pobjedu nadmoćne bijele civilizacije, držao je da se ti, nestali, ljudi, njihovi običaji, uvjerenja i običaji moraju dokumentirati za potomstvo. Thomas Jefferson bio je jedan od prvih koji je iskopao grobnicu indijanskog stanovništva, navodeći nestanak “ plemićkih ” Indijanaca — uzrokovan nasiljem i korupciju koja je zadesila bijelu civilizaciju#kao potrebu za tim iskopavanjima. Naučnici inspirisani prosvjetljenjem i neki od osnivača Amerike#8217 smatrali su Indijance prvo Amerikanci, koje će nova republika koristiti kao uzor u stvaranju vlastitog naslijeđa i nacionalnog identiteta.

U posljednjih 100 godina opsežna arheološka istraživanja promijenila su naše razumijevanje humki. Više se ne smatraju izoliranim spomenicima koje je stvorila tajanstvena rasa. Umjesto toga, dokazano je da su humke Sjeverne Amerike bile građevine domorodačkih naroda u različite svrhe. Danas neka plemena, poput Mississippi Band of Choctaw, na ove humke gledaju kao na centralna mjesta koja vezuju svoje zajednice za zemlju svojih predaka. Slično drugim drevnim gradovima širom svijeta, starosjedioci Sjeverne Amerike poštuju svoje veze s istorijom kroz mjesta koja su izgradili.

Napomena urednika: U originalnoj priči navodi se da je William Bartram's Putovanja objavljen je 1928. godine, ali su ti prvi časopisi zapravo objavljeni 1791. godine.


Cahokia Mounds - Historija

Cahokia su bili indijansko pleme američkog porijekla sa Srednjeg zapada. Pleme je izumrlo. Njihovi potomci su možda bili u pratnji konfederativne Peorije do Oklahome 1867. Cahokia su bili članovi Illinoisa, grupe od otprilike dvanaest plemena koja su govorila algonkijski, koja su okupirala područja današnjeg Illinoisa, Iowe, Missourija i Arkanzasa. Iako se malo zna o njihovoj kulturi, Cahokia nije bila u srodstvu s praistorijskim stanovnicima nasipa Cahokia, koji se nalaze u blizini Collinsvillea, Illinois. To drevno nalazište dobilo je ime po Kahokiji koja je boravila u blizini krajem sedamnaestog stoljeća.

Cahokia je boravila u današnjem Illinoisu blizu ušća rijeka Illinois u Mississippi kada je otac Jacques Marquette posjetio regiju 1673. Oko 1700 preselili su se južno uz istočnu obalu Mississippija do mjesta u blizini današnje Cahokia, Illinois, gdje je katolička misija osnovano je 1699. Tamo su se pridružili Tamaroi, narodu s kojim su bili blisko povezani. Dva plemena su se spojila na ukupno devedesetak loža.

Tamaroa se odvojila od Kahokije 1701. godine. Cahokia je nastavila živjeti u blizini misije sve dok se nisu preselila na jug 1734. Francuski utjecaji, posebno alkoholna pića, negativno su utjecali na njihovo stanovništvo. To je također donijelo napade pro-britanskih plemena, koja su im uništila selo 1752. godine. Cahokia se kasnije preselila u blizini Michigamee, koja je takođe bila napadnuta.

Kahokiju i Mičigameju ubrzo su asimilirale Kaskaskia, a Sjedinjene Države su ih priznale kao takve 1803. Kao Kaskaskia udružile su se s Peorijom i uklonile se iz Illinoisa da predstave Kansas tokom 1830 -ih. Tamo im je, kao pripadnicima konfederacijskog plemena Peoria, 1867. godine dodijeljeno zemljište na sjeveroistočnom indijskom teritoriju (današnji okrug Ottawa, Oklahoma). Ta je rezervacija dodijeljena 153 Peoria počevši od 1889. Broj dodijeljenih lica koji su porijeklom iz Kahokije nije poznat. .

Bibliografija

Grant Foreman, Posljednji put Indijanaca (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946).

Frederick W. Hodge, ur., Priručnik američkih Indijanaca sjeverno od Meksika, Vol. 1 (1907 reprint, New York: Pageant Books, 1960).

Muriel H. Wright, Vodič kroz indijanska plemena Oklahome (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1951).

Nijedan dio ove web stranice ne smije se tumačiti kao javno vlasništvo.

Autorska prava na sve članke i drugi sadržaj u mrežnoj i štampanoj verziji Enciklopedija istorije Oklahome drži Istorijsko društvo Oklahoma (OHS). Ovo uključuje pojedinačne članke (autorska prava na OHS prema dodjeli autora) i korporativno (kao cjelovito djelo), uključujući web dizajn, grafiku, funkcije pretraživanja i metode uvrštavanja/pregledavanja. Autorska prava na sve ove materijale zaštićena su američkim i međunarodnim pravom.

Korisnici se slažu da neće preuzimati, kopirati, mijenjati, prodavati, iznajmljivati, iznajmljivati, preštampavati ili na drugi način distribuirati ove materijale, niti se povezivati ​​s tim materijalima na drugoj web stranici, bez odobrenja Historijskog društva Oklahoma. Pojedinačni korisnici moraju utvrditi da li njihova upotreba Materijala podliježe smjernicama zakona o autorskim pravima Sjedinjenih Država & quotFair Use & quot i ne krši li vlasnička prava Historijskog društva Oklahoma kao zakonskog nositelja autorskih prava Enciklopedija istorije Oklahome i delimično ili u celini.

Foto: Sve fotografije predstavljene u objavljenoj i internetskoj verziji Enciklopedija istorije i kulture Oklahome vlasništvo su Historijskog društva Oklahoma (osim ako nije drugačije navedeno).

Citation

Sledeće (prema Čikaški priručnik za stil, 17. izdanje) je željeni citat za članke:
Jon D. May, & ldquoCahokia, & rdquo Enciklopedija istorije i kulture Oklahome, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CA008.

