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USS Huntington (CL-77)

USS Huntington (CL-77)

USS Huntington (CL-77) položen je kao laka krstarica klase Cleveland, ali je dovršen kao nosač aviona klase Independence. Prvobitno je položena 17. decembra 1941. u njujoršku brodograđevnu kompaniju, ali dok je bila u izgradnji, donesena je odluka da se neke od krstarica klase Cleveland završe kao laki nosači aviona. The Huntington postao USS Cowpens (CVL-25). Lansirana je kao nosač 17. januara 1943., a puštena u rad 28. maja. Ime Huntington ponovno je korišten na krstarici klase Cleveland CL-107 koja je lansirana 1943., ali je puštena u rad tek 1946. godine.


USS Huntington (CL -77) - Povijest

(CL-107: dp. 10.000 1. 611'2 & quot b. 66'6 & quot; dr. 20 's. 33 k.
cpl. 992 12 6 & quot; 12 5 & quot; Fargo)

Drugi Huntington (CL-107) lansirala je New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, NJ, 8. aprila 1943. sponzorisana od strane gospođe 31. L. Jarrett, Jr. .

Nakon potresnog treninga u blizini zaljeva Guantanalllo, Kuba

Tl'untington je isplovio iz Philadelphije 23. jula 1946. na dužnost sa 6. flotom u Sredozemlju. Tokom krstarenja posjetila je mnoge luke, uključujući Napulj, Maltu Villefranche i Aleksandriju, pomažući u stabilizaciji nestabilne post-`var situacije u Evropi. Odlazeći iz Gibraltara 8. februara 1947. godine, učestvovala je u vježbama u blizini zaljeva Guantanamo, svratila u Norfolk anti Newport, R.I., i krenula iz potonje luke 20. NIJA 1947. na drugu dužnost po Mediteranu.

Vrativši se s krstarenja 13. septembra 1947., Huntington je 24. oktobra napustila Philadelphiju sa mornaričkom rezervom za vježbe izvan Bermuda i Newfoundlanda do 14. novembra 1947. Brod je zatim ušao u brodogradilište Philadelphia i prošao opsežan remont do 12. aprila 1948. Povratak u Norfolk 27. aprila sa svog osvježavajućeg krstarenja za obuku na Karibima Huntington je otplovio u Newport i otputovao na novu dužnost na Mediteran 1. juna 1948.

Huntington je od juna do avgusta 1948. posjetio različite luke, a nakon što je 22. septembra prešao Suecki kanal, krenuo je na turneju dobre volje po Africi i Južnoj Americi, doputujući u Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6. novembra. Tamo je brod počašćen vanrednom posjetom predsjednika Perona, a nastavak Urugvaja je 10. studenog primio sličnu posjetu predsjednika Berresa. Huntington je posjetio Rio i Trinidad prije nego što se vratio s ovog vrijednog krstarenja dobrom voljom

Krstarica je napravila jedno kratko krstarenje od Philadelphije do Kariba. vratila se u Newport 22. januara i odbacila 1. juna 1949. Konačno je izbrisana sa Mornaričkog popisa 1. septembra 1961. nakon što je bila u rezervi, a zatim je odbačena.


Blog Ray City History

Grob Henryja Elma DeLaneya, Gradsko groblje, Nashville, GA. Izvor slike: Searcher

Henry Elmo DeLaney, iz okruga Berrien, GA, bio je među vojnicima iz Prvog svjetskog rata na transportu trupa HMS Otranto 6. oktobra 1918. kada je smrtno stradao u sudaru sa HMS Kashmir kod obale Islaya, Škotska. Transport je isplovio iz New Yorka 25. septembra 1918. s više od 1.025 američkih vojnika i posade u sklopu konvoja koji se uputio u borbu u Europu. Delaney i većina vojnika Georgije na brodu Otranto trenirao u Fort Screvenu na Tybee Islandu, GA.

Delaney je bio ispod palube, upravo je dovršio doručak kad je došlo do sudara.

Ozbiljnost situacije nije odmah bila vidljiva muškarcima, kojima je rečeno da ostanu gdje jesu. Ali u roku od 15 minuta, svima je naređeno da se popnu na palubu. Brod se počeo listati i svjetla su se ugasila. Muškarci su izbili na olujni vjetar, a podnožje je bilo izdajničko na mokrim palubama. Henry Elmo DeLaney izašao je na palubu “B ” s drugim ljudima iz svoje kompanije i sjeo na klupu blizu otvora. Sjedio je pored Josepha Edena Hewella, vojnika iz Woodvillea, GA kada su promatrali britanski razarač HMS Mounsey kako dolazi uz Otranto, razarač koji je izgledao sićušan u usporedbi s ogromnim trupom.

Kad je razarač manevrirao kako bi se uklopio, kapetan Davidson iz Otranta upozorio je Lieuta. Craven, zapovijedajući razaračem, ne smije pokušati. Kad se vidjelo da će Craven ipak pokušati, muškarcima je naređeno da skinu cipele i tešku odjeću …

Kapetan Craven, koji je stajao na mostu Mounsey's#8217s dok su se dva broda približila na veliku udaljenost, upotrijebio je svoj megafon da ohrabri ljude u Otrantu. Vikao je uvijek iznova, što je glasnije mogao, “Skočite! Skoči. ”

” Dok se Mounsey približavao strani Otranta, ljudi su počeli skakati sa trideset do četrdeset stopa s njenih paluba. Neki od njih su nestali u vodi, ali drugi su uhvaćeni i smrvljeni između čamaca i čamaca za spasavanje koji su spušteni da djeluju kao odbojnici … Mnogi od onih koji su došli do palube broda pretrpjeli su slomljene kosti ili su na neki drugi način ozlijeđeni . Oni koji su propustili palubu razarača gotovo su odmah umrli.

Delaney i Hewell stajali su na tračnicama osuđenih Otranto, i gledali kako im kolege vojnici skaču za životom.

Delaney je primijetio da je i njima bolje skočiti. Uzburkano more zajedno je rušilo brodove, a ljudi koji su zaostali u vremenu bili su zgnječeni između trupova ili su zaronili do ledenih voda ispod. Prvo je DeLaney, zatim Hewell uspio sigurno sletjeti na palubu razarača, te su odvedeni u Belfast, Irska, zajedno s gotovo 600 drugih preživjelih. Stotine drugih ostalo je s Otrantom i sišlo s brodom kad se ona razbila na stijenama uz otok Islay. Hewell je kasnije napisao časopis o posljednjem putovanju Otrantom (vidi Hewell ’s 1918 Journal.)

Preopterećeni Mounsey nesigurno je sa preživjelima napravio put do Belfasta u Irskoj gdje je američki Crveni križ čekao njihov dolazak. Ne znajući kada i gdje će katastrofa doći, američki Crveni križ se unaprijed pripremio za katastrofu. Od onih koji su uspjeli skočiti na palubu Mounseyja, neki su poginuli od ozljeda ili izloženosti i sahranjeni su u Belfastu u Irskoj.

Mnogo, mnogo tijela je izbačeno na obalu u Islayu u Škotskoj i pokopano u masovne grobnice. Berrijenovi ljudi među stotinama mrtvih u Otrantu bili su Benjamin F. McCranie, Jim Melvin Boyett, John Guy Coppage, Hiram Marcus Bennett, Lafayett Gaskins, William C. Zeigler i drugi ljudi. Rani upravitelj iz Nashvillea, GA, bio je među rijetkima koji su se isprali na stjenovitoj obali Islaya koji je još živ. Izgubljeni gruzijski vojnici kasnije će biti odani počast Spomen -knjizi Gruzijskog Prvog svjetskog rata (VIDI i Ray City, veterani GA -e u Prvom svjetskom ratu), a okrug Berrien, GA će naručiti prvi spomenik u znak sjećanja na američke vojnike poginule u Velikom ratu.

Nakon oporavka, Henry Elmo DeLaney poslan je u Francusku, gdje je 3. decembra 1918. raspoređen u bateriju F, 57. artiljeriju, obalni artiljerijski korpus.

