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Knjižara: Bitka na Okinawi

Knjižara: Bitka na Okinawi

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Drugi svjetski rat: Pacifik
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Knjige - Drugi svjetski rat - Pacifik - Okinawa

Appleman, Roy E. Okinawa, Konecky & Konecky Military Books, 1994.

Alexander, pukovnik Joseph H. USMC (Ret). Posljednja kampanja: Marinci u pobjedi na Okinawi Marinci u komemorativnoj seriji Drugog svjetskog rata, Historijski centar Marine Corps, Washington DC, 1996.

Huber, Thomas M., Japanska bitka za Okinavu, april - jun 1945 , Leavenworth Papers No. 18, Institut za borbene studije, Komandno -štabni fakultet američke vojske, Fort Leavenworth, Kanzas, 1990.

Leckie, Robert, Okinawa: Posljednja bitka Drugog svjetskog rata , Penguin Books, New York, 1996.

Feifer, George, Bitka za Okinavu: Krv i bomba, Lyons Press, 2001.

Foster, Simon, Okinava 1945 , Cassell Military, London, 1999.

Yahara, pukovnik Hiromichi. Bitka za Okinavu, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1997.

Rottman, Gordon L. Okinava, 1945, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2002, serija kampanje br. 96.

Sledge, E B. Sa starom pasminom: Na Peleliuu i Okinawi, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1996. (reprint).

Iwo Jima i Okinawa , Black, Wallace B., Prentice Hall, London, 1993


Krvava Okinawa: Posljednja velika bitka Drugog svjetskog rata

Uzbudljiva priča o posljednjoj velikoj bitci Drugog svjetskog rata - najvećoj, najkrvavijoj, najsurovijoj borbi u Pacifiku - posljednjoj takve vrste.

Na Uskrs u nedjelju, 1. aprila 1945., više od 184.000 američkih vojnika počelo je iskrcavanje na jedino japansko domaće tlo napadnuto tokom rata u Pacifiku. Samo 350 milja od kopna Japana, Okinawa je trebala poslužiti kao napredna baza za invaziju Japana u jesen 1945. godine.

Gotovo 140.000 japanskih i pomoćnih vojnika borilo se samoubilačkom upornošću sa udubljenih, utvrđenih brda i grebena. Pod stalnom vatrom, po kiši i blatu, Amerikanci su tukli branitelje artiljerijom, bombardovanjem iz vazduha, pomorskom vatrom i svakim pješadijskim oruđem. Talasi japanskog kamikaza i konvencionalnih ratnih aviona potopili su 36 ratnih brodova, oštetili 368 drugih i ubili skoro 5.000 američkih pomoraca.

Kad se fešta završila nakon 82 dana, više od 125.000 neprijateljskih vojnika ležalo je mrtvo - zajedno sa 7.500 američkih kopnenih trupa. Tragično je da je više od 100.000 civila na Okinavi stradalo dok su bili zarobljeni između vojski. Brutalna kampanja uvjerila je američke lidere da bace atomsku bombu umjesto da napadnu Japan.

Koristeći izvještaje američkih boraca i japanskih izvora, autor Joseph Wheelan ovu zadivljujuću priču o posljednjoj velikoj bitci u ratu obdaruje uvjerljivom ljudskom dimenzijom.


Okinavanske kronike: 10 knjiga koje prikazuju mnoga lica japanskog "otočkog raja"

O Okinawi se na engleskom jeziku prije Drugog svjetskog rata pisalo dragocjeno malo. Rani izvještaji kapetana i časnika nude samo usputne utiske o otocima. Tek sredinom 19. stoljeća pojavila su se promišljenija zapažanja.

“Nije bilo smrtonosnog oružja u Luchuu (rani engleski naziv za Okinawa), nije bilo feudalnih frakcija, malo je zločina nasilja, ako ih je bilo,##8221 piše britanski učenjak Basil Hall Chamberlain, opisujući otočane ’ prirodnu sklonost kompromisu nad silom , koji je nastao zbog snažnog konfucijanskog sistema - apsolutnog i patrijarhalnog.

Nekoliko stranih pisaca odlazilo je na Okinawu u ranom poslijeratnom periodu, ali 1980 -ih i 821790 -ih objavljeno je nekoliko izvještaja o bitci na Okinawi, uključujući “Okinawa: Posljednja bitka u Drugom svjetskom ratu ” (1995) vojnog povjesničara Robert Leckie i “Okinawa 1945: Gateway To Japan ”, Ian Gow. Ove su knjige zanimljive, ali na kraju sadrže malo ili nimalo analize učinaka rata na živote Okinavaca, koji bi došli opisati ulogu njihovog ostrva u sukobu kao sute ishi (“throwaway stone ”).

Ratno naslijeđe živi na Okinawi, a eksplozivni politički pejzaž ostrva - sa linijama sukoba koje se povremeno prekrajaju - može utjecati na vijek trajanja i relevantnost knjiga o regiji. Postoji nekoliko primjera naslova vrijednih divljenja koje je preuzela promjenjiva vremenska priroda njihovih subjekata.

Sljedećih 10 knjiga predstavlja raznolik fokus na temama iz Okinave koje su za sada izdržale test vremena. Istaknuti su iz onoga što postaje ugledno tijelo knjiga na engleskom jeziku o japanskom osporenom ostrvu i raju#8220. ”

George Kerr's#8217s Istorija Okinawa ostrva iz 1958. jedini je i najpažljivije istražen rad na tu temu. Autor vodi liniju od mitološke prošlosti do osnivanja dinastije Sho iz 14. stoljeća. On nastavlja do doba velikih trgovačkih puteva koji su sinonim za neovisno kraljevstvo Ryukyu, razornog utjecaja invazije klana Shimazu 1609. godine, jednostranog preinačenja otoka u japansku prefekturu i otmice posljednjeg kralja Ryukyua. Kerr završava traumom Drugog svjetskog rata i američke okupacije.

Iako je potpuno nepristrasna istorija, sumnja se da Kerrove simpatije leže prema običnom narodu Okinave, koji je, kako spominje u vezi s bitkom na Okinawi, bio prisiljen da podnese groznu žrtvu u ime Japana. ”

Ova izuzetno dobro napisana knjiga ostaje izrazito citirana. Skoro 60 godina nakon objavljivanja, čitatelj će biti impresioniran Kerrovom naučnošću. Pozivajući se na odluku vlade Meiji ere (1868.-1912.) O izgradnji vojne baze na ostrvu, on primjećuje kako su "Okinavci protestirali da bi garnizon privukao neprijatelje Japana, s kojima nisu imali svađu. &# 8221 Čuju se iste pritužbe koje su danas izrekli stanovnici Okinave ogorčeni što su umiješani u strane ratove, i svjesni činjenice da su američke baze i postrojenja japanskih snaga za samoodbranu pretvorile svoje domove u primarne mete.