© Oklahoma Historijsko društvo.

Historijsko društvo Oklahoma | 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105 | 405-521-2491
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Cahokia Mounds - Historija

Kratka istorija humki Cahokia

Luk Gateway St. Mnogi smatraju najbolje mjesto za gledanje na vrhu Monk's Mound-a, veličanstvene zemljane građevine koju su izgradili Indijanci u blizini današnjeg Collinsvillea. Monahova humka, dugačka 1.037 stopa i široka 790 stopa, zapravo je u osnovi veća od Velike piramide u Gizi. To je središte prapovijesnog mjesta poznatog pod imenom Cahokia Mounds.

Graditelji civilizacije koji su nekad živjeli na ovom mjestu nisu to područje nazivali Cahokia ili Cahokia Mounds. Ime koje su sami Indijanci nazvali izgubljeno je u istoriji. Arheolozi ovu posebnu indijansku kulturu nazivaju misisipijskom.

Naučnici su i dalje podijeljeni u pogledu geneze Misisipija. Neki tvrde da su ti Indijanci doselili u veliku poplavnu ravnicu tog područja, dok drugi tvrde da su Misisipi nasljednici ranijih kultura. Možemo biti sigurni, međutim, da su različiti geografski faktori zajedno olakšali uspon Misisipija oko 1000. godine. Rijeke Mississippi, Missouri i Illinois stvorile su Američko dno, poplavnu ravnicu bogatu hranjivim tvarima koja se proteže 70 milja duž Oca Vode od današnjeg Altona do Chestera. Kukuruz i drugi usjevi uspjeli su na njegovom tlu. Riba, ptice selice i bjelorepi također su hranili ove Indijance.

Misisipi su se bavili trgovinom s drugim domorodačkim kulturama, putujući na velike udaljenosti rutama koje su započeli raniji stanovnici, poput šumskih Indijanaca. Tri velike rijeke omogućile su prirodne puteve trgovine kanuima i omogućile Misisipanima da dođu do Gornjih velikih jezera, gdje su nabavili bakar, i Meksičkog zaljeva, njihovog izvora za školjke. Kopneni trgovački putevi uključivali su putovanja u južnu Apalačku regiju sa naslagama tinjca. Arheolozi su pronašli keramiku u misisipijskom stilu na jugoistoku Sjedinjenih Država i na sjeveru do Red Winga u Minnesoti.

No, objašnjava li uspon Kahokije samo geografija? Možda ne.

Arheolog Timothy Pauketat 1993. godine predložio je teoriju koju je nazvao "Veliki prasak", koja je tvrdila da je populacija Kahokije eksplodirala početkom jedanaestog stoljeća. U rasponu od možda samo deset godina, selo sa približno 1.000 stanovnika proširilo se u grad od oko 10.000 stanovnika. Stanovnici regije uzgajali su kukuruz najmanje 200 godina, pa se dramatičan rast Cahokije ne može pripisati naglom uvođenju ove osnovne kulture. Uloga grada kao ranog američkog trgovačkog središta ne može u potpunosti objasniti njegov uspjeh. Šta je onda odgovor?

Pauketat vjeruje da je supernova zabilježena 1054. godine mogla potaknuti nagli rast ovog grada. On i stručnjak za Cahokiju Thomas E. Emerson također primjećuju da je Zulu carstvo koje se podiglo i palo u jugoistočnoj Africi u devetnaestom stoljeću stvorio jedan čovjek - Shaka Zulu. Smatraju da bi uspon karizmatičnog vođe mogao objasniti procvat misisipske kulture. Dokazi za ovu teoriju pojavili su se 1967. godine, kada je arheolog Melvin Fowler iskopao humku 72.

Zemljana građevina u obliku grebena smještena 1.000 metara sjeverno od masivne Monaške humke, humka 72 bila je visoka manje od 6 stopa. Njegov mračni sadržaj bio je sve samo ne štetan.

Humka 72 sadržavala je tri manja grobna humka u kojima je bilo oko 260 ljudskih kostura. Jedan kostur bio je čovjek koji je očigledno bio veliki vođa. Arheolozi procjenjuju da je umro u četrdesetima, u poodmakloj dobi za jednog Misisipijanca. Postavljen je na krevet s više od 20.000 rijetkih bijelih školjki koje su oblikovane tako da podsjećaju na sokola. Sokolova glava bila je ispod glave vođe, dok su mu krila i rep bili ispod ruku i nogu.

I nije sahranjen sam.

U rovu u blizini ovog velikog vođe, pedeset i četiri mlade žene bile su raspoređene u dva reda. Njihova zdjelična područja ukazivala su da nisu rodili djecu i da su stoga vjerojatno bili djevice. U humci 72 nalazili su se i neki kosturi kojima su nedostajale ruke i glave, što ukazuje na ljudsku žrtvu. Neke kosti prstiju drugih kostura utisnute su u tlo, dajući nijemo svjedočanstvo da su žive zakopane.

Osim ovih žrtvovanih žrtava, Misisipi su sa svojim poštovanim vođom zakopali predmete velike vrijednosti. Arheolozi su u humci 72 pronašli listove valjanog bakra, vrhove strijela, liskuna i zrnasto kamenje.

Ljudsko žrtvovanje je bila mračna stvarnost života u Kahokiji. Mlade žene su ritualno ubijane i sahranjivane na nizovima bijelih kožica ili drugoj vrsti posebne obloge. Neke od ovih žrtava su se hranile ishranom sa visokim sadržajem kukuruza tokom posljednje godine života. Pauketat vjeruje da su oni trebali personificirati božicu kukuruza i da su žrtvovani kako bi osigurali bogatu žetvu.