Zapisnik o poslu Henrija Elma Delaneya iz Prvog svjetskog rata

Baterija F, koja je vidjela teške borbe u Meuse Argonne, bila je “naređeno natrag u Brest, Francuska kako bi se pripremili za ukrcaj natrag u Ameriku.

Potpukovnik Charles J. Foley iz 57. artiljerije smatra:

Kad su sve operacije prestale, raspoređeni smo u Doulevant da se pripremimo za povratak kući. Imovinski poslovi su riješeni i puk je krenuo u logor u Brest na ukrcaj. Bilo bi dobro reći da nismo znali za druge luke iz kojih bismo najradije isplovili, ali ne želimo razočarati A.E.F. dužnosnici odabirom bilo koje druge rute, prihvatili smo njihov poziv i uronili se u blato kampa Pontenazen.

Kamp Pontanezen je najvjerovatnije bio mjesto gdje je Henry Elmo DeLaney sustigao 57. artiljerijski CAC. Kamp Pontanezen u Brestu u Francuskoj bio je mjesto s kojeg su američki vojnici vraćeni u Sjedinjene Države. Narednik James L. Grace, baterija D, 57. artiljerijski CAC zvani Pontanezen “ kamp blata i vode. Stavili su nas u šatore gdje smo ostali do 29. decembra 1918. godine.

Kamp Pontanezen iz Prvog svjetskog rata u Brestu, Francuska

KAMP NA BRESTU

Ovdje imamo veliku luku za ukrcaj za američke vojnike. Povremeno je tamo kampovalo 80.000 ljudi, luka prepuna brodova. U prvim mjesecima nakon što smo ušli u rat, kada je sve trebalo biti učinjeno užurbano, a mi smo bili novi na poslu, uslovi u Brestu su bili vrlo loši. Kao što vidimo, to je turobno, neprivlačno mjesto, zatrpano zgradama, željezničkim ogradama i sirovim, oštre barake. Većinu godine u Brestu pada kiša, a ceste, čvrste ispod njih, prekrivene su klizavim, polutečnim blatom koje beskrajne kolone kamiona zlobno kovitlaju sa svih strana. Nema se šta vidjeti osim turobnih mokrih baraka ili natopljenih šatora u krevetu. U početku su hiljade naših dječaka morali logorovati u ovim šatorima, spavati na vlažnom tlu, beskrajno se kretati kroz gusto ljepljivo blato. Onaj ko je imao nesreću da je tih dana bio u Brestu nikada neće zaboraviti to mesto.
No, američka energija i poduzeća transformirali su Brest prije završetka rata. Sagrađeno je dovoljno baraka za smještaj svih, posvuda su postavljene šetnje daskama. Kamp je napravljen onoliko ugodno koliko bi kamp mogao biti u tako vlažnoj klimi.
Brest je na čelu veličanstvenog zaljeva bez izlaza na sjeverozapadnu obalu Francuske. Vekovima je bila velika luka, Richelieu je 1631. godine izgradio prve pristaništa koja su tamo izgrađena. To je glavni grad jednog od pet pomorskih okruga Francuske. Postoje tvornice oružja, velike radionice, časopisi, dokovi i dvorišta, koji zapošljavaju hiljade ljudi.

S dokova u Brestu, muškarci su upaljačima prebačeni u transport USS koji čekaju Huntington.

Trupe se ukrcavaju na upaljač Amackassin, čekajući da se ukrcaju u Huntington za njihov put kući iz Francuske, 1919.

Fotografija američke pomorske povijesti USS Huntinga u toku, oko 1919. Krstarica USS Huntington pretvorena je u transport trupa nakon potpisivanja primirja kojim je okončan Prvi svjetski rat.

Pukovnija je 2. januara 1919. krenula iz Bresta u New York na američku krstaricu “Huntington. ” The Huntington služio je na pratnji za odbranu konvoja transporta koji su prevozili momke u Evropu.

Nakon potpisivanja primirja, Huntington je pretvoren u transport trupa i dodijeljen Transportnim snagama, Atlantskoj floti. Huntington je zatim otplovio za Francusku kako bi vratio svoje veterane iz evropskih borbi. Ona je 17. decembra napustila New York, 29. decembra 1918. stigla u luku u Brest u Francuskoj. 2. januara 1919. ukrcala je preko 1.700 putnika, od kojih je većina bila 57. artiljerija koja je vidjela mnogo akcija u Francuskoj, do New Yorka [ stiže] 14. januar.

Božanstvene službe na četvrtospratnoj palubi USS Huntington, prilikom prevoženja trupa 1919.

Henry Elmo DeLaney, iz okruga Berrien, GA, bio je među 1.700 putnika HuntingtonPrvo putovanje kao prijevoz koji se vraćao iz Francuske, januara 1919. Brod je napravio još pet putovanja u Francusku i vratio se, dovodeći kući gotovo 12.000 vojnika, a svoje posljednje putovanje je prekinuo u Bostonu 5. jula 1919. godine.

Delaneyjevo putovanje natrag iz Francuske bilo je bez problema sa samo dva dana nemirnog mora i uobičajenom količinom morske bolesti među trupama 57. artiljerijskog CAC -a. Poručnik Foley je primijetio, Kad smo prvi put ugledali Kip slobode i čuli povike Gradonačelnikovog odbora dobrodošlice, odlučili smo da na ovoj zemlji postoji samo jedna zemlja-Sjedinjene Američke Države. ”

Hoboken, NJ odbor za dobrodošlicu pozdravlja trupe iz Prvog svjetskog rata koje se vraćaju iz Francuske.

Sigurno smo stigli ujutro 14. januara 1919. godine pristajući u 9:35 A. M. na Pier 5 Hoboken, N. J. Odmah smo se iskrcali i ušli u kamp Merritt N. J.

Amerikanci drago što su kod kuće i#8211 čekaju vozove za kamp za demobilizaciju, Hoboken. Ovo je luka za ukrcaj iz Prvog svjetskog rata koja sada služi kao luka za debarkaciju. Vojnici američke vojske čekaju da se ukrcaju na voz. Muškarci su istočno od Štaba, očigledno između pristaništa 3 i 4.

Ti Amerikanci, na hiljade njih, koji stoje držeći aluminijske šolje za piće čekaju svoj prvi obrok na tlu Sjedinjenih Država nakon perioda službe u inostranstvu. Njihovi čopori leže na zemlji, svi su sastavljeni na propisan način, ali zasad odbačeni sve dok se mnogo važniji posao s ishranom ne završi.

Iza tog teretnog vagona koji je napunjen pukovskom prtljagom, možete vidjeti Vojnu poštu Hoboken, a niska zgrada pored nje je ured sjedišta, luka ukrcaja.

Zgrada na vrhu brda jedna je od grupa Stevens Instituta, a ispod nje možete vidjeti stranu Hudson Hut -a, jedne od Y.M.C.A. zgrade koje su zadovoljavale udobnost i potrebe muškaraca koji su se upravo vratili iz inostranstva.

Prije primirja samo je 15.000 ljudi vraćeno kući, a stalni tok ljudi odlazio je u inozemstvo. Uslov je morao biti preinačen nakon primirja. Taj posao vraćanja muškaraca odvijao se vrlo ekspeditivno i za tri mjeseca i#8217 puta više ljudi je vraćeno i sakupljeno iz službe nego što je cijeli broj prikupljen nakon građanskog rata.

Vojnici iz Prvog svjetskog rata kući iz Francuske stižu u kamp Merritt, NJ

Dolazak u kamp [Merritt] u 14:30 i za sada u kasarnu. U 3:30 popodne poslužena je večera, a u 7:10 večera, a u 8:50 popodne otišli smo do stanice za uklanjanje smetnji i sve ruke su bile otklonjene i Bog zna da nam je to trebalo. Proces uništavanja dovršen je oko deset sati i predali smo se na prijeko potreban odmor.

Nekoliko sedmica kasnije baterija "F" je demobilisana u Fort Sandy Hooku, New Jersey.

Nakon otpusta, Henry Elmo DeLaney se vratio u Južnu Georgiju. U februaru, Sparks Eagle izvijestio da je zauzeo svoj prethodni položaj u željeznici.