Stari rituali: Okinavske svećenice zvane noro (gore, u otisku pronađenom u knjižari Naha) sastavni su dio života na otoku Kudaka. | STEPHEN MANSFIELD

Studija William P. Lebra o vjerama i ritualima koji čine jedinstvenu religiju - sistem koji se sasvim razlikuje od budizma i šintoizma - iz 1966. godine ostaje prosvjetljujuće štivo. Stavljajući lokalnu praksu u kontekst istorije, etničkih karakteristika, staništa i jezika ostrva, autor naglašava centralnost zajednice i rodbinskih grupa, dva snažna aspekta savremenog života Okinave.

Neki od rituala koje opisuje Lebra više ne postoje. Na primjer, posljednja generacija žena ustala je protiv tradicionalne ceremonije ispiranja kostiju u kojoj su dijelovi tijela umrlih osoba-počevši od stopala i završavajući s lubanjom-bili birani od mesa prije stavljanja u staklenke za mrtvačnice.

Zarobljeni između dvije patološki nasilne sile, otprilike jedna trećina ostrva i#8217 civilnog stanovništva stradali su u bitci za Okinavu. Mnoge od ovih smrti dogodile su se nakon mučno dugih perioda patnji koje uključuju fizičke i psihičke muke. U tom kontekstu, Akira Yoshimura, čije su simpatije bile čvrsto vezane za isključeno i potrošno, postavio je svoj roman iz 1967. godine.

Učinak vojne indoktrinacije je toliko snažan da je 14-godišnji Shinichi, regrutiran u omladinski korpus Japana tokom očajnih posljednjih dana bitke, odlučan u želji da umre kao "vojnik Carstva" biti ucrtani s ratnim herojima u svetištu Yasukuni u Tokiju. ”

Vizija slave vojnika-djeteta, uznemirujuće slična onoj današnjih mladih islamskih mučenika#8217, završava se Shinichijem zbijenim u septičkoj prljavštini pećine, u zraku umrljanom mirisom gnojnih leševa.

Sitna preživjela: Tomiko Higa drži bijelu zastavu i pokriva lice, na fotografiji snimljenoj 25. juna 1945. | WIKIMEDIA COMMONS

Izvještaj Tomika Hige o usamljenom sedmogodišnjem djetetu za vrijeme bitke na Okinawi prvobitno je objavljen 1989. Engleska verzija objavljena je samo dvije godine kasnije.

Naslovna stranica knjige - snimljena od strane američkog fotografa 25. juna 1945. - prikazuje Higu kako drži bijelu zastavu. Nedeljama pre nego što je fotografija snimljena, lutala je spaljenom pustarom, bila svedok gladovanja i bolesti, i održavala se u životu, između ostalog taktikom, uklanjajući zalogaje hrane iz naprtnjača mrtvih vojnika. Čak i kada je sukob završen, efekti ratne propagande i dalje su bili evidentni, Higa je čula ženu kako kuka, "Sve će nas sve strpati u veliku rupu, polivati ​​benzinom i zapaliti!" 8221

Zapis o uništenju ostrva, ljudi i kulture, knjiga Higa#8217 takođe je elegija do uništenja djetinjstva.

Mitsugu Sakihara prijevod “Omoro Soshi ” djelomična je činjenica, mit i svijet snova, s koricama koje nalikuju zacrnjenoj pogrebnoj ploči s utisnutim zlatnim slovima. Ova povijest Okinawe, međutim, manje je svečana nego što se čini.

Sadržaj “Omoro Soshi ”-antologije drevnih pjesama i stihova prikupljenih s otoka Okinawe i Amami-pokriva gotovo šest stoljeća književnosti, narodnih legendi i mitova o stvaranju, od anonimnih doprinosa iz 12. stoljeća do pjesama koje je napisala kraljica Sho Nei 1610. Osim primjera iz izvornih 22 sveska “Omoro Soshi, ” Sakihara pruža fascinantan tekst o vezama Okinawe s domorodačkim sistemom vjerovanja.

Božanstva su, dajući ritualno značenje životima starih, stvorila stabilizirajuću strukturu koja će u nadolazećim stoljećima biti narušena upadima vanjskih sila, čije su namjere rijetko bile u najboljem interesu Okinavaca.

Tekuće borbe: Japanski zatvorenici stoje u improvizovanom zatvoru na Okinawi u junu 1945. Iako je rat završen, njegovi efekti ostaju. Kako bivši član Skupštine prefekture Keiko Itokazu kaže o životu na modernoj Okinawi, ‘Osjeća se kao da smo u ratu. ’ | JAVNI DOMEN

Ovaj izuzetno pristupačan glas glasova i ličnih priča osvježavajući je odmak od više akademskih naslova o japanskom ostrvskom lancu.

“Nema rata#8217, mišljenja je bivša članica Skupštine prefekture Keiko Itokazu, ali#8220 ali čini se kao da smo u ratu. s ljudima poput Itokazua u komade o karateu, muzičkim žanrovima, djelu filmaša Go Takamine, pitanjima očuvanja i razmišljanjima o lokalnoj gastronomiji. Autori takođe govore sa minshuku (tradicionalni pansion) i dijelite rijetko čune glasove američkog vojnog osoblja koje boravi u američkim bazama na Okinavi.

Christopher T. Nelson, docent antropologije na Univerzitetu u Sjevernoj Karolini, uložio je mnogo truda u rad na ovom djelu socijalne antropologije - pisac je više učesnik nego posmatrač. Nelsonova sjećanja na Okinawa petlju iz ljeta 1985. godine, kada se, kao novoprimljeni poručnik u američkim marincima, prisjetio kako je stajao ispred bara u okinavskom gradu Koza, upijajući miris ulice, asfalt i ispušni plinovi, ulje za prženje, kanalizacija. ”

Začinjen iskustvom i sa zrelijim nagovještajem skrivenih namjera Washingtona i Tokija, Nelson smatra okinavske izvođače aktivnim u reaktiviranju i prenošenju prošlosti, kroz muziku, film, recitaciju, pripovijedanje priča i dramske monologe.

Obala glavnog otoka Okinave, gledana iz zraka | ŠUMIMO, PREKO FLICKR / CC BY-ND 2.0.

Devet žena iz Okinave različitih generacija razmišljaju o svojim složenim i ambivalentnim osjećajima prema japanskoj državi i američkoj okupaciji, ali i pružaju jasan uvid u vlastiti život i brige.

Žene koje je Ruth Ann Keyso odabrala za svoje podanike - blagajnice u trgovinama, sobarice u privatnim kućama, konobarice u klubu - imale su izravan kontakt s američkim vojnim osobljem, a u najintimnijim slučajevima neke su bile supruge geografske oznake. Čini se da je ova druga grupa bila glavne žrtve fizičkog i seksualnog zlostavljanja.