Dok su Fowler i njegov tim iskopavali humku 72, arheolog Charles Bareis otkrivao je jamu za smeće koja se nalazi na maloj udaljenosti od vođinog grobnog mjesta. Jama, dugačka kao fudbalsko igralište i široka oko 60 stopa, sadržavala je ostatke mnogih gozbi koje su se, s obzirom na zrele bobice, morale dogoditi u jesen. Bareis i njegov tim bili su iznenađeni kada su pronašli slomljene ostatke vjerskih objekata koji ranije nisu bili viđeni u Kahokiji. Domaći američki majstori imali su mukotrpno izrađene vrhove strijela i ljudske figure od kristala kvarca. U jami za otpatke nalazila se i slomljena keramika, jarko oslikana i ponekad ispisana krilima, očima i čudnim licima za koja arheolozi vjeruju da su mogli predstavljati svečane maske.

Jama za otpatke zatvorena je oko 1050. godine, datum za koji arheolozi vjeruju da se približno poklapa sa smrću i sahranom ovog poglavara. Je li on zaista bio karizmatični vođa koji je bio odgovoran za uspon Kahokije kao velike metropole. Jesu li gozbe prestale njegovom smrću?

Archaeologists believe that the leader of the Mississippian community at Cahokia Mounds lived in a massive building atop Monk’s Mound. The building measured 105 feet long, 48 feet wide and 50 feet high — an imposing structure indeed! Still, it almost pales into insignificance when compared to the mighty mound upon which it rested.

Monk’s Mound rises in four terraces to a height of 100 feet. The Mississippians constructed it over a period of three hundred years by painstakingly scooping up basket after basket of dirt — some 19 million cubic feet of the stuff, according to archaeologists — and then carrying the baskets to the mound site. It is believed that each basket held about 55 pounds of dirt, which means that it took around 14.6 million loads to build Monk’s Mound.

Archaeologists note that it would take approximately 229,166 pick-up truck loads to transport 19 million cubic feet of soil — and this culture possessed no machinery whatsoever. The Mississippians didn’t even have horses to assist them in this backbreaking task.

Archaeologists in 1971 discovered an artifact on Monk’s Mound that underscored the Mississippians’ capacity for symbolic expression. The “Birdman Tablet” contains a depiction of a masked man with a bird’s beak, feathers and earspools. The reverse of the tablet is adorned with a snakeskin pattern. The man represents the earth world of humans, while the bird’s beak and feathers symbolize the sky. The snakeskin personifies the underworld, thereby completing the three-world symbolism of the tablet. The Birdman image is now the official logo of Cahokia Mounds.

Monk’s Mound is a staggering achievement. But it is far from being the only marvel of prehistoric engineering at Cahokia Mounds.

Dr. Warren Wittry had been studying excavation maps of the area in 1961 when he observed a series of oval-shaped pits. He concluded that these pits had once held a circle of red cedar posts, with a sunrise arc that functioned as a calendar to mark the changing of the seasons. The other posts of the sunrise arc might have identified important agricultural festivals, while non-sunrise arc posts could have aligned with stars and planets.

Further investigation revealed there to have been no less than five Woodhenge circles, all built in the same location during the period 900 A.D. to 1100 A.D. The first circle had consisted of 24 cedar posts, while the second circle had numbered 36. The third circle, thought to have been raised about 1000 A.D., had been comprised of about 48 such posts. A fourth circle had consisted of 60 posts, and an incomplete fifth circle held only 13 posts in the sunrise arc. Archaeologists postulate that this fifth Woodhenge, which would have required 72 posts to form a complete circle, had been left unfinished for the entirely mundane reason that red cedar trees were becoming scarce.

Wittry discovered a beaker fragment near the winter solstice post of Woodhenge. The beaker is inscribed with a cross that Wittry believes represents the world. The cross is inside a circle with two paths — one open and the other closed. Wittry postulates that the open path leading to the circle represents the rising sun at the winter solstice, while the closed path symbolizes that day’s setting sun.

Archaeologists reconstructed the third Woodhenge circle in 1985 to give visitors a better appreciation for the extraordinary civilization that once flourished at Cahokia Mounds. The winter and summer solstices, as well as the vernal and autumn equinoxes, are popular days to visit Woodhenge. Visitors arrive before dawn to watch the sun rise behind the winter and summer solstice posts and the single equinox post.

A vernal or autumn equinox at Woodhenge is particularly spectacular. The equinox post aligns with Monk’s Mound to the east so that, at dawn on the first day of spring and fall, it looks as though Monk’s Mound is giving birth to the sun. Since the Mississippian ruler lived in a building atop Monk’s Mound, the community’s inhabitants might have been led to believe that their chief enjoyed a special relationship with the heavenly body.

During several of my visits to Woodhenge, a visitor struck a hand-held drum, one beat every five seconds, while the sun rose behind the equinox or solstice post. It might almost have been a heartbeat — the slow, fragile heartbeat of the new season whose birth this sunrise marked.

By 1150 A.D., the Mississippian community at Cahokia Mounds had a population of about 20,000, making it larger than London. While Europe was locked in the Dark Ages, a remarkable civilization flourished at Cahokia Mounds. Until 1800, no city in the United States was as large as the Cahokia Mounds of centuries past. By 1400, however, the site was abandoned.

Archaeologists remain uncertain why this extraordinary civilization ultimately declined and vanished. A major climate change occurred about 1250 A.D., with colder temperatures leading to a shorter growing season. Perhaps crops became insufficient to support such a large population. Overhunting could have depleted the area’s animals, which would have caused a further food shortage.

The problem of garbage and human waste disposal could have posed a problem for the Mississippians. A polluted water supply would have led to disease, which might have spread rapidly through such a large population.

Yet another possibility is conflict with other Native American cultures. Archaeologists have discovered that a two-mile long stockade surrounded the central portion of Cahokia. They estimate that the Mississippians started construction of this stockade around 1100 A.D., and then rebuilt it three times over a period of 200 years. Each construction of the stockade required 15,000 to 20,000 oak and hickory logs that were one foot in diameter and twenty feet high. We can only speculate as to the stockade’s purpose, although it could well have been erected to protect the community from hostile invaders.