Sparks Eagle izvještava o povratku Henryja Elma Delaneya.

Do 1920. godine Henry Elmo DeLaney preselio je svoju porodicu u Willacoochee, gdje je nastavio raditi kao nadzornik odjela za željeznicu Georgia & amp; Florida Railroad. DeLaneys su svoj dom napravili u ulici South Railroad Street.

Do 1930 -ih, DeLaneys su se preselili u West Palm Beach, FL, gdje je Henry radio kao željeznički inspektor.

27. maja 1937. umrlica Henryja Elma Delaneya, preživjelog u katastrofi u Otrantu 1918. godine.

Henry Elmo Delaney umro je od moždanog udara 27. maja 1937. u dobi od 43 godine. Umro se vratio u okrug Berrien, GA. Sahranjen je u nedjelju, 30. maja 1937. na gradskom groblju u Nashvilleu, GA.


USS Huntington (CL -77) - Povijest


Nosači lakih flota klase Independence
Zapremina: 14.751 tona pri punom opterećenju
Dimenzije: 600 x 71,5 x 26 stopa/182,8 x 21,8 x 7,9 metara
Ekstremne dimenzije: 622,5 x 109,25 x 26 stopa/189,7 x 33,3 x 7,9 metara
Pogon: Parne turbine, 4 kotla od 565 psi, 4 vratila, 100 000 shp, 31,6 kts
Posada: 1,461
Oklop: Pojas 3-5 inča u CVL 24-30
Naoružanje: 2 četverostruka, 8 dvostrukih 40 mm AA, 16 pojedinačnih 20 mm AA
Avioni: 45

Koncept/program: Ratni hitni program za stvaranje nosača flote od "viškova" trupova lakih krstarica. Svi su pretvoreni iz lakih krstarica klase Cleveland.

Dizajn/konverzija: Konverzija je bila vrlo potpuna, uključujući zamjenu cijele nadgradnje krstara i naoružanja s hangarom, palubom za let i ostrvom, lijevci su prebačeni na desnu stranu. Trup je izbočen radi stabilnosti. Originalni dizajn nosača uključivao je 2 pojedinačna pištolja 5/38 DP, ali oni su zamijenjeni sa 2 četvorke 40 mm. CVL konverzija dovela je trup do granica njegovih mogućnosti. Ti su brodovi bili loši morski čamci, vrlo živahni po teškim vremenskim uvjetima i s njih je bilo teško letjeti, u nekim slučajevima CVE -i su se smatrali boljim avionskim platformama.

Varijacije: CVL 22 upotpunjen je pištoljima od 5 inča originalnog CVL dizajna, ali je ubrzo zamijenjen 40 mm.

Izmjene: Ovi su brodovi doživjeli nekoliko modifikacija tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Poslije rata nekoliko je ažurirano kao nosači ASW i lakih napada, ali nije bilo dovoljne marže rasta za velika poboljšanja.

Modernizacija: Nema većih modernizacija.

Klasifikacija: U početku je reklasificiran u nosače flote (CV), ali je 15. jula 1943. promijenjen u nosače lakih flota (CVL). Preživjeli su reklasifikovani u transporte aviona (AVT) dok su bili u rezervnom poslijeratnom periodu.

Operativno: Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata služili su zajedno s "velikim" prijevoznicima flote, ali su također poduzimali neke transportne i misije podrške. Uobičajena konfiguracija grupe zadataka bila je dvije Essex klase i jedan CVL. Svi su služili na Pacifiku od završetka do kraja neprijateljstava.

Poslije rata nisu mogli djelovati kao višenamjenski nosači, ali su služili kao laki napad, ASW i nosači obuke kao most između CVE-a koji su služili u tim ulogama i velikih preuređenih brodova klase Essex.

Polazak iz servisa/odlaganje: Položen odmah nakon Drugog svjetskog rata, ali nekoliko se vratilo u službu kao ASW, laki udarci i nosači obuke. Oni su ponovo ukinuti za rezervu kada su postali dostupni veći brodovi. Ostale napomene: Tri broda služila su u stranim mornaricama nakon što su ispisana iz američke službe. Osim CVE -a izgrađenih za prijenos, ovo su bili jedini američki prijevoznici prebačeni u inozemstvo.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 1. maja 1941., preuređen u CV, preimenovan i promijenjen CV 22 10. januara 1942, lansiran 22. avgusta 1942, pušten u rad kao nosač 14. januara 1943.

Redesigned CVL 22 15. jula 1943. Služio je u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Torpedirano 20. studenog 1943. s ozbiljnim oštećenjima.

Koristi se kao ciljni brod za operaciju Crossroads za testiranje atomske bombe 7/1946 za mjerenje učinka nuklearnog oružja na moderne brodove. Preživio prvi test bombe s malim oštećenjima, drugi test srušene letjelice. Odbačen iz upotrebe 8/1946. Nekoliko godina zaposlen kao istraživač radijacije i pristao u San Francisco. Potonuo kao meta 30. januara 1951., pogođen 27. februara 1951. godine.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 2. juna 1941, preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i preimenovan CV 23 16. februara 1942, lansiran 18. oktobra 1942, pušten u rad kao nosač 25. februara 1943.

Redesigned CVL 23 15. juli 1943. Služio u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Bombardovan 24. oktobra 1944. tokom bitke kod zaljeva Leyte rezultirao je ozbiljnom štetom i požarima. Cruiser Birmingham je došao uz asistenciju. Požari su gotovo stavljeni pod kontrolu kada su eksplodirale bombe pohranjene u krmenom torpednom magazinu, uzrokujući masovna razaranja na brodu i ozbiljno oštetivši Birmingham. Požari koji su se proširili s broda za upravljanje napušteni su i gašeni torpedima. Suprotno uobičajenim izvještajima, u smrtonosnoj eksploziji nije bilo torpeda.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 11. avgusta 1941, preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i preimenovan CV 24 16. februara 1942, lansiran 6. decembra 1942, pušten u rad kao nosač 31. marta 1943.

Redesigned CVL 24 15. jula 1943. Služio je u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Pogođen kamikazom 30. oktobra 1944. Raspušten u rezervu 13. januara 1947. godine.

Prebačeno u Francusku 6/51, remontovano tokom ponovnog aktiviranja. Preimenovan u Bois Belleau i pušten u službu u Francuskoj 9. septembra 1953., imenovan R97. Vraćen na USN 9/60, pogođen zbog odlaganja 1. listopada 1960. Odbačen u Chester PA 1962. godine.

[Povratak na vrh]
Cowpens
bivši Huntington
CL 77 - CV 25 - CVL 25 - AVT 1
Fotografije: [Završeno]

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 17. novembra 1941, preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i preimenovan CV 25 27. marta 1942, lansiran 17. januara 1943, pušten u rad kao nosač 28. maja 1943.

Redesigned CVL 25 15. juli 1943. Služio u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Odbačen iz rezerve 13. januara 1947. Preimenovan u zračni prijevoz (AVT 1) 16. maja 1959. dok je bio u rezervi. Pogođen zbog odlaganja 1. novembra 1959., otpisan u Portlandu OR, 1961. [Nazad na vrh]
Monterey
bivši Dejton
CL 78 -CV 26 - CVL 26 - AVT 2
Fotografije: [Završeno], [nosač obuke 1950 -ih],

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 29. decembra 1941, preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i preimenovan CV 26 31. marta 1942, lansiran 28. februara 1943., pušten u rad kao nosač 17. juna 1943.

Redesigned CVL 26 15. jula 1943. Služio je u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Raspušten u rezervu 11. februara 1947.

Ponovno postavljen za nosač obuke 15. septembra 1950. Polovica kotlova ostala je montirana sa ograničenim brojem okretaja, vjerovatno smanjenim na

20 čvorova. Služio je kao nosač obuke sve dok ga nije zamijenio Saipan, stavljen iz rezerve 16. januara 1956. Preimenovan u zračni prijevoz (AVT 2) 5/59 dok je u rezervi. Odbijen za odlaganje 1. juna 1970., a nakon toga otpisan.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Preuređeno kao nosač i promijenjeno CV 27 31. marta 1942, postavljen 11. aprila 1942, preimenovan u 13. novembar 1942, ponovo preimenovan u 15. maj 1943, pokrenut 22. maja 1943, pušten u rad 31. avgusta 1943.

