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Kolona Aja Sofije

Kolona Aja Sofije


Kratka istorija Aja Sofije

C veslano u svjetlu sa zlatnom kupolom koja se proteže 102 stope poprečno Aja Sofija (Sveta mudrost) bila je najveća crkva u kršćanskom svijetu više od hiljadu godina. Njegova razmjera i ljepota bili su u središtu vjerskog divljenja pravoslavnih, katolika i muslimana, a stoji svake godine za hiljade turista i hodočasnika u Istanbul. Slavna povijest crkve, međutim, nije prošla bez popriličnog udjela u trijumfima i strahotama.


Osvećene legende o Aja Sofiji

Ljudi svih jezika, vjera i porijekla mogu zajedno moliti u tolerantnom okruženju. Ovo nije mit, to je stvarnost u jednom od najljepših gradova na svijetu, u jedinstvenom umjetničkom djelu, naslonjenom na duboko plavo more i monumentalnu arhitekturu. To je daleko najljepši i najdragocjeniji dragulj na svijetu, sveti hram poklonjen cijelom čovječanstvu od vizantijskog cara Justinijana I: Aja Sofija.

Priča o ovom veličanstvenom spomeniku koji se nalazi u starom gradskom jezgru Istanbula jednako je zanimljiva kao i njegov izgled. Aja Sofija je obnovljena nakon pobune Nika, u periodu izgradnje od samo četiri godine i deset mjeseci. Zbog činjenice da je još dosta stubova i materijala bilo na raspolaganju prije rušenja dijelova, zgrada se mogla brzo obnoviti. Međutim, legenda kaže da ti građevinski materijali nisu doneseni ni iz jedne zgrade, već iz Solomonovog hrama, uobičajene priče koja se priča među bizantskim narodom. Nažalost, ne možemo tvrditi da je ovo istina, međutim, znamo da je nova i slavna crkva postala stvarnost 537. To je precizirao povjesničar Prokopije [1], također je izjavio da je car Justinijan mislio na Hram sv. Solomona u Jeruzalemu, što jača mit. Prema tradiciji, Justinijan je uzviknuo: „O Solomone! Prošao sam te! ”. Ovo je simbolični izraz odnosa između Justinijana i proroka Solomona, koji se još uvijek nalazi na Carevim vratima zgrade. Osim ove veze između dvije zgrade, one imaju i druge sličnosti. Oba hrama izgrađena su na svetim osnovama, a poznato je da su neki od najsvetijih hramova na svijetu.

Misterije i legende Aja Sofije nisu samo ugrađene u strukturu zgrade koju je jedna osoba izgradila za obožavanje ljudi. Umjesto toga, legende o svetim svetilištima prenose se s koljena na koljeno. Prema legendi, car Justinijan nije bio zadovoljan arhitektonskim projektima koji su mu predstavljeni prilikom obnove Aja Sofije. Priča kaže da je za vrijeme vjerske ceremonije zgrabio komad kruha koji je zatim odnijela pčela. Svi u carstvu počeli su tražiti ovu pčelu i komad kruha koji je pripadao caru. Osoba koja bi uspjela vratiti kruh bila bi nagrađena. Kad se hljeb i pčela konačno vrate, oboje su zaglavljeni u saću, koje ima oblik crkve. Zbog činjenice da se sveti kruh dijeli iznad oltara, a saće liči na crkvu, Justinijan odlučuje da Aja Sofiju treba modelirati prema ovom božanskom planu.

Još jedna legenda koja uključuje sastavljanje Aja Sofije smatra Justinijanov san. Nezadovoljan razvojem događaja i radom poznatih arhitekata, Justinijan je jedne noći zaspao. U snu se nalazi na praznom zemljištu na kojem će biti izgrađena Aja Sofija, na tom mjestu se pojavljuje ozareno lice. Lice gleda lijevo i ostaje čekati u jednom kutu. Justinijan prati lice i primjećuje srebrne ploče u ruci figure, na ploči je nacrtana slika crkve. To je upravo slika koju je car imao u umu, pa nastavlja moliti Boga da zadrži ovu sliku u svom umu, a mi da je napravimo za crkvu. Kad završi molitvu, lice mu se nasmiješi i kaže: "Snimite ovu sliku, crkva je napravljena prema njegovom primjeru!". Justinijanova zahvalnost je velika i on arhitektima odmah daje upute.