In any event, the Cahokia Mounds region remained uninhabited until about 1650, when a subtribe of the Illini Indians moved to the area. When the French, who colonized the region, established a settlement on the Mississippi River in 1699, they named it Cahokia, after this subtribe. A series of disputes between the French and Cahokia Indians prompted French military authorities in 1733 to remove all Indians from the vicinity of Cahokia village and relocate them to the north — where the Mississippian metropolis had once flourished. French missionaries accompanied the Indians, many of whom had converted to Christianity, and established a chapel on the first terrace of Monk’s Mound. Located at the terrace’s southwestern corner, the chapel was only 18 feet by 30 feet. Still, the tiny house of worship marked a milestone in the mound’s history. A sacred site of Native American religion was now under the domain of Christianity. A mound that had been built by Indians was now used by European-Americans.

But tragedy befell this mission community. According to an eyewitness account by a French officer stationed at nearby Fort de Chartres, a band of Sioux, Sauk and Kickapoo attacked the Cahokia Indians on June 6, 1752, killing all they encountered. With so many of its parishioners slain, the mission was abandoned.

Two centuries later, archaeologist Elizabeth Bentley found a small copper hand bell in the grave of a Cahokia-Illini woman who had been buried near the chapel site. It might have been her duty to ring the bell to summon worshipers to Sunday service, and then ring it again during Mass when the priest elevated the host and chalice.

The Cantine Mounds, as Cahokia Mounds was then called, changed hands several times after the mission’s demise. Nicholas Jarrot, a wealthy fur trader who lived in Cahokia village, purchased the site in 1799 for $66. Ten years later, Jarrot sold Cantine Mounds in addition to acreage he owned along Cahokia Creek to some Trappist Monks who had fled France during that nation’s revolution. Dom Urban Guillet, the leader of the monks, founded a new monastery that he named Notre Dame de Bon Secours — Our Lady of Good Help. He planned in time to build a huge monastic cathedral atop the massive mound that had once housed the Mississippians’ leader.

Diseases such as malaria, however, cut down almost half the monks within a few years. Crop failure and a flood further weakened the community. Our Lady of Good Help was severely demoralized by the New Madrid Earthquake of 1812. Dom Urban Guillet was nearly killed by a falling chimney, and the earth beneath the monks’ feet trembled almost daily for two months.

The monks finally gave up and sold the property. After at least two more failed attempts to establish monasteries in the United States, they returned to France following Napoleon’s defeat. But their venture had left behind one enduring legacy — the great mound was now known as Monk’s Mound.

In 1831, Amos Hill built his farm house on the third terrace of Monk’s Mound and utilized the mound for agriculture. A nineteenth- century print depicts the mound thick with corn and orchards. Archaeologists in the 1960s found the remains of Hill’s house and, in the northwest corner of the third terrace, the farmer’s grave.

An 1882 sketch of Monk’s Mound by archaeologist William McAdams also shows trees growing on the terraces, but not in the orderly fashion one would expect to find in an orchard. McAdams prepared and displayed a show called “The Stone Age in Illinois” for the geology and archaeology section of the Illinois Building at the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago. The show was designed to support McAdams claim that “no other known Stone Age people went further than the Mound Builders of Illinois.” His presentation reached an international audience, and the study of Cahokia Mounds acquired a new importance.

Crowds from the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904 often visited Cahokia Mounds. Photographs taken before and after the fair show that tourists literally denuded the site’s trees by taking leaves for souvenirs. Shortly after the fair, David Bushnell, an archaeologist at the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, published a scholarly paper about Cahokia Mounds. Bushnell, a St. Louis native, had become interested in the mounds as a youth.

Cahokia Mounds continued to attract attention from scholars and the general public. Unfortunately, it also attracted the attention of the Ku Klux Klan.

The Klan, which had been federally outlawed in 1871, was reborn in 1915 during a rally at Stone Mountain, an imposing granite butte in Georgia. Its campaign against Blacks, Jews, Catholics and immigrants soon found a responsive audience and, by the 1920s, the organization was a force to be reckoned with. Like Stone Mountain, Monk’s Mound towered over the countryside. East St. Louis Klansmen decided that it would be an ideal location for a rally.

On the night of May 26, 1923, a huge cross atop Monk’s Mound was set ablaze to provide a beacon for Klansmen as they journeyed to the rally. Illinois had the fifth-largest Klan membership in the nation, with East St. Louis and St. Louis Klansmen numbering about 5,000. An estimated crowd of 12,000, many of them in full Klan regalia, attended the event, which meant that the Monk’s Mound cross burning drew Klansmen from outside the region. Following the rally, some Klansmen drove through the streets of nearby Collinsville, honking their horns to awaken — and, presumably, intimidate — residents.

The Klan held no more cross burnings at Cahokia Mounds, but such an event underscored the critical importance of protecting the site from further exploitation. In 1925, State Representative Thomas Fekete and State Senator R.E. Duvall, both of East St. Louis, introduced a bill calling for the state to purchase two hundred acres of land around Monk’s Mound. Although only 144.4 acres were actually purchased, it represented a first step toward preserving the site. Cahokia Mounds State Park had been born.

Archaeologists and other scholars were quick to note that 144.4 acres represented only a small portion of the original Mississippian site, which included over 4,000 acres that held 120 mounds. The park has been expanded to 2,200 acres over the years and now encompasses some 68 mounds. A world-class 33,000 square-foot interpretive center opened at the site in 1989.

Mississippian leader’s residence, monastery, fiery cross — the summit of Monk’s Mound has seen it all. Today, for visitors up to the climb, it’s the premier vantage point for surveying the surrounding countryside. The mound is a millennium older than the St. Louis Arch, which was constructed by the culture that eventually superseded these Native Americans. One can only speculate which monument will endure longer.