Redesigned CVL 27 15. juli 1943. Služio u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Raspušten u rezervu 11. februara 1947.

Prebačeno u Francusku 8. januara 1951., remontovano tokom ponovnog aktiviranja. Preimenovan u Lafayette i primljen u službu u Francuskoj 2. juna 1951., imenovan R96. Vraćen u USN ožujak 1963. Pogođen zbog odlaganja 20. ožujka 1963., otpisan u Baltimoru 1964. godine.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Položen kao laka krstarica 16. marta 1942., preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i preimenovan CV 28 2. juna 1942, lansiran 4. aprila 1943., postavljen za nosač 24. jula 1943.

Redesigned CVL 28 15. juli 1943. Služio u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Udario kamikaze 25. novembra 1944. Raspušten u rezervu 11. februara 1947. Ponovo pušten u rad 27. oktobra 1948., modernizovan za upotrebu kao nosač ASW. Odbačen iz rezerve 21. januara 1955. Preimenovan u vazdušni transport (AVT 3) 5/1959 dok je u rezervi.

Ponovno aktiviranje i modernizacija remonta mornarice Philadelphia 1965-1967 u pripremi za transfer u Španiju. Prebačeno u Španiju, preimenovano Dedalo i pušten u rad 30. avgusta 1967., određen R01, kasnije PH-01, zatim PA-01. Udaren iz američkog NVR -a 1. augusta 1972., prodan Španjolskoj 5. prosinca 1972. U helikopterima i helikopterima upravljao je u španjolskoj službi.

Izbačen iz upotrebe 5. avgusta 1989. u New Orleansu radi očuvanja od strane Fondacije Cabot/Dedalo, ali napori za očuvanje nisu uspjeli i brod je odvučen u Port Isabel, TX 18. oktobra 1997. u pripremi za otpis u Brownsvilleu, TX je preseljen u Brownsville na odlaganje 9. avgusta 1998. Otpad počelo 10/2000.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Preuređeno kao prevoznik, preimenovano i označeno CV 29 2. juna 1942, postavljen 31. avgusta 1942, lansiran 1. avgusta 1943, pušten u rad 13. maja 1943.

Redesigned CVL 29 15. jula 1943. Raspušten u rezervu 11. februara 1947.

Ponovo pušten u rad 13. maja 1950., moderniziran kao nosač ASW. Služio je kao lagani CVA izvan Koreje. Raspušten u rezervu 9. aprila 1954. Preimenovan u zračni prijevoz (AVT 4) 5/59 dok je u rezervi. Stradao zbog odlaganja 1. septembra 1959. godine, a nakon toga otpisan.

[Povratak na vrh]
San Jacinto
ex-Reprisal, ex-Newark
CL 100 - CV 30 - CVL 30 - AVT 5
Fotografije: [San Jacinto tokom Drugog svjetskog rata].

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Preuređen kao nosač, preimenovan i promijenjen CV 30 2. juna 1942, postavljen 26. oktobra 1942, preimenovan ponovo 6. juna 1943, pokrenut 29. septembra 1943, pušten u rad 15. decembra 1943.

Redesigned CVL 30 15. juli 1943. Služio u Carrier TF tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. Raspušten u rezervu 1. marta 1947. Preimenovan u avioprevoz (AVT 5) 5/59 dok je u rezervi. Odbijen za odlaganje 1. juna 1970., a nakon toga otpisan.

[Povratak na vrh]

Nosači lakih flota klase Saipan
Zapremina: 19.086 tona pri punom opterećenju
Dimenzije: 664 x 76,75 x 25 stopa/202,4 x 23,4 x 7,6 metara
Ekstremne dimenzije:683,5 x 108 x 25 stopa/208,3 x 32,9 x 7,6 metara
Pogon: Parne turbine, 4 kotla od 600 psi, 4 vratila, 120 000 shp, 33 kts
Posada: 1,677
Oklop: Pojas 2,5-4 inča
Naoružanje: 5 četverostrukih, 11 dvostrukih 40 mm AA, 16 dvostrukih 20 mm AA
Avioni: 48

Koncept/program: Dizajnirana kao nastavak ranijih nosača lakih flota, ova klasa je pokušala riješiti neke probleme s kojima su raniji brodovi patili.

Dizajn: Dizajn trupa zasnovan je na teškim krstaricama klase Baltimore. Umjesto da je opremljen ispupčenjima, trup je u fazi projektiranja proširen za nekoliko stopa. Ovi su trupovi imali mnogo veću maržu rasta od ranijih konverzija. Opća konfiguracija bila je ista kao i raniji CVL -ovi.

Izmjene: Oboje su podvrgnuti manjim ažuriranjima prije stavljanja van pogona i naknadne konverzije na komandne/komunikacijske brodove.

Modernizacija: Bilo je nekoliko poslijeratnih planova za njihovu modernizaciju kao flotu, ASW ili nosače obuke. Planovi za veliku modernizaciju otkazani su jer je bilo na raspolaganju mnogo trupova klase Essex.

Klasifikacija: U početku klasificiran CV, ali promijenjen u CVL. Postali su AVT -ovi dok su bili u rezervi, prije konverzije.

Operativno: Vidio servis kao ASW, obuku i nosače flote prije stavljanja van pogona.

Polazak iz servisa/odlaganje: Višak je ostvaren raspoloživošću brodova klase Essex koji će popuniti većinu uloga prijevoznika koji su stavljeni van snage rezervisanih 1950 -ih.

Ostale napomene: Obje su bile planirane za reaktivaciju i konverziju u nacionalne zapovjedne brodove, ali je jedna promijenjena u komunikacijski relejni brod. Konfiguracije brodova nakon prenamjene bile su prilično slične: letačka paluba je pretvorena u "antenu farmu" sa uklonjenim katapultima i žicama za zaustavljanje, područje slijetanja helikoptera zadržano je na krmi, a hangar je pretvoren u kućne komunikacijske objekte.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Oznaka je promijenjena iz CV 48 to CVL 48 15. jula 1943., položeno 10. jula 1944., pokrenuto 8. jula 1945., pušteno u rad 14. jula 1946. godine.

U početku je služio kao nosač obuke, zatim za testiranje i razvoj mlaznih aviona zasnovanih na nosačima. Od 1948. do 1954. godine služila je kao operativni nosač flote. Zamijenjeno Monterey kao nosač obuke 1954., a zamijenio ga je Antietam 1957. Raspušten u rezervu 3. oktobra 1957. Preimenovan u zračni prijevoz (AVT 6) 15. maja 1959. dok je bio u rezervi.

Pokrenuta konverzija u Nacionalno zapovjedno mjesto za hitne slučajeve na površini (NECPA) 1963. godine je promijenjena CC 3 1. januara 1964. Pretvorba u NECPA otkazana je i zamijenjena konverzijom u glavni komunikacijski relejni brod za servis van Vijetnama. Preimenovan u Arlington 8. aprila 1965., promijenjen AGMR 2 21. avgusta 1965., ponovo pušten u rad 27. avgusta 1966. godine.

Potiskivanje nakon konverzije iznosilo je 19.800 tona pod punim teretom, nosilo je 8 dvostrukih 3/50 AA i opsežne komunikacijske kapacitete.

Odbačen iz rezerve 14. januara 1970. Stradao za odlaganje 15. avgusta 1975., a potom i otpisan.

DANFS Historija

Izgradio njujorški brodograditelj. Oznaka je promijenjena iz CV 49 to CVL 49 15. jula 1943. Položen 21. avgusta 1944, lansiran 1. septembra 1944, pušten u rad 9. februara 1947.

Služio je razne dužnosti, uglavnom obuku pilota i kao nosač ASW -a. Raspušten u rezervu 15. marta 1956. Preimenovan u zračni prijevoz (AVT 7) 15. maja 1959. dok je bio u rezervi.