Nisu sve žene predstavljene ovdje neprijateljski raspoložene prema američkom prisustvu. Jedna žena, zaposlena u jednoj američkoj instalaciji, tvrdi da su baze laka meta za ljude koji žele kriviti Amerikance za vlastite nedostatke u poduzimanju radnji protiv takvih problema kao što su zagađenje, gužve u prometu i buka.

Niko ko je proveo vrijeme na Okinawi ne može primijetiti primat muzike u životima otočana. Engleski muzički novinar John Potter, koji je od Okinave napravio svoj dom, izuzetno je dobro pozicioniran da nas vodi kroz istoriju, ključne ličnosti i nova zbivanja na muzičkoj sceni koja se stalno razvija.

Potterova strast prema svom predmetu, njegovo neumorno istraživanje o podrijetlu muzike i njenim podvojenim oblicima, rezultiralo je studijom koja je i dostupna i izuzetno zadovoljava - knjiga u kojoj će uživati ​​čak i oni koji imaju samo prolazni interes za tu temu .

Potter pokazuje kako je Okinawa dugo bila plodno tlo za vrstu instrumentalnih fuzija, žanrovskih spojeva i kolaboracija koje danas nazivamo world music. Pisac je odigrao važnu ulogu u okupljanju američkog pijaniste Geoffreyja Keezera i okinavskog pjevača i svirača sanshina Yasukatsua Oshime, koji će nastaviti stvarati studijske snimke s malim brojem jazz muzičara.

“Moć Okinawe ” dolazi s dodatkom preporučenih albuma koji će pomoći u daljem istraživanju ove živopisne muzičke scene.

U ratu sa ratom: Okinavljani su decenijama protestovali zbog prisustva američkih baza na svojim ostrvima. Okinavski pisac Shun Medoruma, predstavljen na ‘Islands of Protest, ’ nedavno je uhapšen zbog navodnog upada u zabranjeni prostor u blizini američke vojne baze tokom demonstracija. | KYODO

“Islands of Protest, ”, nedavno objavljena antologija Okinavske književnosti, izvrsna je antologija zbirke iz 2000. “Južna izloženost: Moderna japanska književnost sa Okinawe. ”

U naslovu moćne i opresivne priče Shuna Medorume i#8220Nade, ”, postoji više od daška ironije u kojoj se glavni junak, nakon što je oteo i ubio američko dijete, samospalio u parku poznatom po držanju protest protiv stvarnog silovanja troje američkih vojnika iz Okinave 1995. godine. Rad Medorume prikazuje Okinavu kao pozornicu za neke od najnasilnijih drama koje se danas odvijaju u Japanu, a ne kao miran, tropski raj koji mediji trude projicirati.

“Narandžasto drveće Kunenbo,##8221 koje je napisao Yamagusuku Seichi 1911. godine, predskazuje zabrinutost Medorume, ovaj put razotkrivajući ponašanje japanskih vojnika postavljenih na Okinawi tokom kinesko-japanskog rata 1894.-95. Ovdje, na probi onoga što će se u Drugom svjetskom ratu dogoditi u daleko većim razmjerima, čitamo o pijanim japanskim vojnicima, koji se nazivaju “Yamato zvijeri, ” izlijevaju na tlo dvorca Shuri, s namjerom da seksualno napadnu žene iz Okinave .

Među pričama i kratkim pjesmama je zapanjujuća scenska predstava iz 1976. pod naslovom “Jinruikan ” (“Human Pavilion ”) Chinen Seishin. Čini se da se priča odnosi na reakciju ogorčenog urednika novina u Nahi koji se žalio na zastupljenost Okinawana na izložbi u Osaki 1903. godine. Rekao je da su otočani prikazani zajedno s drugim "primitivnim narodima"#8221 - uključujući Ainu, tajvanske, javanske i azijske Indijance - kao egzotične primjerke. Seishinova satira otkriva nemilosrdne pritiske koji su vršeni na Okinavljane da postanu japanski i civiliziraniji. ”

“Ostrvo protesta ” prikladan je dodatak kanonu vrlo raznolike literature koji izražava poniženje života na okupiranom otoku. Ovi tekstovi pružaju oduška za oslobađanje duboko gnojnih pritužbi, služeći kao glas koji promovira prijenos sjećanja i iskustva u zemlji koja je sklonija da sebe vidi kao žrtvu povijesnih nepravdi nego kao njihovog počinitelja.

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Pretplatom, možete nam pomoći da ispravimo priču.


Bitka na Okinawi: fotografsko iskustvo, 1945.

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Crucible of Hell: Okinawa, posljednja velika bitka u Drugom svjetskom ratu

Od nagrađivanog povjesničara Saula Davida, snažne nove priče o bitci na Okinawi-posljednjem velikom sukobu u Drugom svjetskom ratu, koja je imala duboke posljedice po suvremeni svijet. Osamdeset i tri dana natopljena krvlju, borbe na ostrvu Okinawa potisnule su dubine divljaštva jednako loše kao i sve što je viđeno na Istočnom frontu. Kada je to bilo gotovo, gotovo četvrt miliona ljudi je izgubilo živote, čineći to daleko najkrvavijom američkom bitkom na Pacifiku.

Na Okinawi je broj poginulih uključivao hiljade civila koji su izgubljeni zbog masovnog samoubistva, uvjereni japanskom propagandom da će ih u protivnom silovati i ubiti. Na strani SAD-a, David tvrdi da je užas bitke na kraju odredio izbor predsjednika Trumana da koristi atomske bombe u kolovozu 1945. To je brutalna, srceparajuća priča, a jedan David priča s majstorskom pažnjom prema detaljima: skučena kokpita avion kamikaze, klaustrofobična kupola oružja napadnutog ratnog broda i napola potopljena rupa lisica usred bijede i borbenog detritusa.

Priča prati generale, predsjednike i careve, kao i skromnija iskustva običnih vojnika i porodica s obje strane, te okinavskih civila koji su tako tragično zarobljeni između zaraćenih strana. Koristeći grafičke izvještaje očevidaca i skinute povjerljive dokumente iz arhiva na tri kontinenta, Saul David osvjetljava šokantno poglavlje povijesti koje prečesto nedostaje u pripovijestima o Drugom svjetskom ratu orijentiranim na Zapad.

Saul David je povjesničar, emiter i autor nekoliko kritički hvaljenih djela fantastike i publicistike. On je profesor vojne istorije na Univerzitetu u Buckinghamu. Njegove knjige o istoriji uključuju Indijsku pobunu (u užem izboru za Westminstersku medalju za vojnu književnost), Zulu (Waterstonova knjiga o vojnoj istoriji godine) i Operaciju Thunderbolt: Let 139 i Raciju na aerodromu Entebbe.