Bibliografija

“Cahokia Mounds Tour Guide.” undated pamphlet published by the Cahokia Mounds Museum.

Carlton, John G. And Allen, William. “A charismatic chieftain — the ‘brother of the sun’ — may have presided over the sudden rise of Cahokia,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch December 12, 1999.

Chappell, Sally A. Kitt. Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Denny, Sidney, Schusky, Ernest and Richardson, John Adkins. The Ancient Splendor of Prehistoric Cahokia. Edwardsville, Illinois, 1992.

Dunphy, John J. “Sunrise at Woodhenge,” Springhouse Magazine (Volume 6, Number 6 December 1989).

— . “A winter dawn at Woodhenge celebrates the sun’s rebirth,” The [Edwardsville, IL] Intelligencer, January 23, 1997.

— . “The Folklore of Monk’s Mound,” Springhouse Magazine (Volume 15, Number 2 April 1998).

— . “The Folklore of Monk’s Mound, Part 2,” Springhouse Magazine (Volume 15, Number 3 June 1998).

— . “Monk’s Mound gives birth to the sun,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 20, 2000.

— . “Cahokia Mounds: America’s Lost Metropolis,” Springhouse Magazine,

Kimbrough, Mary. “Cahokia Mounds — A City That Time Remembered,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat February 5–6, 1983

Mink, Claudia Gellman. Cahokia: City of the Sun. Cahokia Mounds Museum Society, 1992.

Henderson, Jane. “ ‘Cool things’ coalesce at Cahokia,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 16, 2009.

Newmark, Judith. “The Wonder At Cahokia,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch August 3, 1986.

“Woodhenge.” undated pamphlet published by the Cahokia Mounds Museum.

Young, Biloine Whiting and Fowler, Melvin L. Cahokia: The Great Native American Metropolis. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

John J. Dunphy’s latest book, Unsung Heroes of the Dachau Trials, includes interviews with veterans of the U.S. Army 7708 War Crimes Group, who apprehended and prosecuted Nazi war criminals after World War II.


Cahokia Mounds - History

Imagine an ancient Native American settlement where people built pyramids, designed solar observatories and, we must report, practiced human sacrifice.

These weren't the Maya or Aztecs of Mexico. This culture arose in the Mississippi Valley, in what is now Illinois, about 700 A.D. and withered away about a century before Columbus reached America. The ancient civilization's massive remains stand as one of the best-kept archaeological secrets in the country.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Welcome to the city of Cahokia, population 15,000.

North America was dotted in those days with villages, strung together by a loose web of commerce. An Indian trader paddling down the Mississippi River during the city's heyday between 1000 and 1150 couldn't have missed it.

Cahokia was the largest city ever built north of Mexico before Columbus and boasted 120 earthen mounds. Many were massive, square-bottomed, flat-topped pyramids -- great pedestals atop which civic leaders lived. At the vast plaza in the city's center rose the largest earthwork in the Americas, the 100-foot Monks Mound.

Around the great urban center, farmers grew crops to feed the city-dwellers, who included not only government officials and religious leaders but also skilled tradesworkers, artisans and even astronomers. The city was the center of a trading network linked to other societies over much of North America. Cahokia was, in short, one of the most advanced civilizations in ancient America.

Nature dictated that the settlement rise near the confluence of the Missouri, Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Geographers affectionately call the lowlands that hug the eastern bank of the Mississippi there the "American Bottom." This fertile strip was carved and flooded summer after summer by torrents of glacial melt-off 10,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age.

As the glaciers receded and rivers shrank to their current size, the 80-mile-wide bottom was exposed. Native Americans who settled there after 700 A.D. considered this easy-to-till land prime real estate for growing corn, since they lacked the steel plows and oxen needed to penetrate the thick sod blanketing the surrounding prairie.

Cahokia arose from this mini-breadbasket as its people hunted less and took up farming with gusto. By all evidence, they ate well.

"Some people have referred to it as a Garden of Eden," says archaeologist John E. Kelly, who has researched the area for 26 years. But like other Cahokia scholars, Kelly hesitates to call it that because he knows the city's dark side.

Despite their town's size, Cahokians seemed to live in fear, building a high stockade around it to keep out the world. Also, the culture suffered an environmental debacle that probably spelled doom: It was utterly abandoned before Columbus ever set sail for the Americas.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
The earliest written records of Cahokia refer to the site after it had been vacant for 300 years. French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet missed the mounds in 1673 and reported finding no Indians in the area. French monks found Cahokia's mounds in the mid-1700s and later named the biggest one after themselves. But mystery still shrouded the site.

The Illini Indians in the region told Europeans that they did not know who had built the mounds. As late as this century, experts debated whether the mounds were the product of people or nature. In 1921, archaeologists erased all doubt, but learned little about who had built them.

To this day, no one knows the Cahokians' ethnicity, what language they spoke, what songs they sang or even what they called themselves. The name "Cahokia" is a misnomer. It comes from the name of a sub-tribe of the Illini who didn't reach the area until the 1600s, coming from the East.

Although Cahokia must have had a complex culture to maintain a sizable city and raise monuments that stand a millenium later, no one knows whether the mystery people's culture influenced surrounding cultures or simply stood alone.

The causes of the culture's demise are better understood, although researchers argue where its people went.

First, some context. Before Cahokia's rise, people had been living in many parts of North America for thousands of years, making a living as gatherers of edible wild plants and hunters of animal meat. More than 4,000 years ago, Indians in much of the current United States cultivated squash, sunflower and other plants to supplement wild foods. Between 1,000 and 2,000 years ago, corn cultivation spread northward from Mexico, where the plant was domesticated.

As a corn-based economy grew in the fertile Mississippi Valley, providing a reliable food source all year, populations rose and villages grew. About 1000 A.D., Cahokia underwent a population explosion.