Započela je konverzija u Nacionalno zapovjedno mjesto za hitne slučajeve na površini 3/1962. Završena konverzija, ponovo puštena u rad i preimenovana CC 2 11. maja 1963. Potonji premještaj iznosio je 19.750 tona pod punim opterećenjem, nosili su 4 blizana 40 mm AA, opsežne kapacitete predsjedničke komande.

Odbačeno iz rezerve 27. maja 1970. Stradalo zbog odlaganja 1. decembra 1977. Prodano i otpisano 1980. godine.


COWPENS CVL 25

U ovom odjeljku navedeni su nazivi i oznake koje je brod imao tokom svog života. Lista je hronološkim redom.


    Lagana krstarica klase Cleveland
    Keel Položen 17. novembra 1941. kao HUNTINGTON CL-77
    Preuređen kao nosač aviona 27. marta 1942. preimenovan u CV-25
    Preimenovan u 31. mart 1942
    Lansiran 17. januara 1943

Naval Covers

U ovom odjeljku navedene su aktivne veze na stranice koje prikazuju naslovnice povezane s brodom. Trebalo bi postojati zaseban skup stranica za svaku inkarnaciju broda (tj. Za svaki unos u odjeljku "Naziv broda i istorija oznaka"). Naslovnice trebaju biti prikazane hronološkim redoslijedom (ili najbolje što se može odrediti).

Budući da brod može imati mnogo naslovnica, one se mogu podijeliti na mnogo stranica tako da se ne može vječno učitati. Svaka veza do stranice trebala bi biti popraćena rasponom datuma za naslovnice na toj stranici.

Poštanske marke

U ovom odjeljku navedeni su primjeri poštanskih žigova koje brod koristi. Trebalo bi postojati zaseban skup poštanskih žigova za svaku inkarnaciju broda (tj. Za svaki unos u odjeljku "Naziv broda i istorija oznaka"). Unutar svakog skupa, poštanske žigove treba navesti prema njihovom tipu klasifikacije. Ako više poštanskih žigova ima istu klasifikaciju, onda ih treba dalje sortirati prema datumu najranije poznate upotrebe.

Poštanski žig ne bi trebao biti uključen osim ako nije popraćen slikom izbliza i/ili slikom naslovnice koja prikazuje taj poštanski žig. Rasponi se MORAJU bazirati SAMO na omotima u MUZEJU i očekuje se da će se mijenjati s dodavanjem novih naslovnica.
 
& gt & gt & gt Ako imate bolji primjer za bilo koji poštanski žig, slobodno zamijenite postojeći primjer.


USS Huntington (CL -77) - Povijest

Ova stranica sadrži sve različite poglede koje imamo u vezi s USS West Virginia (Oklopna krstarica # 5, nazvana Huntington nakon novembra 1916.).

Ako želite reprodukcije veće rezolucije od ovdje prikazanih digitalnih slika, pogledajte: & quotKako nabaviti fotografske reprodukcije. & Quot

Kliknite na malu fotografiju da biste ponudili veći prikaz iste slike.

USS Fairfax (Razarač # 93)

U toku sa preživjelima S.S. Lucije na brodu, oko 18. oktobra 1918. Kasnije su prebačeni na USS Huntington (Oklopna krstarica # 5).
Obratite pažnju na Fairfaxovu kamuflažu.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 55KB 740 x 415 piksela

Potonuće S. S. Lucije, 17. oktobra 1918

Lansiranje motora sa USS Huntington -a (Oklopna krstarica # 5) napuštajući USS Fairfax (Razarač # 93) s preživjelima s američkog parobroda Lucia.
Fairfax je vidljiv u pozadini.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 71KB 740 x 455 piksela

Potonuće S. S. Lucije, 17. oktobra 1918

Lansiranje motora stiže uz USS Fairfax (Destroyer # 93) s hrpom preživjelih s američkog parobroda Lucia.
Ovaj brod je sa USS Huntington -a (oklopna krstarica # 5).

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 70KB 740 x 455 piksela

USS Huntington (Oklopna krstarica # 5, bivša Zapadna Virdžinija)

Trupe se ukrcavaju na upaljač Tudno, spremne ukrcati se u Huntington radi prolaska kući, u luci Brest, Francuska, 17. aprila 1919.
Fotografirali Sponagle & Haynie.

Ljubaznošću Donalda M. McPhersona, 1973.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 97KB 740 x 490 piksela

USS Huntington (Oklopna krstarica # 5, bivša Zapadna Virdžinija)

Upaljač Knickerbocker dovodi trupe 356. pješadijske i povremene čete na brod radi prolaska kući, u luci Brest, Francuska, 16. maja 1919.
Fotografirali & quotS & H & quot (vjerovatno Sponagle i Haynie).

Ljubaznošću zapovjednika poručnika Ellisa M. Zachariasa, USN, 1931.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 93KB 740 x 485 piksela

Upaljač za trajekte Knickbocker

Isporuka vojnika 356. pješadijske i ležerne trupe USS -u Huntington (Oklopna krstarica # 5) za transport kući u Sjedinjene Države. Fotografirao & quotS & H & quot (vjerovatno Sponagle & Haynie) u Brestu, Francuska, 16. maja 1919. godine.
Originalna slika je odštampana na razglednici (& quotAZO & quot).

Donacija dr. Marka Kulikowskog, 2009.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 119KB 900 x 590 piksela

Povratak američkih snaga iz Francuske, 1919

Trupe stižu na USS Huntington (oklopna krstarica # 5) radi prolaska kući iz Bresta, Francuska, 24. juna 1919. Ukrcavaju se na mali parobrod Amackassin. Još jedna oklopna krstarica američke mornarice nalazi se na pravoj udaljenosti.

Originalna slika je odštampana na poštanskoj karti (& quotAZO & quot).

Donacija dr. Marka Kulikowskog, 2005.

Fotografija zapovijedi pomorske povijesti i naslijeđa SAD -a.

Online slika: 73KB 740 x 480 piksela

USS Huntington (Oklopna krstarica # 5, bivša Zapadna Virdžinija)

Trupe se ukrcavaju na upaljač Amackassin, čekajući da se ukrcaju u Huntington za njihov put kući iz Francuske, 1919.
Vjerovatno je fotografirano u luci Brest 24. juna 1919.


Zapadno od ropstva


Mathew Brady (1822–1896), William M. Gwin, portret u pola dužine, tri četvrtine desno, između ca. 1844 i ca. 1860. Ljubaznošću američke Kongresne biblioteke.

Kad su sredinom 19. stoljeća američki robovlasnici gledali na zapad, vidjeli su kako se pred njima razvija carstvo. Oni su tu viziju slijedili službenim diplomatskim kanalima, migracijama i oružanim osvajanjima. Do kasnih 1850 -ih, robovlasnici i njihovi saveznici pretvorili su jugozapadnu četvrt zemlje - Kaliforniju, Novi Meksiko, Arizonu i dijelove Utaha - u političkog klijenta država plantaža. Preko ovog ogromnog dijela karte, bijeli južnjaci branili su instituciju afroameričkog ropstva pokretnina, kao i sisteme domorodačkih ropstava. U svojoj knjizi, Zapadno od ropstva: južni san o Transkontinentalnom carstvu (University of North Carolina Press, 2021), Kevin Waite, docent za istoriju na Univerzitetu Durham u Engleskoj, otkriva ovu iznenađujuću istoriju Starog juga na neočekivanim mjestima, daleko izvan polja pamuka u regionu i plantaža šećera.

Zapadne ambicije robovlasnika kulminirale su krizom od obale do obale za Uniju. Do 1861. pobuna na jugu inspirisala je niz separatističkih pokreta na Zapadu. Čak i nakon raspada Konfederacije, konce koje su povezivale Jug i Zapad zadržale su se, potkopavajući radikalno obećanje o obnovi. Waite, djelomično koristeći Huntingtonove materijale, iznosi na vidjelo ono što su savremenici prepoznali, ali su povjesničari samo djelomično opisali: Borba za ropstvo odigrala se na transkontinentalnoj pozornici. In the following essay, adapted from his book, Waite focuses on William M. Gwin, a slaveholding former senator from California who fled the United States to the court of Napoleon III toward the end of the Civil War. Gwin soon convinced the emperor to throw France’s support behind a bold scheme for a renegade colony in Sonora, Mexico, from which Gwin planned to launch a second rebellion against the war-torn U.S., eventually drawing California, he hoped, into an independent Pacific republic.