Na sjeverozapadu unutar Aja Sofije stoji zanimljiva kolona, ​​poznata kao kolona "Znojenje" ili "Želja". Prepoznatljiv je po rupi u sredini prekrivenoj bronzanom pločom. Osim izgleda, kaže se da ima i ljekovitu moć. Legenda kaže da je car Justinijan lutao po zgradi s jakom glavoboljom, nakon što se nagnuo u kolonu shvatio da je nestala. Priča se proširila širom javnosti, a mit o ljekovitosti kolumne opstaje sve do danas. Možda biste trebali posjetiti Aja Sofiju i probati. Navodno djeluje kada stavite prst u rupu i protrljate mjesto na tijelu koje drži bolest. Međutim, ovo nije jedina priča koja kruži oko ovog mjesta. Osmanska legenda priča o sultanu Mehmedu II Osvajaču sa Aja Sofijom. Nakon pada Carigrada, obavio je prvu molitvu petkom u Aja Sofiji od imameta Akshamsaddina, koji mu je mentor. Međutim, nisu mogli započeti molitvu zbog činjenice da zgrada nije bila okrenuta prema Kabi. Legenda kaže da se u tom trenutku pojavio Khidr (lik opisan u Kur'anu kao pravedni Božji sluga koji posjeduje veliku mudrost ili mistično znanje), pokušavajući pomaknuti zgradu tako da gleda prema Kabi. Kada je jedan od ljudi vidio Khidra, to nije mogao dovršiti. Do današnjeg dana ljudi ostvaruju svoje želje okretanjem palca u ruti u smjeru kazaljke na satu. Ovo simbolizira Khidrov čin.


Sadržaj

Stub je napravljen od opeke i prekriven mesinganim pločama. [2] Kolona je stajala na mramornom postolju od sedam stepenica, a na vrhu joj je bila ogromna bronzana konjička statua cara u trijumfalnoj odjeći ("Ahilova haljina" kako je Prokopije naziva), noseći mišićavu kirasu u starinskom stilu, pernata kaciga od paunovog perja ( toupha), držeći a globus cruciger na lijevoj ruci, a desnu ruku pruža prema istoku. [3] Postoje neki dokazi iz natpisa na kipu da je to zapravo mogla biti ponovno korištena ranija statua Teodosija I ili Teodosija II. [2] [4]

Kolona je netaknuta preživjela do kasnog vizantijskog doba, kada ju je opisao Nikifor Gregora [5], kao i nekoliko ruskih hodočasnika u grad. Potonji je također spomenuo postojanje, prije kolone, grupe od tri brončane statue "poganskih (ili Saracenskih) careva", postavljenih na kraćim stupovima ili postoljima, koji su klečali podložni pred njom. Ovi su očito preživjeli do kasnih 1420 -ih, ali su uklonjeni nešto prije 1433. [6] Sam stub je opisan kao velike visine, 70 metara prema Cristoforu Buondelmontiju. Bilo je to vidljivo s mora, a jednom je, prema Gregorici, kada je toupha pao, za njegovu obnovu bile su potrebne usluge akrobata, koji je koristio uže spušteno s krova Aja Sofije. [7] [8]

Do 15. stoljeća, za statuu se, zbog svog istaknutog položaja, zapravo vjerovalo da je to statua osnivača grada, Konstantina Velikog. [4] I druga su udruženja bila aktualna: talijanskom starinaru Cyriacusu iz Ancone rečeno je da predstavlja Heraklija. [4] Stoga se općenito smatralo da kolona, ​​a posebno velika globus cruciger, ili "jabuka", kako je bilo popularno poznato, predstavljala je grad genius loci. [9] Shodno tome, njegov pad s ruke kipa, negdje između 1422. i 1427. godine, viđen je kao znak predstojeće propasti grada. [10] Ubrzo nakon osvajanja grada 1453. godine, Osmanlije su skinule i potpuno demontirale kip kao simbol svoje vladavine, dok je sama kolona uništena oko 1515. [9] Pierre Gilles, francuski učenjak koji živi u gradu 1540 -ih, dao je prikaz preostalih fragmenata kipa koji su ležali u palači Topkapi, prije nego što su istopljeni za izradu topova: [9]

Među fragmentima su bile Justinijanova noga, koja je prelazila moju visinu, i njegov nos, dugačak preko devet centimetara. Nisam se usuđivao mjeriti konjske noge [. ], ali je privatno izmjerio jedno kopito i otkrio da je visok devet centimetara.

Izgled samog kipa sa natpisima sačuvan je, međutim, na crtežu iz 1430 -ih godina (vidi lijevo) po nalogu Cyriacusa iz Ancone.