Hronologija istorije Okinave

Istorija Okinave: hronologija PRIMEVAL Starije kameno dobaShell Mound Age 605 Kineski car Yo (dinastija Sui) šalje Shu-Kana u Ryukyus 608 Otprilike u to vrijeme ljudi "južnih ostrva" odaju počast japanskom carskom dvoru. DREVNI 1187 Shunten postaje gospodar Centralne Okinawe 1260 Eiso beomes novi overlord 1296 Mongolska invazijska vojska napada Okinavu i biva odbijena 1317 Otočani Miyako izlaze na obalu u Kini dok putuju u trgovinu u jugoistočnoj Aziji 1326 Otprilike u to vrijeme, tri kraljevstva na Okinawi (Hokuzan, Chuzan i Nanzan) započinju svoje rivalstvo 1349 Satto postaje vladar Chuzana i povećava svoj utjecaj 1350 Nanzan (južno kraljevstvo) odaje počast Mingima 1383 Hokuzan (sjeverno kraljevstvo) odaje počast Mingima 1392 Grupa Kineza, sada poznata kao "Trideset šest porodica", naturalizirana je u Chuzanu. 1404 Sijamska prodavnica dolazi na Okinavu da trguje 1416 Kralj Chuzan, Sho Hashi, zauzima dvorac Nakijin i dovodi do propasti Hokuzana. 1425 Sho Hashi šalje trgovačke brodove Siamu 1428 Sho Hashi šalje trgovačka plovila u Palembang (Sumatra) 1429 Sho Hashi osvaja Nanzan i prvi je uspio ujediniti svu Okinavu. (Početak prve dinastije Sho.) 1430 Trgovački brodovi šalju se na Javu 1431 Sho Hashi uspostavlja formalne diplomatske odnose s Korejom i započinje trgovinu 1451Sho Kimpuku gradi Chokotei (put oko uvale Naha) 1458Događa se pobuna Gosamayu Awamarija. Izliveno je veliko zvono (Bankoku Shinryo) na kojem se nalazi natpis o prosperitetu Ryukyusa. 1459Kanemaru Uchima imenovan je za ministra vanjske trgovine. 1463Trgovački brodovi šalju se u Malaccu 1466Nakon audijencije kod Shoguna iz Muromachi Shogunate -a (Japan), misija prijateljstva Ryukyuan -a ispaljuje barut ispred vrata u znak proslave i zadivljuje stanovnike Kyota. 1470Kanemaru Uchima ruši prvu dinastiju Sho, započinje novu (drugu) dinastiju Sho i preuzima ime Sho En. 1492Sagrađen je hram Enkakuji 1498Trgovina počinje s Patanijem (na istočnoj obali Malezije) 1500Sho Shin osvaja otok Miyako, također ugušava pobunu koju vodi Oyake Akahachi s otoka Yaeyama i preuzima vlast nad dvorcima Saki Shima ("južni otok" kako su tada bili poznati Miyako i Yaeyama.) 1511Portugal uzrokuje propast Malake i jača je da se koristi kao baza za invaziju na Aziju. 1532Sastavljen je prvi tom knjige Omoro Soshi (sažetak starih pjesama i rituala). 1534Kineski car Ming šalje izaslanika Chin Kana i zabavu u posjet Ryukyusu 1553Dvorac Yara izgrađen je u luci Naha i pripremljena je obalna obrana 1579Tablet sa natpisom "Država i pristojnost" postavljen je na javni prikaz u dvorcu Shuri. (Napomena prevodioca: Ovu ploču je kineski car poklonio kralju u Shuriju kao priznanje za strogo pridržavanje Ryukyuana kineskim pravilima obreda i bontona.) 1592Hideyoshi Toyotomi (japanski Shogun) naređuje kralju Ryukyusa da pomogne u invaziji na Koreju, kralj ignorira naredbu. 1600Istočna vojska pobjeđuje u velikoj bici kod Sekigahare (u Japanu). Ieyasu Tokugawa uspostavlja svoje vodstvo u Japanu. 1609Ichisa Shimazu iz Satsume šalje 3.000 vojnika i potčinjava kraljevstvo Ryukyu. (Invazija na Shimazu) 1611Klan Satsuma razmatra proizvodne kapacitete Ryukyusa koji dijeli područje Amami Oshima (ostrva sjeverno od ostrva Yoron) od Ryukyusa: i predaje Okite Jugo Jo (petnaest uredbi kojih se svi trebaju pridržavati u Ryukyusima). 1614Satsumas naređuje strog nadzor nad svakom pošiljkom u i iz Ryukyusa. PREDMODERNO (feudalno) 1623Kompilacija Omoro Soshi (22 sveske) je završena 1631Kao sredstvo za držanje Ryukyusa pod kontrolom, Satsuma šalje stalnog administratora u Nahu. 1634Pokrenut je sistem slanja čestitki i zahvalnosti Edu (Tokio). 1637Anketa se naplaćuje na ostrvima Miyako i Yaeyama 1644Dinastija Ching naslijedila je dinastiju Ming u Kini 1650Sho Jo-Ken (Choshu Haneji) priprema "Povijest Chuzana". 1667Sho Jo-Ken naređuje sticanje elementarnog znanja o japanskoj scenskoj umjetnosti. 1711Sastavlja se rječnik starog Ryukyuan jezika (Konkoken Shu) 1719Chokun Tamagusuku komponuje Kumi Udui (odori) i predstavlja se prva izvedba 1728 Sai On postaje član Regentnog vijeća troje (premijer). 1734Naučnik Chobin Hishicha pogubljen je zbog političkih prekršaja 1771Plimni val zahvaća otoke Miyako i Yaeyama, nanoseći veliku štetu 1798U Shuriju je osnovana državna škola za potomke više klase samuraja 1816Britanski ratni brodovi Alceste i Lyra pozivaju Ryukyus na putu kući iz Kine. Kapetan Basil Hall iz Lyre kasnije se nakratko zaustavlja kod Helene i govori prognanom Napoleonu iz Ryukyusa. 1844Francuski ratni brod Alemene poziva i postavlja kršćanskog misionara u Nahu. 1846Engleski ratni brod dovodi aktivnog misionara Bettelheima u Nahu. 1851Perry, koji predvodi američke pomorske snage, dolazi u Nahu i posjećuje dvorac Shuri 1854Ruski ratni brodovi pozivaju Nahu. Perry se vraća i potpisuje se sporazum između Sjedinjenih Država i Kraljevine "Lew Chew". 1859Događa se incident u Makishi-Ongi. 1866Sho Tai prima pečate i dokumente o investituri kao kralj od Mandžura, posljednji ih je primio, a ujedno je i posljednji kralj Ryukyusa. 1868Shogunat Tokugawa je srušen i ostvaruje se nacionalna vlada pod carem Meijijem. 1871Brod kojim upravljaju otočani Miyako doživio je brodolom na Formosi, a pedeset i četiri čovjeka ubili su aboridžini. (Incident sa brodolomom Formosan) 1872Meiji vlada ukida Kraljevstvo Ryukyusa i uspostavlja Ryukyu Han (feudalni klan). 1879Kako bi Ryukyus postao sastavni dio Japana, iako mu se protive nasljedni gospodari Ryukyusa, Meiji ukida Ryukyu Han i postavlja prefekturu Okinawa. 1880Kineski Manchu snažno protestiraju protiv vladavine Meiji nad Ryukyusima, pitanje se rješava arbitražom bivših SAD-a. Predsjednik Grant. 1881Meiji vlada odlučuje očuvati i koristiti stari sistem vladavine u Okinawi. 1893Prve novine na Okinawi, "Ryukyu Shimpo", počinju izlaziti. MODERNO 1894 Zbog gubitka Kine u kinesko-japanskom ratu, anti-japanske frakcije na Okinawi brzo gube utjecaj. 1898 Rivalstvo između frakcije usredsređene na Noboru Jahanu, koja zahteva reviziju nepravednih političkih praksi na Okinawi, i stare škole se produbljuje. Zakoni o vojnom obavezivanju stupaju na snagu. 1903 Zemljišna reforma je završena, uspostavljeni su novi sistemi raspodjele zemljišta i porezi. 1909Održavaju se prvi izbori zastupnika i saziv Skupštine prefekture Okinave. 1911 Istoričar iz Okinave, Fuyu Iha, objavljuje svoje veliko djelo Ko Ryukyu (Drevni Ryukyu). 1914Izbija Prvi svjetski rat. 1919Zakoni koji se tiču ​​izbora predstavnika u Predstavnički dom prvi put se u potpunosti primjenjuju na Okinawi. 1925Zbog teške recesije, tri banke na Okinawi trpe poteškoće u upravljanju. 1926Postoje velike kontroverze oko romana "Lutajući Ryukyuan". 1928Na Okinawi se pojavljuju brojni radni sporovi. 1934Formira se društveno -istraživačko udruženje. 1938Uspostavljen je izvršni odbor Okinawe za pobuđivanje nacionalnog duha i jačaju militaristički ratni sistemi. 1940Dolazi do spora oko upotrebe okinavskog hogena (dijalekta). 1941Izbija Drugi svjetski rat. 1944Okinawa je pretrpjela veliki napad američkih snaga, a Naha je pretrpjela ozbiljna oštećenja. (Vazdušni napad desetog oktobra.) 1945Američke snage napadaju Okinavu. Japan se predaje bezuslovno. 1946General MacArthur proglašava Japan i Nansei Shoto (sva ostrva od Amami Oshime južno do Yaeyame) pod zasebnom upravom. 1949Osnovana je Republika Kina (Formosa). 1951Mirovni ugovor iz San Franciska stavlja Okinavu pod američku upravu. 1960Formirano je Vijeće za vraćanje Okinave. 1969Japan i SAD izdaju zajedničku deklaraciju da će, uz obostranu saglasnost, Okinawa biti vraćena Japanu 15. maja 1972. godine. 1972Uprava Okinawe vraća se 15. maja iz SAD -a u Japan. 1975Prva međunarodna izložba oceana otvara se na poluotoku Motobu u Okinavi.