As U.S. troops dug in for a prolonged siege of Petersburg, Virginia, in the winter of 1864–65, their commander contemplated a new campaign roughly 3,000 miles away. General Ulysses S. Grant looked toward northwest Mexico with growing disquiet, even as his forces prepared for the final crushing assault on the Confederate South. The object of his anxiety was a motley group of “dissatisfied spirits of California” who had congregated in an expatriate colony in Sonora, Mexico. From this colony, Grant feared an assault on the soft underbelly of California. In which case, he was prepared to respond in force, as he wrote to one of his generals. “I would not rest satisfied with simply driving the invaders onto Mexican soil,” Grant fumed, “but would pursue [them] until overtaken, and would retain possession of the territory from which the invader started until indemnity for the past and security for the future . . . was insured.”


Edwin Vose Sumner (1797–1863) to Lawrence Kip, Nov. 4, 1861. This is a copy of General Sumner’s original arrest order for William Gwin, Calhoun Benham, and Joseph Lancaster Brent when they were sailing from California to Panama. The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens.

Grant, currently engaged in what would become a 292-day siege of the main Confederate army in Virginia, certainly had more pressing concerns than a ragtag group of American exiles in a far-flung Mexican colony. Why, then, did he contemplate an invasion of a sovereign foreign nation and threaten to turn his nation’s civil war into an international conflagration?

The answer to that question lies in The Huntington’s archives, where a collection of letters reveals the true story behind this little-known episode in Civil War history. Those letters put us on the trail of a California rebel who crisscrossed the Atlantic, defied U.S. authorities, and conspired with emperors—all in a wildly ambitious attempt to build an empire of his own.

William McKendree Gwin (1805–1885) was the most powerful man in California during the decade between the Gold Rush and the outbreak of the Civil War. Born in Tennessee, educated in Kentucky, and groomed politically in Mississippi, Gwin moved to California shortly after the discovery of gold in 1849. While most migrants streamed toward California’s mineral wealth, Gwin had come west for a different kind of prize: a seat in the U.S. Senate. He won it that same year and held the position for the rest of the decade (except for a lull between 1855–57, when the Senate seat remained vacant.)


William McKendree Gwin (1805–1885) to Joseph Lancaster Brent (1826–1905), July 7, 1862, first page of a four-page letter. While in Jackson, Louisiana, Gwin writes of his life since his release from prison at Fort Lafayette in New York: “I have had nothing but trouble and sorrow ever since I saw you. My children have no home.” The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens.

Although he went to Washington as a representative from a free state, Gwin’s political loyalty lay with the slaveholding South. He demanded strict discipline from his faction of the Democratic Party, known as the Chivalry, and rewarded his Southern-born allies in California with the majority of the state’s well-paying patronage positions. He also continued to own a large plantation in Mississippi and more than 200 slaves. Thanks to Gwin, California’s political leadership generally sided with the South on the major political issues of the day, such as the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Dred Scott decision. As one pioneer remarked, albeit with a touch of hyperbole, “the State of California was as much under the control of the Southern wing of the Democratic party as South Carolina, and voted in Congress for Southern interests to all intents and purposes.” It was a place, he continued, “as intensely Southern as Mississippi or any other of the fire-eating States.”

When the war came, however, California’s loyal citizens prevailed, thwarting several audacious Confederate plots within the state. Southern loyalists like Gwin were now caught between a rock and a hard place. Some operated clandestinely in an attempt to weaken U.S. control in the state, while others fled for the Confederate South. Gwin was among the exiles. But unlike many of those who returned to the slaveholding states, Gwin did not directly join the Confederate war effort. He had grander ambitions.

In October 1861, Gwin enlisted the aid of two of his allies—Joseph Lancaster Brent of Los Angeles and the secessionist lawyer, Calhoun Benham—and boarded the USS Orizaba in San Diego. The ship was sailing for New York, via Panama. But the three rebels never intended to sail for a U.S. harbor. Instead, according to Brent, they planned to “leave the steamer at Panama, make our way to the West Indies, and from there run the blockade into one of the Southern ports.”


William McKendree Gwin (1805–1885) to Joseph Lancaster Brent (1826–1905), March 27, 1863, first two pages of a four-page letter. In this letter, one of the most important among the Joseph Lancaster Brent papers at The Huntington, Gwin writes to Brent about his plans to leave the United States and later indicates his desire to return to California after a Confederate victory to establish an independent Pacific republic—although he uses guarded terms. The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens.

Unfortunately for them, General Edward Vose Sumner, along with 400 U.S. soldiers, had also boarded the USS Orizaba. Sumner, the former commander of the Pacific Department, had been particularly vigilant in his surveillance of California rebels during the opening phase of the war, and he maintained that vigilance aboard the ship. While at sea, he ordered the arrest of Gwin, Benham, and Brent, “all leading, active, and influential men of the party in rebellion against the government.” The order for their arrest, along with many of the documents that detail Gwin’s long, strange trip, can be found in The Huntington’s Brent papers, a unique and seldom-used resource for Civil War scholars.

In protesting their arrest, the three men nearly sparked an international conflict. When the USS Orizaba pulled into port at Panama City, several American southerners there—including the former minister to Panama, who owed his appointment to Gwin—caught wind of the ex-senator’s arrest. They appealed to the governor, who in turn dispatched a company of soldiers to the landing wharf to protest the “violation of the sovereignty of Panama.” Sumner threatened to bombard the city if his orders were resisted and sent the three prisoners ashore, guarded by a flotilla of small boats and 400 soldiers, while a man-of-war pulled into the port and turned its broadside on the city. According to Brent, their arrest was carried out with “a ‘pomp and circumstance of war’ such as [Francisco] Pizarro himself never possessed on the Isthmus when at the height of his power.”


Alexandre Cabanel (1823–1889), Napoleon III, oil on red painted hardwood panel, ca. 1865, 12.5 x 16.1 in. (32 x 41 cm). Acquired by William T. Walters, 1887–1893. Courtesy of the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

Thus secured, the prisoners were sent off to New York under parole and later imprisoned at Fort Lafayette. President Lincoln, after vigorous lobbying from a friend (who also happened to be Benham’s brother-in-law), reluctantly agreed to free the prisoners in late 1861. “I never want to hear their names mentioned again,” Lincoln sighed as he ordered their release. He was not to be so lucky. Brent returned to his home state of Louisiana and rose to the rank of Brigadier General within the Confederate cavalry, while Gwin would eventually menace the Union from abroad.

Gwin first went to Mississippi, where he tended to his affairs and his plantation for the next few years, while his son served a brief stint in the Confederate cavalry. Musing on his next steps, he wrote to Brent in March 1863. America was no place for him, he concluded, with U.S. troops closing in on every side. “I want to get away from war,” he wrote. Ultimately, Gwin hoped to return to a California free from U.S. control. With a Confederate victory, he hoped to “put down the Yankees” in his former state and live out his days as a citizen of a newly proclaimed republic. Although sketchy in their details, here were plans for a separate empire on the Pacific: first, southern independence, then the termination of U.S. rule in California.

But California had to wait in the meantime, France beckoned. After Union forces sacked his Mississippi plantation in July 1863, Gwin boarded the side-wheeler R.E. Lee, ran the federal blockade, and sailed for Paris. He joined a large community of southern expatriates, many endeavoring to enlist French aid in the Confederate cause. Although never pledging official support for the slaveholders’ rebellion, the French emperor Napoleon III proved receptive to these overtures—more so than other European heads of state—turning a blind eye to the money and munitions that French sources were sending to the Confederate South.


Jean-Adolphe Beaucé (1818–1875), Le Général Bazaine attaque le fort de San-Xavier lors du siège de Puebla, 29 mars 1863 (General Bazaine attacks the fort of San Xavier during the siege of Puebla, 29 March 1863), 1867, oil on canvas, 84.6 x 147.6 in (215 x 375 cm). © RMN-Grand Palais (Château de Versailles) Gérard Blot. This painting depicts the siege of Puebla during the French invasion of Mexico.