Sadržaj

Uređivanje stupca zmije

Jedan od najstarijih spomenika koji je još preživio iz antike je Zmijski stup, spomenik koji je prvobitno izgrađen u čast Apolona zbog pobjede nad Perzijancima kod Plateje 479. godine prije nove ere. Kolonu je pomerio Konstantin Veliki kada je Konstantinopolj postao nova prestonica, i od tada stoji na carigradskom hipodromu. Prema legendi, jedan član poljske ambasade u posjeti 1700. godine teško mu je oštetio vrh, odlomšivši glave zmija, iako je u stvarnosti barem jedna glava prijavljena kao jako oštećena dva stoljeća ranije. [1] Prihvaćena verzija kaže da ga je Mehmed II razbio pri ulasku u grad kao trijumf kao njegov osvajač. [2] Gornja vilica jedne od zmijskih glava izložena je u Arheološkom muzeju u Istanbulu.

Kolona Konstantina Edit

Najvažniji spomenici rimske arhitekture u gradu uključuju Konstantinovu kolonu (turski: Çemberlitaş), koju je 330. godine podigao Konstantin Veliki za obilježavanje proglašenja novog glavnog grada Rimskog carstva i sadržavao je nekoliko ulomaka Istinskog križa i drugih artefakata koji su pripadali Isusu Kristu i Djevici Mariji, Mazulkemer akvadukt, akvadukt Valens, stub Gota u parku Gülhane, milion koji je služio za izračunavanje udaljenosti između Carigrada i drugih gradova Rimskog carstva, te carigradski hipodrom izgrađen po uzoru na Cirkus Maximus u Rimu.

Zidovi Carigrada i okolina Edit

Izgradnja Carigradskih zidina započela je za vrijeme Konstantina Velikog, koji je proširio ranije postojeće zidine Vizantije kako bi branio novu rimsku prijestonicu koja je brzo rasla nakon proglašenja za Novu Romu. Novi niz zidova izgrađen je zapadnije za vrijeme vladavine Teodozija II., A obnovljen je nakon potresa 447. godine u sadašnjem obliku. Morski zidovi na području Seraglio Point, koji neprekidno postoje od Ligosa i Vizantije, najstariji su dio gradskih zidina, dok su dvostruki kopneni zidovi Teodozija II na zapadnom kraju grada najjači dijelovi. Sjeverozapadni dio kopnenih zidina izgrađen je 627. godine, za vrijeme Heraklija (610–641), kako bi se smjestilo predgrađe Blachernae, a dodali su ga i kasniji carevi.

Gradske zidine imale su 55 vrata, od kojih su najveća bila Porta Aurea (Zlatna vrata), svečana ulazna vrata koja su koristili carevi, na jugozapadnom kraju trostrukih kopnenih zidina, blizu Mramornog mora. Za razliku od gradskih zidina koje su izgrađene od cigle i vapnenca, Porta Aurea je izgrađena od velikih, čisto izrezanih blokova od bijelog mramora kako bi se razlikovala od ostalih, a na vrhu je stajala kvadriga sa kipovima slonova. [4] Vrata Porta Aurea bila su izrađena od zlata, otuda i naziv, što na latinskom znači "Zlatna vrata". [4]

Godine 1458., osmanski sultan Mehmed II sagradio je tvrđavu Yedikule za odbranu Porta Aurea, koja je ugrađena u ovaj dvorac i još uvijek stoji kao dio rasporeda zidova dvorca u obliku peterokuta. Markijanova kolona (turski: Kıztaşı) koje je podigao Markijan (vladao 450–457) datira iz istog razdoblja kao i trostruki kopneni zidovi Teodozija II.

Najstarija bizantska građevina koja je preživjela od vladavine Heraklija je zatvor Anemas, [5] ugrađen u gradske zidine, u Blachernaeu. To je ogromna građevina nalik dvorcu s nekoliko kula i mrežom podzemnih bizantskih zatvora.

Aja Sofija i Mala Aja Sofija Edit

Ranobizantska arhitektura slijedila je klasični rimski model kupola i lukova, ali je dodatno poboljšala ove arhitektonske koncepte, o čemu svjedoči Aja Sofija, koju su Isidor i Anthemius projektirali kao treću crkvu koja se podigla na ovoj lokaciji, između 532. i 537. godine, nakon nereda u Niki (532) tokom kojih je druga crkva uništena (prvu crkvu, poznatu kao Megala Ekklessia (Velika crkva) otvorio je Konstancije II 360. drugu crkvu je otvorio Teodosije II 405. godine, dok su treću i sadašnju je otvorio Justinijan 537. godine).

Crkva svetih Sergija i Baha (Mala Aja Sofija), koja je bila prva crkva koju je izgradio Justinijan u Carigradu i izgrađena između 527. i 536. godine, ranije je nagovijestila takvo poboljšanje u dizajnu kupolastih zgrada, koje zahtijevaju složena rješenja za nošenje struktura.

Današnja Aja Irena (koju je prvobitno izgradio Konstantin u 4. stoljeću, no kasnije ju je Justinijan povećao u 6. stoljeću) i Cisterna bazilika također su iz tog perioda.