Along with corn, Cahokians cultivated goosefoot, amaranth, canary grass and other starchy seeds. Preserved seeds of these species have been found in excavations at Cahokia. Although the people farmed without the wheel or draft animals, corn production soared and surpluses may have been stored in communal granaries on the mounds.

To keep the growing populace orderly and, perhaps more important, to manage corn surpluses, Cahokia developed a ranked society with a chief and elite class controlling workers in lower classes. By the 1000s and 1100s, when mound-building began in earnest, Cahokia was a beehive of activity.

"It became this political vortex, sucking people in," says Timothy Pauketat, an anthropologist and Cahokia specialist at the State University of New York at Buffalo.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
The rulers lived atop the mounds in wooden houses and literally looked down on others. They almost surely consolidated power the way leaders of many early societies did, not by hoarding but by giving away goods. Since there was no money, commerce was by barter.

Cahokians had an affinity for ornamentation, favoring beads made from sea shells collected more than a thousand miles away. These were traded extensively and probably exchanged to cement allegiances and to pacify outlying groups, several of which lived downriver. Gift-giving could have quelled tension between tribes and kept the peace, says George Milner, a Pennsylvania State University anthropologist.

Generosity also boosted status. Within Cahokia, such trading and gift-giving probably bought fealty. Ornamental items were passed from generation to generation. In the long run, people in and around the urban center grew up having a stake in perpetuating the hierarchy. Once the first few generations were in place, children grew up knowing nothing else.

"Social systems became entrenched," says William Iseminger, archaeologist and curator at Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site, which includes the main plaza and 65 of the remaining 80 mounds.

Power and position were passed by birthright. The local caste system was similar to social arrangements seen later in other Native American groups along the Mississippi and to the southeast, generally called Mississippian cultures. It was even in evidence hundreds of years later when Spaniard Hernando de Soto led an army along the Gulf Coast in the 1540s. Indians in Mexico had such social systems, too, although no direct connections have been found between them and any Mississippians.

Meanwhile, Cahokia sat conveniently at the center of the trade network. It harbored a minor hardware industry, manufacturing hoes with flint blades and axes with shaped stone heads. Trade was extensive, but it's not as though armadas of canoes were streaming into and out of Cahokia.

Excavations at surrounding sites shows that the amount of Cahokian hardware dwindles steadily as one moves farther from the city, suggesting a fairly small radius of trade and few large trade missions to faraway places, Milner says. Still, Cahokia attracted copper from mines near Lake Superior salt from nearby mines shells from the Gulf of Mexico chert, a flintlike rock, from quarries as far as Oklahoma, and mica, a sparkling mineral, from the Carolinas.

Not all strangers were friendly traders, it seems. In the early 1100s, Cahokians built a two-mile stockade around their city, with guard towers every 70 feet. The first was double-walled. Three times over the centuries, it was rebuilt in single-walled fashion.

The mounds within probably were erected gradually at ceremonial gatherings over centuries. Cahokian pyramids contain various types of soil, some traceable to locations nearby. "It's like a layer cake with 30 or 40 layers," Pauketat says. Even though some years only a few centimeters were added, the final product was impressive.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Monks Mound required more than 14 million baskets of soil, all hauled by human workers. Its base covers 14 acres.

Many of Cahokia's original mounds were destroyed by modern farming, road building and housing developments. The remaining 80 mounds still hold many ancient secrets because archaeologists have dug into fewer than two dozen. Among these, Mound 72 stands as one of the grisliest archaeological finds in North America.

Under it were found the remains of a tall man buried about the year 1050. He died in his early 40s and was laid to rest on about 20,000 shell ornaments and more than 800 apparently unused arrows with finely made heads. Also in the grave were a staff and 15 shaped stones of the kind used for games.

"Clearly, some really important leader is buried in there," Pauketat says. Interred with him were four men with their heads and hands cut off and 53 young women apparently strangled. Their youth, 15 to 25 years, and the fact that they were all women, suggests human sacrifice. People that young did not die of natural causes in such numbers.

Nearby, researchers found more burials and evidence of a charnel house. In all, 280 skeletons were found. About 50 lay haphazardly in a single deep pit, as if tossed in without honor. Some have arrowheads in the back or were beheaded, evidence of warfare or perhaps a crushed rebellion.

"I would guess there were people around who weren't too loyal," Pauketat says.

Mound 72 has provoked considerable debate among anthropologists. Some say the four men without hands or heads represent the four cardinal directions on a compass. To others, the sacrifices evoke comparisons to Mayan and Aztec cultures. Some suspect that those thrown in a pit were objecting to the sacrifices.

Niko ne zna. Mound 72 is the only Cahokian burial site excavated with modern archaeological care. About 20 other mounds were dug up in the 1920s, using careless methods and leaving few notes.

In any case, the huge number of people sacrificed to accompany a leader on his way to the afterlife is unparalleled north of Mexico. No other site even comes close.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
To be fair, however, Cahokians didn't spend all of their time building mounds, adorning themselves or sacrificing their neighbors. The digs that have taken place every summer since 1960 -- into garbage pits, along the stockade or at housing sites -- have revealed much else.

One of the most dramatic finds is that some Cahokians were astronomers. Outside the stockade, they built a ring of posts that, when aligned with an outer post, pointed toward the horizon at the exact spot on which the sun rises on the spring and fall equinoxes. Archaeologists dubbed this "Woodhenge," in deference to England's Stonehenge, also a solar calendar.

Instead of stone, Cahokians used red cedar posts 15 to 20 inches in diameter and about 20 feet long. Several woodhenges were built over the centuries, and the third 48-post ring has been reconstructed.

Aligned with the key post, the equinox sun appears to rise directly out of Monks Mound. Other posts aligned with sunrise on the summer and winter solstices. Why it was rebuilt several times is unclear. "Perhaps as Monks Mound got bigger, they had to build updated woodhenges," Iseminger speculates.