Thus Gwin had reason for optimism when he won an audience with Napoleon to outline his plan for a new mining colony in Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. France had invaded Mexico in the spring of 1862, on the pretext of securing repayment of past debts, and installed the Austrian archduke Maximilian I on the throne of the newly created Mexican Empire. Gwin proposed to unearth the hidden wealth of this empire by attracting American immigrants to the mineral regions of northern Mexico, and to provide a buffer against the United States, which was hostile to Napoleon’s puppet government. All he asked in return was a military detachment of some 1,000 to defend his interlopers against the Indigenous people of the region, who had long claimed that land. Enchanted by Gwin’s assurances of mineral wealth, Napoleon and his cabinet endorsed the plan by the spring of 1864 and dispatched Gwin to Mexico City to prepare the way for the new colony.

Although the former senator pitched his colony as an opportunity for France’s imperial prospects, Gwin had a different empire in mind when he set out for Mexico in the summer of 1864. As he recalled in his memoirs, the Sonora colony was to be a key component in a vast Pacific republic. Had the Confederacy won its independence, “it was believed by many that the country would have still been divided by the separation of California from the Union and the establishment of an independent government on the Pacific coast,” he wrote. “In that event, northern districts of Mexico would have formed an important addition to the Western Republic.” With an army of emigrants, most of them Southern-born, Gwin could exert his political will over a powerful and resource-rich Pacific empire, entirely free from U.S. control.


Édouard Manet (1832–1883), The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1868–69, oil on canvas, 99.2 x 120 in (252 x 305 cm). Courtesy of Kunsthalle Mannheim.

Only in hindsight does such a geopolitical reordering appear fanciful or far-fetched. As historian Rachel St. John has argued, Gwin’s visions for Pacific independence were “entirely possible” and consistent with decades of American imperialism. Expansionists like Gwin—men with “grand ambitions and flexible loyalties”—saw “their nation’s boundaries not as a fait accompli but as a work in progress.”

Gwin was just the latest in a long line of Americans, including Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Hart Benton, Daniel Webster, James K. Polk, and Alexander Stephens, who openly mused on the possibility of a Pacific empire. As much as he craved a Pacific outlet for the United States, Jefferson saw little reason to believe that his nation’s dominion would span the entire continent. More likely, he conceded, Anglo-American settlers would establish coexisting confederacies, “governed in similar forms and by similar laws,” across the breadth of North America. Gwin sought to make that possibility a reality.


William McKendree Gwin (1805–1885) to Joseph Lancaster Brent (1826–1905), June 13, 1866, fifth and sixth pages of a six-page letter. Gwin reports on his release from prison at Fort Jackson to Brent and exults in the fact that Gwin never took a loyalty oath to the United States: “Thank God I have never taken an oath [of allegiance] . . . ” The Huntington Library, Art Museum, and Botanical Gardens.

In fleeing one war in the United States, Gwin nearly created another in Mexico. When U.S. officials caught wind of his movements in Sonora, they prepared for a border-crossing conflict. Ulysses S. Grant was particularly worried about Gwin, “a rebel of the most virulent order.” So too was General Irwin McDowell, commander of the Pacific Department. Two of Gwin’s agents were then operating in San Francisco to recruit would-be colonists and thereby “plant upon our frontiers a people hostile to our institutions, our influence, and our progress,” McDowell wrote. In response, the general drove the two immigration agents from San Francisco, then instituted a policy requiring passports for all Mexican-bound travelers. Meanwhile, he dispatched a brigadier general to Arizona to monitor Gwin’s movements, and organized a force of several hundred men to “provide for any contingency.”

Gwin wasn’t officially commissioned by the Confederate government, but Confederates cheered his progress. “[I am] highly valued,” Gwin wrote, “because I am with the South in this contest.” John Slidell—the Confederate minister to France, who had been privy to Gwin’s dealings in Paris—held high hopes for the Sonora mission. “His object is to colonize Sonora with sons of southern birth… residing in California,” Slidell wrote to Confederate secretary of state Judah P. Benjamin. “If carried out its consequences will be most beneficial.” Geographic factors alone, as Slidell probably recognized, would have lent the Sonora colony a southern character. In close proximity to rebel Arizona and Confederate-sympathizing Southern California, the Sonora colony would be a magnet for nearby disunionists. As the Confederacy’s armies crumbled in the East, Gwin’s colony could have opened a rebel escape valve in the West.


Mathew Brady (1822–1896), William M. Gwin, between ca. 1860 and ca. 1865. Courtesy of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.

Yet for all the Unionist fears and Confederate expectations that he stirred, Gwin’s Mexican career was short-lived. A medley of factors beyond his control—interpersonal struggles within the court of the French-controlled Mexican emperor Maximilian, the tenacious resistance of President Benito Juárez’s Liberal armies, administrative missteps—doomed his best laid plans. Gwin began recruiting in California, but without French military, mining operations could not safely commence. Gwin—ridiculed by the Unionist press as “El Duque de Guino” (“Gwin, the Duke”)—continued pressing his case until early in the summer of 1865, several months after the Confederacy’s collapse. By July, however, he finally abandoned his plans and rode from Mexico City under an armed escort.

Maximilian eventually faced a firing squad of Juárez’s victorious soldiers Gwin was fortunate to escape with his life—a fact he attributed to the poor marksmanship of the Mexican Liberals. But he had merely leaped from the frying pan and into the fire. Back in the United States, and with Confederate rebellion quashed, the former senator was arrested and transported under guard to Fort Jackson, Louisiana, in October 1865.


Kevin Waite, West of Slavery: The Southern Dream of a Transcontinental Empire (University of North Carolina Press, 2021).

He languished there for nearly eight months, until April 1866. Aside from Jefferson Davis, no Confederate high official served such a long prison term after the war. And for good reason. Gwin’s border-crossing adventure was among the boldest separatist schemes of the war. Other California rebels had raised funds and arms for the Confederate war effort some even fled the state to join the rebel army. But only Gwin had dared to conspire with foreign dignitaries and to launch a colony intended as the southern extension of an independent Pacific republic. As the United States attempted to reassert sovereignty over the former Confederacy, Gwin’s actions highlighted the globetrotting nature of the recent rebellion, when the slaveholding South reached into the courts of emperors.

You can watch Kevin Waite discuss his book, West of Slavery: The Southern Dream of a Transcontinental Empire, with Alice Baumgartner, assistant professor of history at USC, and Andrés Reséndez, professor of history at University of California, Davis, here. His book is available from the Huntington Store here.

Kevin Waite is assistant professor of history at Durham University in England.


Local restaurant again rewards naval ship crewmen with a taste of breaded tenderloin specialty

Tenderloins from Huntington will once again be served aboard a vessel in the United States Navy that has Indiana ties.

At the end of February, 140 tenderloins from Nick’s Kitchen will be shipped to the USS Indianapolis (LCS-17), a Freedom class littoral combat ship based in Mayport, FL.

It’s the second time that the venerable Huntington diner – which claims to be the birthplace of the breaded pork tenderloin sandwich – has sent its popular creations to a vessel in the navy with a connection to the Hoosier State. In 2018, Nick’s shipped 150 tenderloins to the USS Indiana (SSN-789), a Virginia class attack submarine based in Groton, CT.

That shipment, along with the forthcoming shipment, came about when Ray Shearer, the chairman of the USS Indiana and USS Indianapolis commissioning committees, approached the state’s county commissioners about sending unique gifts from their counties to the vessels as a show of support. Rob Miller, vice president of the Huntington County Commissioners, suggested that Huntington County’s contribution could be a shipment of Nick’s famed tenderloins.

The USS Indiana received its sandwiches in November 2018, a couple of months after its commissioning ceremony. Miller says they were a hit.
“Those guys, they loved it,” he shares.

As that shipment went over so well, when it came time to do something special for the USS Indianapolis, which was commissioned in October 2019, Shearer approached the Huntington County Commissioners once more, doing so at a recent commissioners conference.