Malcolm Murfett

Ratne knjige su izuzetna vrsta književnosti. Imaju trajnu popularnost među čitateljima iz širokog spektra klasa i zanimanja. Ovdje nema Brexita, nema podjele između onih koji imaju i onih koji nemaju, nema političke razlike koja bi odvojila jedno od drugog. Rat se prodaje i uvijek je bio. Pogledajte police vaših lokalnih Waterstones -a ili WHSmith -a i provjerite niz naslova koji se nude u salonima za odlaske s aerodroma ili na željezničkim stanicama preko interneta na Amazonu i drugim prodavačima knjiga: knjige o vojnim temama dominiraju u ponudi povijesti, a među njima je i dalje zbunjujući broj bavi dva svjetska rata.

Herojstvo i uzbuđenje, opasnost i avantura, lična slava i iskupljenje, nesposobnost i uništenje: rat ima sve. Priče o izuzetnim djelima hrabrosti i izdržljivosti mogu biti i slikovite i uvjerljive, a tih vrlina ima u izobilju u ovoj novoj studiji bitke za otok Okinawa 1945. Zapamtite, to nije lako čitati. Kako je moglo biti? Bitka se pokazala kao strašno iskustvo i za Amerikance i za Japance: toliko smrti i razaranja, toliko talentovanih i hrabrih žrtava.

Crucible of Hell je prikladno naslovljen. Napisano sa zanosom i stilom, Saul David, profesor vojne istorije na Univerzitetu u Buckinghamu, opljačkao je pisma, dnevnike, memoare i intervjue i unio mnoštvo ličnih priča i anegdota u svoju studiju ove strašne epizode. Zaslužan je za to

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Godine 1429. Sho Hashi, osnivač Prve dinastije Sho, osnovao je kraljevstvo Ryukyu ujedinivši tri dominantna kraljevstva Nanzan, Chuzan i Hokuzan, osvajanjem. Prva dinastija Sho trajala je samo sedam generacija, a Kanamaru (kasnije Sho En) kasnije je preuzeo prijestolje i započeo drugu dinastiju Sho. Ovo razdoblje povijesti Okinave poznato je kao "zlatno doba trgovine", tokom kojeg je doba kraljevstvo Ryukyu aktivno trgovalo s Kinom, Japanom i drugim azijskim zemljama, napredovalo kao pomorsko kraljevstvo, a priznala su ga čak i evropske zemlje. Jedinstvena kultura Ryukyusa uglavnom se pripisuje širokom spektru strane robe i kultura donesenih kroz trgovinu tokom druge dinastije Sho.

Međutim, početkom 17. stoljeća, kraljevstvo Ryukyu uključeno je u japanski feudalni sistem pod šogunatom, a kasnije ga je Japan pripojio rođenjem vlade Meiji. This marked the end of the 500-year history of the Ryukyu Kingdom and the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture.


Bookshop: Battle of Okinawa - History

Penguin delivers you to the front lines of The Pacific Theater with the real-life stories behind the HBO miniseries.

Former Marine and Pacific War veteran Robert Leckie tells the story of the invasion of Okinawa, the closing battle of World War II. Leckie is a skilled military historian, mixing battle strategy and analysis with portraits of the men who fought on both sides to give the reader a complete account of the invasion. Lasting 83 days and surpassing D-Day in both troops and material used, the Battle of Okinawa was a decisive victory for the Allies, and a huge blow to Japan. In this stirring and readable account, Leckie provides a complete picture of the battle and its context in the larger war.