Manastir Stoudios Edit

Većina vizantijskih crkava koje je izgradio ili povećao Justinijan u 6. veku prvobitno su izgrađene u 4. veku u doba Konstantina. Najstarija preživjela vizantijska crkva u Istanbulu sa svojim izvornim oblikom je manastir Stoudios (İmrahor), izgrađen 462. godine. Manastir je poznat i kao St. John Stoudios jer je bila posvećena sv. Ivanu Krstitelju. Krov zgrade danas ne postoji, ali su njeni okolni zidovi, kao i njeni sjajni podni ukrasi još uvijek netaknuti. Mnoge važne odluke u vezi s kršćanstvom donesene su u ovoj zgradi, uključujući žestoke rasprave o identitetu Djevice Marije (bila ona ili nije Bogorodica (Majka boga) i je li bilo ispravno osuditi Nestorija koji se protivio ovoj definiciji) kao i rasprave i sukobe o ikonoklazmu.

Hagia Irene Edit

Nakon odluke Teodore, supruge Teofilove, da obnovi ikone 843. godine, mnoge crkve i druge istaknute vizantijske zgrade u gradu bile su ukrašene novim ikonama, ali neke, poput Aja Irene, i dalje nose znakove ikonoboračkog perioda. Palata Boukoleon uvelike potječe iz vladavine Teofila. [6]

Palata Blachernae i Palata Porphryogenitus Edit

Palata Porfirogenita (turski: Tekfur Sarayı), koji je jedini preživjeli dio palače Blachernae, datira iz perioda Četvrtog križarskog rata. Tih godina, na sjevernoj strani Zlatnog roga, dominikanski svećenici Katoličke crkve izgradili su crkvu svetog Pavla 1233.

Crkva Chora i crkva Pammakaristos Edit

Najvažnije crkve koje su izgrađene nakon što su Vizantinci zauzeli Carigrad 1261. godine uključuju crkvu Chora i crkvu Pammakaristos. Konačna struktura crkve Chora koja postoji odražava pet dodataka koji su dovršeni tokom posljednjeg mandata ktetor, Theodore Metochites, od 1316. do 1321. Godine 1511. crkva je službeno pretvorena u džamiju i nazvana Kariye Camii. 1945. godine džamija je pretvorena u muzej i do danas je nosila ime Kariye Muzesi. Nakon mnogo stoljeća, ostala je samo crkva, južna kapela i još jedna zgrada na sjeveru. [7]

Crkva Pammakaristos izgrađena je početkom 12. stoljeća za Mihaila VII Ducasa i njegovu suprugu Mariju (sestru Aleksija II Komnina). Bila je to najveća crkva u gradu u to vrijeme koja je služila ženskom manastiru. Prije osmanskog osvajanja Carigrada, sarkofagi Aleksija I Komnina i njegove kćeri Ane počivali su u kapeli unutar manastira. 1453. redovnice su uklonjene, ali je crkvi dopušteno da ostane netaknuta, osim divovskog križa koji je postojao na kupoli. Krst je uklonio sultan Sulejman 1547. godine nakon brojnih žalbi. Godine 1586. Sultan Murad III pretvorio ju je u džamiju i nazvao je Fethiye Camii. [8]

Palazzo del Comune Edit

Također u ovom razdoblju, Đenovljanska podestà iz Galate, Montano de Marinis, izgradila je Palazzo del Comune (1314), kopiju palače San Giorgio u Genovi, koja još uvijek stoji u ruševinama na stražnjim ulicama Bankalar Caddesi u Galati, zajedno sa svojim susjednim zgradama i brojnim đenovljanskim kućama s početka 14. stoljeća.

Leanderov toranj Edit

Drevni atenski general Alkibijad, nakon pomorske pobjede kod Kizika, vjerovatno je izgradio prilagođenu stanicu za brodove koji dolaze iz Crnog mora na maloj stijeni ispred Chrysopolisa (današnji Üsküdar). [9] Vizantijski car Aleksije Komnin 1110. godine izgradio je na ovom mjestu drvenu kulu zaštićenu kamenim zidom. [9] Strukturu, poznatu kao Leanderov toranj prema legendi o Heroju i Leanderu (koja se dogodila na Dardanelima), osmanski su Turci nekoliko puta obnavljali i obnavljali, sve dok 1763 godine nisu podignuti kamenom. [9] Najnovija restauracija izvedena je 1998. Čelični nosači dodani su oko drevne kule kao mjera opreza nakon potresa u Izmitu 1999. godine.

Kula Galata Edit

Đenovljani su izgradili i kulu Galata, koju su nazvali Christea Turris (Hristov toranj), na najvišoj tački citadele Galata, 1348.