The leaders may have used Woodhenge to demonstrate their connection with the sun or some other mystic unknown, says Bruce Smith, director of the archaeobiology program and a curator at the Smithsonian Institution. "Through Woodhenge, and dealing with the sun, they could solidify their position as middlemen or arbiters and show the general populace how the sun moved, and predict it," he says.

That the Cahokians had time enough to build many mounds and several woodhenges comes as no shock to anthropologists. "You'd be surprised how much free time people had before industrialization," says Robert Hall, archaeologist at the University of Illinois-Chicago.

Unfortunately, Cahokians' clever ways did not extend to wise environmental management.

As population grew, the ratio of people to arable land also rose. In the American Bottom, a small increase in water levels could have rendered much farmland useless. Wanton tree cutting along nearby bluffs caused unchecked erosion, making cropland too marshy for corn, Milner says. Worse, a global cooling trend about 1250, called the "Little Ice Age," may have hurt the growing season.

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Deforestation required longer walks for firewood. Charred remains show that Cahokians burned oak and hickory in the early years but used energy-poorer soft woods later, a sign of problems, Iseminger says. The stockade alone required as many as 20,000 poles. Tree cutting certainly destroyed wildlife habitat. And how many deer would live near a concentration of 15,000 people, many armed with bows and arrows?

Quite possibly, dysentery and tuberculosis rose to epidemic proportions, since Cahokians apparently had no sanitary systems for disposing of garbage and human waste, Peter Nabokov and Dean Snow suggest in their book, America in 1492.

Meanwhile, city life could have grown tiresome, archaeologists say. People resent having their lives managed by others. Other Mississippian cultures developed ranked societies similar to that of Cahokia. None stayed together more than 150 years, Pauketat says.

For Cahokians, the grass evidently looked greener elsewhere. Buffalo, arriving from the West, reached areas just across the Mississippi in the 1200s and 1300s, Hall says. The choice may have been to compete with thousands of neighbors for firewood and eat corn and fish or to live differently, following the migratory buffalo and eating red meat.

All of these "centrifugal forces," in whatever combination, grew strong enough to fling people away from Cahokia over time, Smith concludes. Their society "devolved" and gradually returned to small-village life, becoming archaeologically invisible because they left too little evidence to be traced 700 years later.

By the 1200s, as the city's population and influence dwindled, chiefdoms downriver began to grow. Their threat may have been what spurred Cahokians to build the stockade, and they may have competed for trade goods that had been flowing into Cahokia.

A larger question lingers: What is Cahokia's rightful place in the history of North America? Two theories emerge, illustrated in part by the mounds.

Many Native American cultures built mounds. Until 1000, earthworks typically were burial or effigy mounds. Flat-topped temple mounds, with buildings on them, came into vogue with Cahokia. Mounds often were the village centerpiece and have become their builders' signature across time. Cahokia's mounds were bigger than the rest, but did this make them greater people?

Image courtesy of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Some argue that Cahokians are like John Hancock, whose moment of glory came 600 years after theirs. To them, the Cahokian signature was, like Hancock's, simply bigger than the rest, but not representative of anything more advanced or creative. "I don't think Cahokia was qualitatively different" from these other settlements," Smith says. "It was the same framework of organization, writ large."

Others, including Hall, suspect that Cahokia practiced a "cultural hegemony," meaning that it had a cultural influence beyond areas it could control militarily. It likely had profound impacts on people up and down the river.

"It challenged the world view of people in the boonies," Pauketat says. "They'd come to Cahokia and . . . wow."

For Native Americans, none of whom can claim Cahokia as their own tribe, the site needs no interpretation or explanation, says Evelyne Voelker, a Comanche and executive director of the American Indian Center of Mid-America in St. Louis. "We've never questioned that somehow there is ancestry there," she says.

Voelker performs purification blessings at Cahokia when archaeologists begin a dig. She takes cedar incense -- cedar mixed with pine sap and sage -- and sprinkles it on a fire before spreading the sweet smoke with an eagle feather. "It's a prayer to beg pardon for things being disturbed," she says.

Every September, Native Americans have a celebration at Cahokia featuring intertribal dance and music. They treat the site with considerable pride and reverence.

Voelker is not big on archaeologists, saying, "I don't particularly like their line of work." But she and they share an awe of the place that once was one of the greatest cities in North America.


Reference

    - TripAdvisor traveler reviews - 43 Places
  • Elliot M. Abrams, Emergence Of Moundbuilders: Archaeology Of Tribal Societies In Southeastern Ohio (Ohio University Press, 2005).
  • E. Barrie Kavasch, The Mound Builders of Ancient North America (iUniverse, 2003).
  • Maureen Korp, The Mound Builders: Mysteries of the Ancient Americas (Reader's Digest, 1986).
  • Maureen Korp, Sacred Art of the Earth: Ancient and Contemporary Earthworks (Continuum International Publishing Group, 1997).
  • Maureen Korp, Sacred Geography of the American Mound Builders (Edwin Mellen Pr, 1990).
  • George R. Milner, The Moundbuilders: Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America (Thames & Hudson, 2005).
  • Timothy R. Pauketat, Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
  • Robert Silverberg, Mound Builders of Ancient America (Graphic Society, 1968).
  • Susan Woodward and Jerry McDonald, Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People (McDonald and Woodward, 1986). - here on Sacred Destinations

Cahokia (town not mounds)

Cahokia (not to be confused with the ancient prehispanic metropolis – Cahokia Mounds) was founded in 1698-99 by French priests from the Seminary of Foreign Missions. They were known as Seminarians and were not Jesuits (such as those who founded Kaskaskia). In fact, the two religious orders competed with each other for converts and position in the pays des Illinois. The Seminarians established the Mission of the Holy Family in Cahokia and the tribes they sought to engage were the Tamaroa and the Cahokia (hence the name the French town received). Cahokia (along with Peoria and Prairie du Rocher) is the oldest continuously occupied European settlement in the State of Illinois. And, indeed, unlike the Kaskaskia who migrated to the peninsula between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers in 1703 where the town of Kaskaskia was created, the Tamaroa and Cahokia Indians were already in the area that became Cahokia by the latter quarter of the seventeenth century (i.e., before the Seminarians arrived).