Robert Leckie (1920-2001) was the author of more than 30 works of military history as well as Marines!, a collection of short stories, and Lord, What a Family!, a memoir. Raised in Rutherford, New Jersey, he started writing professionally at age 16, covering sports for the Bergen Evening Record of Hackensack, New Jersey. Leckie enlisted in the United States Marine Corps on the day following the attack on Pearl Harbor, going on to serve as a machine gunner and as an intelligence scout and participating in all 1st Marine Division campaigns except Okinawa. He was awarded five battle stars, the Naval Commendation Medal with Combat V, and the Purple Heart. Helmet for My Pillow was his first book it received the USMC Combat Correspondents Association Award upon publication.

Reviews for Okinawa: The Last Battle of World War II

Leckie's smooth narrative deals with all aspects of the Okinawa battle. and his style adds some nice touches, including autobiographical flashes that go back as far as Guadalcanal. -Washington Post Book World


Bookshop: Battle of Okinawa - History

Assault on Shuri

The 7th Marines was an experienced outfit and well commanded by Guadalcanal and Bougainville veteran Colonel Edward W. Snedeker. "I was especially fortunate at Okinawa," he said, "in that each of my battalion commanders had fought at Peleliu." Nevertheless, the regiment had its hands full with Dakeshi Ridge. "It was our most difficult mission," said Snedeker. After a day of intense fighting, Lieutenant Colonel John J. Gormley's 1/7 fought its way to the crest of Dakeshi, but had to withdraw under swarming Japanese counterattacks. The next day, Lieutenant Colonel Spencer S. Berger's 2/7 regained the crest and cut down the counterattackers emerging from their reverse-slope bunkers. The 7th Marines were on Dakeshi to stay, another significant breakthrough.

"The Old Breed" Marines enjoyed only a brief elation at this achievement because from Dakeshi they could glimpse the difficulties yet to come. In fact, the next 1,200 yards of their advance would eat up 18 days of fighting. In this case, seizing Wana Ridge would be tough, but the most formidable obstacle would be steep, twisted Wana Draw that rambled just to the south, a deadly killing ground, surrounded by towering cliffs pocked with caves, with every possible approach strewn with mines and covered by interlocking fire. "Wana Draw proved to be the toughest assignment the 1st Division was to encounter," reported General Oliver P. Smith. The remnants of the 62d Infantry Division would defend Wana to their deaths.

Because the 6th Marine Division's celebrated assault on Sugar Loaf Hill occurred during the same period, historians have not paid as much attention to the 1st Division's parallel efforts against the Wana defenses. But Wana turned out to be almost as deadly a "mankiller" as Sugar Loaf and its bloody environs. The 1st Marines, now led by Colonel Arthur T. Mason, began the assault on the Wana complex on 12 May. In time, all three infantry regiments would take their turn attacking the narrow gorge to the south. The division continued to make full use of its tank battalion. The Sherman medium tanks and attached Army flame tanks were indispensable in both their assault and direct fire support roles (see sidebar). On 16 May, as an indicator, the 1st Tank Battalion fired nearly 5,000 rounds of 75mm and 173,000 rounds of .30-caliber ammunition, plus 600 gallons of napalm.

Crossing the floor of the gorge continued to be a heart-stopping race against a gauntlet of enemy fire, however, and progress came extremely slowly. Typical of the fighting was the division's summary for its aggregate progress on 18 May: "Gains were measured by yards won, lost, then won again." On 20 May, Lieutenant Colonel Stephen V. Sabol's 3/1 improvised a different method of dislodging Japanese defenders from their reverse-slope positions in Wana Draw. In five hours of muddy, back breaking work, troops manhandled several drums of napalm up the north side of the ridge. There the Marines split the barrels open, tumbled them down into the gorge, and set them ablaze by dropping white phosphorous grenades in their wake. But each small success seemed to be undermined by the Japanese ability to reinforce and resupply their positions during darkness, usually screened by mortar barrages or small-unit counterattacks. The fighting in such close quarters was vicious and deadly. General del Valle watched in alarm as his casualties mounted daily. The 7th Marines, which lost 700 men taking Dakeshi, lost 500 more in its first five days fighting for the Wana complex. During 16-19 May, Lieutenant Colonel E. Hunter Hurst's 3/7 lost 12 officers among the rifle companies. The other regiments suffered proportionately. Throughout the period 11-30 May, the division would lose 200 Marines for every 100 yards advanced.

Heavy rains resumed on 22 May and continued for the next ten days. The 1st Marine Division's sector contained no roads. With his LVTs committed to delivering ammunition and extracting casualties, del Valle resorted to using his replacement drafts to hand-carry food and water to the front lines. This proved less than satisfactory. "You can't move it all on foot," noted del Valle. Marine torpedo bombers flying out of Yontan began air-dropping supplies by parachute, even though low ceilings, heavy rains, and enemy fire made for hazardous duty. The division commander did everything in his power to keep his troops supplied, supported, reinforced, and motivated — but conditions were extremely grim.

To the west, the neighboring 6th Marine Division's advance south below the Asa River collided against a trio of low hills dominating the open country leading up to Shuri Ridge. The first of these hills — steep but unassuming — became known as Sugar Loaf. To the southeast lay Half Moon Hill, to the southwest Horseshoe Hill and the village of Takamotoji. The three hills represented a singular defensive complex in fact they were the western anchor of the Shuri Line. So sophisticated were the mutually supporting defenses of the three hills that an attack on one would prove futile unless the others were simultaneously invested. Colonel Seiko Mita and his 15th Independent Mixed Regiment defended this sector. Its mortars and antitank guns were particularly well sited on Horseshoe. The western slopes of Half Moon contained some of the most effective machine gun nests the Marines had yet encountered. Sugar Loaf itself contained elaborate concrete-reinforced reverse-slope positions. And all approaches to the complex fell within the beaten zone of heavy artillery from Shuri Ridge which dominated the battlefield.

Sugar Loaf, western anchor of the Shuri defenses, and objective of the 22d Marines, is seen from a point directly north. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 124745

Battlefield contour maps indicate Sugar Loaf had a modest elevation of 230 feet Half Moon, 220 Horseshoe, 190. In relative terms, Sugar Loaf, though steep, only rose about 50 feet above the northern approaches. This was no Mount Suribachi its significance lay in the ingenuity of its defensive fortifications and the ferocity with which General Ushijima would counterattack each U.S. penetration. In this regard, the Sugar Loaf complex more closely resembled a smaller version of Iwo Jima's Turkey Knob/Amphitheater sector. As a tactical objective, Sugar Loaf itself lacked the physical dimensions to accommodate anything larger than a rifle company. But eight days of fighting for the small ridge would chew up a series of very good companies from two regiments.

Of all the contestants, American or Japanese, who survived the struggle for Sugar Loaf, Corporal James L. Day, a squad leader from Weapons Company, 2/22, had indisputably the "best seat in the house" to observe the battle. In a little-known aspect of this epic story, Day spent four days and three nights isolated in a shell hole on Sugar Loaf's western shoulder. This proved to be an awesome but unenviable experience.