Osmanski Turci izgradili su Anadoluhisarı na azijskoj strani Bosfora 1394. godine, a Rumelihisarı na suprotnoj (evropskoj) obali 1452. godine, godinu dana prije osvajanja Carigrada. Glavna svrha ovih dvoraca, naoružanih velikim dometom Balyemez (Faule Metze) topovima, trebao je blokirati pomorski promet Bosfora i spriječiti brodove za podršku iz đenovljanskih kolonija u crnomorskim lukama, poput Caffa, Sinopa i Amasre, da dođu do Carigrada i pomognu Vizantincima za vrijeme opsade grada od strane Turaka. .

Nakon osmanskog osvajanja grada, sultan Mehmed II pokrenuo je opsežni plan obnove, koji je uključivao izgradnju velikih zgrada poput džamije Eyüp Sultan, džamije Fatih, palače Topkapı, Velike čaršije i dvorca Yedikule (sedam kula) koji čuvao je glavna ulazna vrata grada, Porta Aurea (Zlatna vrata). U stoljećima nakon Mehmeda II izgrađene su mnoge nove važne građevine, poput džamije Süleymaniye, džamije Sultan Ahmed, Yeni džamije i brojnih drugih. [10]

Tradicionalno, osmanske zgrade izgrađene su od ukrašenog drveta. Samo su "državne zgrade", poput palača i džamija, izgrađene od kamena. Počevši od 18. i 19. stoljeća, drvo je postupno zamijenjeno kamenom kao primarnim građevinskim materijalom, dok su tradicionalni osmanski arhitektonski stilovi postupno zamijenjeni europskim stilovima, poput interijera baroknog stila palače Aynalıkavak (1677–1679) i džamije Nuruosmaniye (1748–1755, prva džamija u baroknom stilu u gradu, poznata i po svojoj baroknoj fontani), te barokni dodaci iz 18. stoljeća u haremskom dijelu palače Topkapı. Nakon reformi Tanzimata koje su učinkovito započele proces europeizacije Turske 1839. godine, izgrađene su nove palače i džamije u neoklasičnom, baroknom i rokoko stilu ili mješavini sve tri, poput palače Dolmabahçe, palače Beylerbeyi i džamije Ortaköy (Mecidiye). konstruisali članovi porodice Balyan: [11]. Izgrađene su čak i neogotske džamije, poput Pertevniyal Valide Sultan džamije i Yıldız Hamidiye džamije. Velike državne zgrade, poput škola ili kasarni, takođe su izgrađene u različitim evropskim stilovima.

Od početka 19. stoljeća, područja oko avenije İstiklal bila su ispunjena grandioznim zgradama ambasada koje su pripadale istaknutim evropskim državama, a nizovi zgrada u stilu evropskog (uglavnom neoklasičnog i kasnije secesije) stigli su se pojavljivati ​​na obje strane avenije. Istanbul je posebno postao glavno središte secesijskog pokreta krajem 19. i početkom 20. stoljeća, s poznatim arhitektima ovog stila poput Raimonda D'Aronca koji su gradili mnoge palače i vile u samom gradu i na Prinčevskim otocima. Njegova najvažnija djela u gradu uključuju nekoliko zgrada kompleksa palače Yıldız i Botter House na Aveniji İstiklal. Poznati Camondo Stepenice na Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) u Karaköyu (Galata) je također lijep primjer arhitekture secesije. Drugi važni primjeri su Hıdiv Kasrı (Palata Khedive) na azijskoj strani Bosfora, Flora Han u Sirkecima i Frej Apartmanı u četvrti Şişhane u Beyoğluu.

Tako je do sredine 19. stoljeća južni dio Zlatnog roga (povijesni poluotok Carigrad) imao tradicionalno osmanski turski izgled i stanovništvo, dok se sjeverni dio Zlatnog roga sve više evropeizirao i u arhitektonskom smislu i u demografskom smislu. Most Galata postao je veza između orijentalnog i zapadnog (južnog i sjevernog) dijela evropske strane Istanbula.

Bosfor se u osmansko doba smatrao ljetovalištem, a tradicionalne drvene kuće i vile tzv yalı, bili su izbor bogate osmanske elite. Većina razvoja se dogodila tokom perioda lala, perioda koji najbolje predstavlja Sadullah Paşa Yalısı sagrađen 1783. Najstariji sačuvani yalı je Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha yalı koji se nalazi u Kandilliju na azijskoj obali Bosfora i datira iz 1699. godine. Drvene vile u primorskim planinskim kućama zadržale su svoje osnovne arhitektonske principe do sredine 19. stoljeća, kada su ih postupno zamijenile manje zapaljive kuće od opeke, posebno u prvom ustavnom razdoblju. Razvoj yalısa trajao je do Prvog svjetskog rata.