“Ray came up and talked to Tom (Wall) and me” says Miller, “and said, ‘Hey, would you guys be willing to do that again?’”

Miller says it’s an honor that Huntington County has another opportunity to support a crew in the navy.

“Little piece of Huntington County going to these young men and women who are getting ready to ship out of the East Coast on the USS Indianapolis,” he says.

Miller adds that Patti Smith, a project engineer with one of the commissioners’ vendors, Beam, Longest and Neff, a civil engineering firm based in Indianapolis, got her firm to pay for the tenderloins and will cover the cost of shipping them.

Shearer relays that the crews of the USS Indianapolis and USS Indiana take pride in their vessels’ connections to the Hoosier State.

“They’ve kind of taken on a persona of Indiana,” he says. “They know basketball’s pretty important to us back here. There’s a lot of theming onboard that reflects basketball.”

Shearer adds that there’s a friendly rivalry between the two vessels, resembling the state’s most famous sports rivalry.

“Kind of like a Purdue and IU (Indiana University) rivalry,” he says with a grin.

Being a new ship, the USS Indianapolis will undergo testing for the next year, says Shearer. As for the USS Indiana, it will be deployed later this year, he notes.

Shearer thanked the owner of Nick’s, Jean Anne Bailey, for providing the tenderloins that have gone to the vessels during a visit to the diner on Monday, Feb. 17. As a show of his appreciation, he presented Bailey with pictures of the USS Indiana and USS Indianapolis, the latter of which was signed by the crew. He also gave her a commissioning coin.

Shearer also took a moment during his stop in town to thank Huntington’s Incipio Devices for making two plaques for the USS Indiana and USS Indianapolis that list the names of Indiana’s naval Medal of Honor recipients.

“All those great Hoosiers will be honored onboard,” he says.

Ultimately, whether it’s through commemorative plaques or tasty tenderloins, Shearer says Hoosiers never miss an opportunity to support the country’s armed forces.

“There is no better state at honoring our veterans and supporting our military better than we do it in Indiana,” he says.


Meet the USS Montana: The U.S. Navy's Most Advanced Sub Ever?

These latest submarines continue to inform the Navy’s expanded mission envelope for attack submarines, given their increased ability to conduct undersea reconnaissance.

Here’s What You Need to Remember: The U.S. Navy has now launched the USS Montana, its final Block III Virginia-class attack submarine, a much-anticipated development intended to bring new levels of undersea warfare technology and mission possibilities to the Navy. The new boat set sail from Huntington Ingalls shipyard in Newport News, Va., on March 3.

The Virginia Block III boats incorporate a handful of next-generation innovations to include a more capable, technically advanced Large Aperture Bow sonar array bringing new undersea surveillance and reconnaissance options to submarine commanders as well as “Lock Out Trunk” configuration to improve Special Operations forces mission transport. A Lock Out Trunk, which could be described as a specially engineered compartment enabling Navy SEALs to exit the boat for clandestine missions without the submarine needing to surface. Mine-detection, covert attacks and rescue missions as well as undersea scout missions are all safer and less detectable with Block III.

“The USS Montana can attack targets ashore with highly accurate Tomahawk cruise missiles. It can conduct covert long-term surveillance of the land, the littorals and the sea. It elevates our anti-submarine and anti-ship power. It gives us an edge in mine delivery and detection. It extends the global reach of our special forces,” former Acting Undersecretary of the Navy, Gregory J. Slavonic, said in a Navy report at the USS Montana christening last Fall.

Alongside these innovations, Block III boats also incorporate a cutting-edge “fly-by-wire” computerized navigational system. What this does is draw upon computer automation to set the speed and depth of the submarine while human decisionmakers remain in a command and control capacity. This kind of “joystick” operated system brings submarine technology beyond hydraulic systems and even opens the door to the prospect of various applications of AI. For example, perhaps the submarine can launch mini undersea, mine-hunting drones from its missile tubes and instantly gather, organize and analyze incoming sonar signals to transmit precisely configured, timely data to submarine commanders. Incoming return signals can, using AI, be bounced instantly against an existing database of compiled information such as threat libraries, mine-configurations or even surface ship maneuvers to locate enemy positions. Threat signatures that might take longer to find and identify can be cataloged and transmitted on an exponentially faster timeframe, helping attack submarines stay in front of an adversary’S decision cycle. The boats are also built with a fiber optic periscope cable enabling commanders to view their surroundings from anywhere within the submarine, as opposed to just beneath the top of the boat on a periscope.

AI has even progressed to the point wherein incoming threat scenario data can instantly be compared against specific, cataloged counterattack or defensive responses to help optimize decision-making for human commanders. Perhaps one threat scenario might require an immediate torpedo launch, whereas another might need to inform surface ships of approaching enemy boats and a third response may simply be to change course or surface. Advanced computer databases, enabled by AI-empowered computer algorithms able to perform analytics in seconds, can find, compare and analyze which prior responses best addressed the threat circumstance and make informed calculations regarding which weapon, counterattack or responsive course of action might best be suited for a given situation. These are the kinds of emerging technical capabilities now likely being introduced to submarine computer systems, the kinds of innovations now better enabled by Block III Virginia-class boats.

Block III is also continuing to inform the Navy’s expanded mission envelope for attack submarines, given their increased ability to conduct undersea reconnaissance. For example, newer Virginia-class submarine variants could patrol coastal areas searching for enemy mines with forward operating Unmanned Undersea Vessels (UUVs) able to identify threats. This increases an ability to conduct clandestine surveillance missions and enables operations in areas less accessible to deeper drafts and potentially more vulnerable surface ships.

Part of the reason Virginia-class Block III submarines bring a new ability for undersea reconnaissance is due to a series of innovations pioneered several years ago on a testbed prototype submarine called the USS South Dakota. USS South Dakota is now deployed and some of its new innovations are operational, a development introducing new performance technologies. While the specifics of these systems are not discussed by Navy developers for obvious security reasons, senior submarine developers with the service explain they contain a new generation of quieting technologies, something which naturally improves an ability to operate without detection.

The pace of arrival of Virginia-class submarines is also of great significance to the Navy, given that the service has for many years now been working with Congress to substantially uptick Virginia-class submarine production to help mitigate an expected submarine fleet deficit in coming years. Following extensive work with Congress to secure additional funding for the highly prioritized undersea warfare fleet, the Navy conducted several industrial base assessments and was able to determine that the capacity exists to build up to three per year starting in 2025. The pace at which Los Angeles class submarines are retiring, not to mention a growing and increasingly concerning Chinese submarine force, has inspired the Navy to uptick the production rate of its submarines and sustain accelerated development even as the new Columbia-class submarines begin to come online.

Interestingly, some of the Block III innovations are being built into the emerging fleet of nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines called the Columbia class. The Columbia, believed to potentially become the stealthiest submarine ever to exist, will incorporate the fiber optic periscope as well as fly-by-wire computerized navigation, among other things.

As for what’s next, a statement from one of the major Virginia-class submarine builders, Huntington Ingalls, quotes Jason Ward, Newport News’ vice president of Virginia-class submarine construction saying, “we look forward to executing our waterborne test program, and working toward sea trials and delivering the submarine to the Navy later this year.”

Finally, all of this paves the way toward Virginia-class Block IV, Block V and Block VI boats, not to mention a next-generation class of attack submarines now in the conceptual phase. Block V, well known for its Virginia Payload Modules, will bring a massive amount of new firepower by bringing the submarine’s Tomahawk-firing capacity from 12 up to 40.

Kris Osborn is the defense editor for the National Interest. Osborn previously served at the Pentagon as a Highly Qualified Expert with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army—Acquisition, Logistics & Technology. Osborn has also worked as an anchor and on-air military specialist at national TV networks. He has appeared as a guest military expert on Fox News, MSNBC, The Military Channel, and The History Channel. He also has a Masters Degree in Comparative Literature from Columbia University.


Pogledajte video: USS Cobia USS Nautilus Gato Class Submarine Scale Model Vintage Kit Build Review WWII Nuclear Sub (Novembar 2021).

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