Corporal Day received orders on 12 May to recross the Asa River and support the assault of Company G, 2/22, against the small ridge. Day and his squad arrived too late to do much more than cover the fighting withdrawal of the remnants from the summit. The company lost half its number in the day-long assault, including its plucky commander, Captain Owen T. Stebbins, shot in both legs by a Japanese Nambu machine-gunner. Day described Stebbins as "a brave man whose tactical plan for assaulting Sugar Loaf became the pattern for successive units to follow." Concerned about the unrestricted fire from the Half Moon Hill region, Major Henry A. Courtney, Jr., battalion executive officer, took Corporal Day with him on the 13th on a hazardous trek to the 29th Marines to coordinate the forthcoming attacks. With the 29th then committed to protecting 2/22's left flank, Courtney assigned Day and his squad in support of Company F for the next day's assault.

Day's rifle squad consisted of seven Marines by that time. On the 14th, they joined Fox Company's assault, reached the hill, scampered up the left shoulder ("you could get to the top in 15 seconds"). Day then received orders to take his squad back around the hill to take up a defensive position on the right (western) shoulder. This took some doing. By late afternoon, Fox Company had been driven off its exposed position on the left shoulder, leaving Day with just two surviving squad-mates occupying a large shell hole on the opposite shoulder.

Amtracs, such as these, were pressed into service in the difficult terrain to resupply the Marines on Sugar Loaf and to evacuate the wounded, all the while under fire. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 123218

During the evening, unknown to Day, Major Courtney gathered 45 volunteers from George and Fox companies and led them back up the left shoulder of Sugar Loaf. In hours of desperate, close-in fighting, the Japanese killed Major Courtney and half his improvised force. "We didn't know who they were," recalled Day, "because even though they were only 50 yards away, they were on the opposite side of the crest. Out of visual contact. But we knew they were Marines and we knew they were in trouble. We did our part by shooting and grenading every [Japanese] we saw moving in their direction." Day and his two men then heard the sounds of the remnants of Courtney's force being evacuated down the hill and knew they were again alone on Sugar Loaf.

Representing in effect an advance combat outpost on the contested ridge did not particularly bother the 19-year-old corporal. Day's biggest concerns were letting other Marines know they were up there and replenishing their ammo and grenades. "Before dawn I went back down the hill. A couple of LVTs had been trying to deliver critical supplies to the folks who'd made the earlier penetration. Both had been knocked out just north of the hill. I was able to raid those disabled vehicles several times for grenades, ammo, and rations. We were fine."

On 15 May, Day and his men watched another Marine assault develop from the northeast. Again there were Marines on the eastern crest of the hill, but fully exposed to raking fire from Half Moon and mortars from Horseshoe. Day's Marines directed well-aimed rifle fire into a column of Japanese running towards Sugar Loaf from Horseshoe, "but we really needed a machine gun." Good fortune provided a .30-caliber, air-cooled M1919A4 in the wake of the retreating Marines. But as soon as Day's gunner placed the weapon in action on the forward parapet of the hole, a Japanese 47mm crew opened up from Horseshoe, killing the Marine and destroying the gun. Now there were just two riflemen on the ridgetop.

Tragedy also struck the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, on the 15th. A withering Japanese bombardment caught the command group assembled at their observation post planning the next assault. Shellfire killed the commander, Major Thomas J. Myers, and wounded every company commander, as well as the CO and XO of the supporting tank company. Of the death of Major Myers, General Shepherd exclaimed, "It's the greatest single loss the Division has sustained. Myers was an outstanding leader." Major Earl J. Cook, battalion executive officer, took command and continued attack preparations. The division staff released this doleful warning that midnight: "Because of the commanding ground which he occupies the enemy is able to accurately locate our OPs and CPs. The dangerous practice of permitting unnecessary crowding and exposure in such areas has already had serious consequences." The warning was meaningless. Commanders had to observe the action in order to command. Exposure to interdictive fire was the cost of doing business as an infantry battalion commander. The next afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Jean W. Moreau, commanding 1/29, received a serious wound when a Japanese shell hit his observation post squarely. Major Robert P. Neuffer, Moreau's exec, assumed command. Several hours later a Japanese shell wounded Major Malcolm "O" Donohoo, commanding 3/22. Major George B. Kantner, his exec, took over. The battle continued.

The night of 15-16 seemed endless to Corporal Day and his surviving squadmate, Private First Class Dale Bertoli. "The Japs knew we were the only ones up there and gave us their full attention. We had plenty of grenades and ammo, but it got pretty hairy." The south slope of Sugar Loaf is the steepest. The Japanese would emerge from their reverse slope caves, but they faced a difficult ascent to get to the Marines on the military crest. Hearing them scramble up the rocks alerted Day and Bertoli to greet them with grenades. Those of the enemy who survived this mini-barrage would find themselves backlit by flares as they struggled over the crest. Day and Bertoli, back to back against the dark side of the crater, shot them readily.

Tanks evacuate the wounded as men of the 29th Marines press the fight to capture Sugar Loaf. The casualties were rushed to aid stations behind the front lines. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 122421

"The 16th was the day I thought Sugar Loaf would fall," said Day. He and Bertoli hunkered down as Marine tanks, artillery, and mortars pounded the ridge and its supporting bastions. "We looked back and see the whole battle shaping up, a great panorama." This was the turn of 1/3/22, well supported by tanks. But Day could also see that the Japanese fires had not slackened at all. "The real danger at Sugar Loaf was not the hill itself, where we were, but in a 300-yard by 300-yard killing zone which the Marines had to cross to approach the hill from our lines to the north . . . . It was a dismal sight, men falling, tanks getting knocked out . . . . the division probably suffered 600 casualties that day. In retrospect, the 6th Marine Division considered 16 May to be "the bitterest day of the entire campaign."

By then the 22d Marines was down to 40 percent effectiveness and General Shepherd relieved it with the 29th Marines. He also decided to install fresh leadership in the regiment, replacing the commander and executive officer with the team of Colonel Harold C. Roberts and Lieutenant Colonel August C. Larson.

The weather cleared enough during the late afternoon of the 16th to enable Day and Bertoli to see well past Horseshoe Hill, "all the way to the Asato River." The view was not encouraging. Steady columns of Japanese reinforcements streamed northward, through Takamotoji village, towards the contested battlefield. "We kept firing on them from 500 yards away," still maintaining the small but persistent thorn in the flesh of the Japanese defenses. Their rifle fire attracted considerable attention from prowling squads of Japanese raiders that night. "They came at us from 2130 on," recalled Day, "and all we could do was keep tossing grenades and firing our M-1s." Concerned Marines north of Sugar Loaf, hearing the nocturnal ruckus, tried to assist with mortar fire. "This helped, but it came a little too close." Both Day and Bertoli were wounded by Japanese shrapnel and burned by "friendly" white phosphorous.