Prije nekoliko sedmica, turski predsjednik Recep Tayyip Erdogan potpisao je dokument kojim se Aja Sofija pretvara u džamiju. Odluka je naišla na kritike iz cijelog svijeta, i to s pravom. Aja Sofija jedna je od najvažnijih građevina u svijetu kršćanstva, ali i u islamu. I zato je muzej bio jedna od najboljih klasifikacija zgrade.

Otac Turske, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, pretvorio je zgradu u muzej. Veliko arhitektonsko čudo služi kao monumentalna građevina u Istanbulu, bivšem Carigradu više od 1.500 godina. Kao i Ajfelov toranj u Parizu, Aja Sofija je simbol kosmopolitske prirode Istanbula.

Tokom svog 1.500 godina života, Aja Sofija je služila kao katedrala, džamija i muzej. Kada je prvi put izgrađen, Konstantinopolj, sada Istanbul, služio je kao glavni grad Vizantijskog carstva. Država je činila istočnu polovicu Rimskog carstva.

Crkva je služila kao bazilika od svoje izgradnje do 1453. Zatim je, nakon pada Carigrada, sultan Mehmed II naredio da se pretvori u džamiju. Evo nekoliko zanimljivih činjenica o Aja Sofiji i njenom značaju u svijetu.

Zgrada rođena iz nereda

Izgradnja Aja Sofije započela je 532. godine poslije Krista tokom nereda u Niki. Velika pobuna pogodila je Carigrad, a u to vrijeme car Justinijan I nije bio popularan vladar. Služio je kao vladar pet godina.

Neredi su počeli tako što su demonstranti uzvikivali "Nika", što znači pobjedu "i pokušali izbaciti Justinijana opsjednuvši ga u njegovoj palati.

Ljudi su protestovali protiv visokih poreza. Nakon što je u grad preselio lojalne trupe, car je uspio ugušiti pobunu grubom silom.

Nakon nereda, Justinijan je naredio izgradnju Aja Sofije, na mjestu zapaljene crkve. Zgrada je predstavljala trijumf za Justinijana i kršćanstvo.

Mnoga imena Crkve

Crkva se tokom svog života nosila sa različitim imenima. Prvobitni naziv bio je Velika crkva zbog ogromne veličine. Ali ime Aja Sofija ostalo je i nakon druge inkarnacije. Grčko značenje imena je Sveta mudrost.

Nakon osvajanja Osmanlija, ime je bilo Ayasofya, a danas crkva nosi ime Ayasofya Müzesi.


Potres 558. godine

Jedna od karakterističnih karakteristika Aja Sofije bila je njena velika središnja kupola. Dizajnirani od strane originalnih arhitekata Anthemiosa iz Trallesa i Isidorosa iz Miletosa, kupola se uzdigla 160 stopa visoko s promjerom od 131 stopa.

No, potres 558. godine prije Krista uzrokovao je urušavanje kupole. Zatim je kupola obnovljena na visinu od 182 stope. Zidovi su također ojačani 562. godine. Postoji niz manjih kupola, arkada i četiri velika luka koji podržavaju težinu kupole.

Inspirisan drevnim svetskim čudima

Jedno od sedam drevnih svjetskih čuda korišteno je u izgradnji crkve. Grčki arhitekti bili su inspirirani Artemidinim hramom u Efesu. Koristili su stupove iz davno napuštenog i uništenog hrama za utvrđivanje unutrašnjosti crkve.

Koristili su i građevinski materijal sa drevnih lokaliteta u Baalbecku i Pergamomu.

Odličan primjer vizantijske umjetnosti

Mnogi ljudi danas zaboravljaju da je teritorija Turske nekada bila kršćansko kraljevstvo. Vizantija, istočno rimsko kraljevstvo, bila je sila koju je trebalo računati. Aja Sofija odličan je primjer vizantijske umjetnosti i arhitekture.

Vizantija je njegovala višestoljetnu tradiciju umjetnosti, arhitekture, književnosti i još mnogo toga. Njihova kultura spajala je grčku, rimsku i druge istočnjačke tradicije.

Neki od vizantijskih primjera uključuju masivnu kupolu na vrhu pravokutne bazilike, obilje mozaika koji pokrivaju gotovo svaku površinu, stupove i stupove od mramora, kamene umetke, brončana vrata i još mnogo toga.


Sultan je štitio kršćanske mozaike

Za razliku od onoga što Erdogan radi sada, bivši osmanski sultani štitili su kršćansku povijest katedre. U stvari, Mehmed II je, nakon što je osvojio Carigrad, naredio da se freske i mozaici pobijele u gipsu i prekriju islamskim dizajnom i kaligrafijom.