It is a point of historical interest that continues the unfortunate confusion of identical names that in 1735 the Seminarians actually did establish a mission and Native American village on the broad first terrace of the largest prehispanic mound at the ancient site of Cahokia Mounds. That mound is known in the archaeological literature as Monks Mound for this reason. We do not deal the Seminarian mission atop Cahokia Mounds here but refer readers to this key reference work: The River L’Abbe Mission. A French Colonial Church for the Cahokia Illini on Monks Mound, by John A. Walthall and Elizabeth D. Benchley. Studies in Illinois Archaeology No. 2, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 1987.

Rather, here we are concerned with the French town called Cahokia. As at Kaskaskia, the mission itself sought to have the Indians living there so as to convert and acculturate them. The French settlers lived nearby in a separate village. Unlike Kaskaskia, which from its origin was nevertheless, hybrid due to intermarriage, we have the impression from the secondary literature (i.e., not the original French language documents in archives) that Cahokia was a more separated social environment.

Most of the population of French Cahokia was French Canadian by birth. The town grew as indicated by reports of visitors, in censuses, and on maps. In 1723 there may have been a few as five dwellings. There were at least 126 habitants (the agricultural settlers) by 1752. Population had grown to at least 300 by 1770. An often reproduced map by a visiting British officer and cartographer shows Cahokia ca. 1770 (below). In his definitive study of several French Colonial domestic sites, archaeologist Robert F. Mazrim of the Illinois State Archaeological Survey has detected that various original streets of French Cahokia are overlain by modern streets.

Importantly, in 1799 the Church of the Holy Family was built.
The
Church was constructed in the characteristic post-on-sill technique of the French heritage and that church is still standing in Cahokia. It is the longest continuous Roman Catholic community in the United States.

Today two other important buildings also remain in Cahokia: the Old Cahokia Courthouse and the Nicholas Jarrot Mansion. Use the story map to see all three locations: https://arcg.is/0e8GzS

Old Cahokia Courthouse. This building, as is evident from its architecture, was originally a French dwelling. It was constructed as such ca. 1740 (and thus before the Church of the Holy Family). After the Illinois territory was acquired by the British as an outcome of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the British then lost that territory to the new United States. As such, in 1793 the originally French dwelling became a courthouse and center of activity concerned with the Northwest Territory. Its greatest claim to fame is probably its association with the Lewis and Clark expedition. Between December 1803 until May 1804 they used the courthouse as the base from which to collect information pertinent to the upcoming Corps of Discovery exploration, to meet with a wide range of people, to accumulate supplies, to maintain contact with Camp DuBois (the winter camp) and as the address from which correspondence was maintained with President Thomas Jefferson (the building was also an official U.S. post office). There is an outstanding interpretive center inside the building. It is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.

Nicholas Jarrot was an important French citizen living in Cahokia, a frontier town at the time. Lewis and Clark met him in Cahokia and it was he who let their men camp on the du Bois River (across from the mouth of the Missouri River) in the winter preceding the expedition of discovery. At the time of that encounter, Jarrot had not yet built the mansion. But he already was very wealthy as a landowner, land speculator, fur trader, lawyer, county judge – basically, he had his hand in everything happening for miles around Cahokia. The Historic Preservation Division of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources describes the Federal-style mansion this way: “a two-story brick structure with a full cellar. The first floor is composed of a central hall, flanked on each side by two rooms. The second floor contains a ballroom with attached drawing room, a stair hall, and two other rooms. … In 1974 the Jarrot Mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places.” Jarrot was very pro-American and it has often been noted that he chose a Federal architecture for his home rather than the French Colonial style of the area.

We are pleased to offer an interview with Brad Winn, Site Superintendent of the Lewis and Clark State Historic Site in which he covers the sites and time periods discussed on this webpage – explaining French Cahokia, the Holy Family Church, the Cahokia Courthouse and Nicholas Jarrot and his dealings with Lewis and Clark following his role in the French Period. CLICK ON THE LINK: https://mediaspace.illinois.edu/media/t/1_egfk3izd

The seal of the contemporary city of Cahokia reflects its rich history:

_________________________________________________________________________
Cahokia High School in Cahokia adopted the name “Comanches” for its school identity the way that the Urbana High School uses Tigers and Champaign Central High School uses Maroons (after a bear) and universities have mascots or symbolic figures to represent themselves (University of Michigan Wolverines, University of Wisconsin Badgers, Notre Dame’s Fighting Irish).
The choice of name by Cahokia High School is very interesting because the Indian profile head logo (see below) reveals an awareness of the nearby eponymous archaeological site, Cahokia Mounds. The Indian name chosen – Comanche – has no bearing on any Native American people who lived in Illinois being, instead, the name of an Indigenous people of the Great Plains. Moreover, at the college level and in U.S. professional sports Native American logos/names have disappeared or been called upon to disappear (most recently, the Washington Redskins:
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/13/sports/football/washington-redskins-new-name.html
The Mythic Mississippi Project is supported by the University of Illinois System and our university underwent a prolonged debate – indeed, a veritable battle – over the Chief Illiniwek mascot that for eighty years represented the University of Illinois in Big Ten sports events until “retired” in 2007 as a fundamental cultural appropriation and racist stereotype. It is obvious that “Comanche” is a cherished tradition at Cahokia High School. We think that the symbol offers a basis for a meaningful multi-pronged educational lesson and for that reason include it on this webpage. We are currently preparing a lesson plan that will be offered to the high school.

________________________________________________________________________
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: Professor Helaine Silverman thanks her former student, McKenna Tutor, and her mother, Mrs. Alison Tutor, for valuable help in Cahokia.


Pogledajte video: 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed Eric Cline, PhD (Novembar 2021).

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