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Early on the 17th a runner from the 29th Marines scrambled up to the shell-pocked crater with orders for the two Marines to "get the hell out." A massive bombardment by air, naval gunfire, and artillery would soon saturate the ridge in preparation of a fresh assault. Day and Bertoli readily complied. Exhausted, reeking, and partially deafened, they stumbled back to safety and an intense series of debriefings by staff officers. Meanwhile, a thundering bombardment crashed down on the three hills.

The 17th of May marked the fifth day of the battle for Sugar Loaf. Now it was the turn of Easy Company, 2/29, to assault the complex of defenses. No unit displayed greater valor, yet Easy Company's four separate assaults fared little better than their many predecessors. At midpoint of these desperate assaults, the 29th Marines reported to division, "E Co. moved to top of ridge and had 30 men south of Sugar Loaf sustained two close-in charges killed a hell of a lot of Nips moved back to base to reform and are going again will take it." But Sugar Loaf would not fall this day. At dusk, after prevailing in one more melee of bayonets, flashing knives, and bare hands against a particularly vicious counterattack, the company had to withdraw. It had lost 160 men.

The difficult and shell-pocked terrain of Okinawa is seen here in a view from the crest of Sugar Loaf toward Crescent Hill and southeast beyond the Kokuba River. This photograph also illustrates the extent to which Sugar Loaf Hill dominated the Asato corridor running from Naha to Shuri and demonstrates why the Japanese defended the area so tenaciously. Department of Defense (USMC) 124747

The 18th of May marked the beginning of seemingly endless rains. Into the start of this soupy mess attacked Dog Company, 2/29, this time supported by more tanks which braved the minefields on both shoulders of Sugar Loaf to penetrate the no-man's land just to the south. When the Japanese poured out of their reverse-slope holes for yet another counterattack, the waiting tanks surprised and riddled them. Dog Company earned the distinction of becoming the first rifle company to hold Sugar Loaf overnight. The Marines would not relinquish that costly ground.

But now the 29th Marines were pretty much shot up, and still Half Moon, Horseshoe, and Shuri remained to be assaulted. General Geiger adjusted the tactical boundaries slightly westward to allow the 1st Marine Division a shot at the eastern spur of Horseshoe, and he also released the 4th Marines from Corps reserve. General Shepherd deployed the fresh regiment into the battle on the 19th. The battle still raged. The 4th Marines sustained 70 casualties just in conducting the relief of lines with the 29th Marines. But with Sugar Loaf now in friendly hands, the momentum of the fight began to change. On 20 May, Lieutenant Colonel Reynolds H. Hayden's 1/4 and Lieutenant Colonel Bruno A. Hochmuth's 3/4 made impressive gains on either flank. By day's end, 2/4 held much of Half Moon, while 3/4 had seized a good portion of Horseshoe. As Corporal Day had warned, most Japanese reinforcements funneled into the fight from the southwest, so 3/4 prepared for nocturnal visitors at Horseshoe. These arrived in massive numbers, up to 700 Japanese soldiers and sailors, and surged against 3/4 much of the night. Hochmuth had a wealth of supporting arms: six artillery battalions in direct support at the onset of the attack, and up to 15 battalions at the height of the fighting. Throughout the crisis on Horseshoe, Hochmuth maintained a direct radio link with Lieutenant Colonel Bruce T. Hemphill, commanding 4/15, one of the support artillery firing battalions. This close exchange between commanders reduced the number of short rounds which might have otherwise decimated the defenders and allowed the 15th Marines to provide uncommonly accurate fire on the Japanese. The rain of shells blew great holes in the ranks of every Japanese advance Marine riflemen met those who survived at bayonet point. The counterattackers died to the man.

"Buck Rogers" rocket Marines load projectiles into the racks of a mobile launcher in preparation for laying down a barrage on Japanese positions during the Tenth Army drive to the south of Okinawa. Such barrages were very effective. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 181768

Even with Hochmuth's victory the protracted battle of Sugar Loaf lacked a climactic finish. There would be no celebration ceremony here. Shuri Ridge loomed ahead, as did the sniper-infested ruins of Naha. Elements of the 1st Marine Division began bypassing the last of the Wana defenses to the east. The 6th Division slipped westward. Colonel Shapley's 4th Marines crossed the Asa River, now chest-high from the heavy rain fall, on 23 May. The III Amphibious Corps stood poised on the outskirts of Okinawa's capital city.

The Army divisions in XXIV Corps matched the Marines' break throughs. On the east coast, the 96th Division seized Conical Hill, the Shuri Line's opposite anchor from Sugar Loaf, after weeks of bitter fighting. The 7th Division, in relief, seized Yonabaru on 22 May. Suddenly, the Thirty-second Army faced the threat of being cut off from both flanks. This time General Ushijima listened to Colonel Yahara's advice. Instead of fighting to the death at Shuri Castle, the army would take advantage of the awful weather and retreat southward to their final line of prepared defenses in the Kiyamu Peninsula. Ushijima executed this withdrawal masterfully. While American aviators spotted and interdicted the south-bound columns, they also reported other columns moving north. General Buckner assumed the enemy was simply rotating units still defending the Shuri defenses. But these northbound troops were ragtag units as signed to conduct a do-or-die rear guard. At this, they were eminently successful.

Men of Company G, 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, found themselves fighting in an urban environment in their house-to-house attack against the Japanese in Naha. Department of Defense (USMC) 122390

This was the situation encountered by the 1st Marine Division in its unexpectedly easy advance to Shuri Ridge on 29 May as described in the opening paragraphs. The 5th Marines suddenly possessed the abandoned castle. While General del Valle tried to placate the indignation of the 77th Division commander at the Marines' "intrusion" into his zone, he got another angry call from the Tenth Army. It seems that that the Company A, 1/5 company commander, a South Carolinian, had raised the Stars and Bars of the Confederacy over Shuri Castle instead of the Stars and Stripes. "Every damned outpost and O.P. that could see this started telephoning me," said del Valle, adding, "I had one hell of a hullabaloo converging on my telephone." Del Valle agreed to erect a proper flag, but it took him two days to get one through the intermittent fire of Ushijima's surviving rear guards. Lieutenant Colonel Richard P. Ross, commanding the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, raised this flag in the rain on the last day of May, then took cover. Unlike Sugar Loaf, Shuri Castle could be seen from all over southern Okinawa, and every Japanese gunner within range opened up on the hated colors.

The Stars and Stripes fluttered over Shuri Castle, and the fearsome Yonabaru-Shuri-Naha defensive masterpiece had been decisively breached. But the Thirty-second Army remained as deadly a fighting force as ever. It was an army that would die hard defending the final eight miles of shell-pocked, rain-soaked southern Okinawa.


Pogledajte video: Battle of Okinawa 1971 ORIGINAL TRAILER HD 1080p (Decembar 2021).

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