Vjernici vjeruju da plačuće kolone imaju ljekovitu moć

Kolona koja plače ide pod imenima kolona koja se znoji, kolona želja, kolona koja se znoji i još mnogo toga. Nalazi se u sjeverozapadnom dijelu crkve. To je jedan od 107 stupova u zgradi.


Stub stuba djelomično je prekriven bronzom s rupom u sredini. Vlažan je na dodir. Vjernici vjeruju da je blagoslov svetog Grgura dao koloni iscjeliteljsku moć. Zato mnogi pokušavaju trljati stupac u potrazi za božanskim iscjeljenjem.

Zašto je to toliko važno?

Kemal Ataturk je Aja Sofiju pretvorio u muzej 1935. Shvatio je važnost i značaj zgrade i za kršćane i za muslimane. Aja Sofija dio je UNESCO -ve svjetske baštine.

Više od milenijuma nakon izgradnje, zgrada je bila najveća katedrala u cijelom kršćanskom svijetu. Bio je centar vjerskog, političkog i umjetničkog života vizantijskog svijeta. Aja Sofija je takođe služila kao važno mjesto muslimanskog obožavanja nakon što je sultan Mehmed II osvojio Konstantinopolj i pretvorio ga u džamiju.


Sadržaj

Kad je Rimsko Carstvo postalo kršćansko (kao i prema Istoku) sa novom prijestolnicom u Carigradu, njegova je arhitektura postala senzualnija i ambicioznija. Ovaj novi stil postao bi poznat kao vizantijski sa sve egzotičnijim kupolama i sve bogatijim mozaicima, putovao je na zapad do Ravene i Venecije i na sjever do Moskve. Većina crkava i bazilika ima visoke kupole. Kao rezultat toga, stvorili su ogromne otvorene prostore u središtima crkava, pojačavajući osjećaj milosti i svjetla. Okrugli luk temelj je vizantijskog stila. Veličanstveni zlatni mozaici svojom grafičkom jednostavnošću i ogromnom snagom unijeli su svjetlost i toplinu u srce crkava. Vizantijski glavni gradovi odvajaju se od klasičnih konvencija stare Grčke i Rima. Vijugave linije i naturalističke forme prethodnice su gotičkog stila.

Prema opisima, unutrašnjost je bila obložena mramorom ili kamenom. Neki stubovi su takođe napravljeni od mermera. Drugi široko korišteni materijali bili su cigle i kamen, a ne samo mramor kao u klasičnoj antici. [1] Zidne slike ili mozaici napravljeni od sjajnog kamenja također su bili elementi unutrašnje arhitekture. Namještaj od plemenitog drveta, poput kreveta, stolica, stolica, stolova, polica za knjige i srebrnih ili zlatnih čaša s prekrasnim reljefima, ukrašen je bizantskim interijerom. [2]

Na isti način na koji je Partenon najupečatljiviji spomenik klasične religije, Aja Sofija je ostala kultna crkva za kršćanstvo. Hramovi ove dvije religije bitno se razlikuju s gledišta njihovog interijera i eksterijera. Za klasične hramove važna je bila samo vanjska strana, jer su samo svećenici ulazili u unutrašnjost, gdje se čuvao kip božanstva kojemu je hram bio posvećen. Ceremonije su održane ispred, ispred hrama. Umjesto toga, unutar crkava održavale su se kršćanske liturgije. [3]

Vizantijski stupovi su prilično raznoliki, uglavnom se razvijaju iz klasičnog korintskog, ali imaju tendenciju da imaju ujednačenu površinu, s ukrasima podrezanim bušilicama. Kameni blok ostao je hrapav kad je došao iz kamenoloma, a vajar je razvio nove dizajne po vlastitoj želji, tako da se rijetko susreće s mnogo ponavljanja istog dizajna. Jedan od najistaknutijih dizajna ima lišće isklesano kao da ga je vjetar raznio, najbolji primjer je u Aja Sofiji (Istanbul) iz 8. stoljeća. Oni u katedrali Svetog Marka u Veneciji (1071.) posebno su privukli maštu Johna Ruskina. Drugi se pojavljuju u Sant'Apollinare u Classeu, Ravenna (549).

Stupac u San Vitaleu, Ravenna (547) prikazuje iznad sebe dozret koji je potreban za nošenje luka, čiji je opruga bila mnogo šira od abakusa stupa. Na istočnim stupovima orao, lav i jagnje povremeno su isklesani, ali tretirani konvencionalno.

U Aja Sofiji se koriste dvije vrste stupova: kompozitni i jonski. Kompozitni stup koji je nastao za vrijeme kasnog vizantijskog carstva, uglavnom u Rimu, kombinira korintski s jonskim. Kompozitni stupovi postavljaju glavni prostor naosa. Jonski stubovi koriste se iza njih u bočnim prostorima, u zrcalnom položaju u odnosu na korintski ili kompozitni poredak (kao što je to bila njihova sudbina sve do 19. stoljeća, kada su zgrade prvi put projektirane s monumentalnim jonskim redom). U Aja Sofiji ovo nisu standardne carske izjave. Stupovi su ispunjeni lišćem u svim vrstama varijacija. U nekima se čini da su mali, bujni listovi uhvaćeni u okretanju svitaka - jasno je da je drugačiji, neklasičan senzibilitet preuzeo dizajn.

Stupovi u bazilici San Vitale pokazuju valovite i nježne cvjetne uzorke slične ukrasima na kopčama pojasa i oštricama bodeža. Njihov obrnuti piramidalni oblik ima izgled korpe.

Vizantijski jonski stub iz Nacionalnog muzeja srednjovjekovne umjetnosti (Korçë, Albanija)

Ilustracija vizantijskog korintskog stuba

Vizantijska kolona sa korpom iz Aja Sofije (Istanbul, Turska)

Ranovizantijska arhitektura oslanjala se na ranije elemente rimske arhitekture. Stilski pomak, tehnološki napredak i političke i teritorijalne promjene značile su da je poseban stil postupno rezultirao grčkim križnim planom u crkvenoj arhitekturi. [4]

Zgrade povećane geometrijske složenosti, cigla i gips korišteni su osim kamena u ukrašavanju važnih javnih građevina, klasični redovi korišteni su slobodnije, mozaici su zamijenili rezbarene ukrase, složene kupole počivale su na masivnim stupovima, a prozori su filtrirali svjetlost kroz tanke limove alabaster za blago osvjetljavanje unutrašnjosti. Većina preživjelih građevina je sveta, a svjetovne zgrade su uništene.

Rana arhitektura Edit

Glavni primjeri ranovizantijske arhitekture datiraju iz vremena cara Justinijana I. i preživjeli su u Raveni i Istanbulu, kao i u Sofiji (crkva Svete Sofije).

One of the great breakthroughs in the history of Western architecture occurred when Justinian's architects invented a complex system providing for a smooth transition from a square plan of the church to a circular dome (or domes) by means of pendentives.

In Ravenna, the longitudinal basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, and the octagonal, centralized structure of the church of San Vitale, commissioned by Emperor Justinian but never seen by him, was built. Justinian's monuments in Istanbul include the domed churches of Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, but there is also an earlier, smaller church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus (locally referred to as "Little Hagia Sophia"), which might have served as a model for both in that it combined the elements of a longitudinal basilica with those of a centralized building.

Other structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople (with 192 towers) and Basilica Cistern (with hundreds of recycled classical columns). A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace.

Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki, Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, Jvari Monastery in present-day Georgia, and three Armenian churches of Echmiadzin all date primarily from the 7th century and provide a glimpse on architectural developments in the Byzantine provinces following the age of Justinian.

Remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge.

The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture. It is presumed that Basil I's votive church of the Theotokos of the Pharos and the Nea Ekklesia (both no longer existent) served as a model for most cross-in-square sanctuaries of the period, including the Cattolica di Stilo in southern Italy (9th century), the monastery church of Hosios Lukas in Greece (c. 1000), Nea Moni of Chios (a pet project of Constantine IX), and the Daphni Monastery near Athens (c. 1050).

The Hagia Sophia church in Ochrid (present-day North Macedonia), Iole in times of Boris I of Bulgaria, and the eponymous cathedral in Kiev (present-day Ukraine) testify to a vogue for multiple subsidiary domes set on drums, which would gain in height and narrowness with the progress of time. [ potreban citat ]

Comnenian and Paleologan periods Edit

In Istanbul and Asia Minor the architecture of the Komnenian period is almost non-existent, with the notable exceptions of the Elmali Kilise and other rock sanctuaries of Cappadocia, and of the Churches of the Pantokrator and of the Theotokos Kyriotissa in Istanbul. Most examples of this architectural style and many of the other older Byzantine styles only survive on the outskirts of the Byzantine world, as most of the most significant and ancient churches/ buildings were in Asia Minor, but unfortunately in World War I almost all churches that ended up within Muslim Turkish borders were destroyed. They were also converted into mosques. Some people also abandoned them in the Greek and Christian genocides spanning from 1915 to 1923. Only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance because of this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian other countries such as Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and other Slavic lands and also in Sicily (Cappella Palatina) and Veneto (St Mark's Basilica, Torcello Cathedral).

The Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures. As a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium (barring the Hagia Sophia of Trebizond).

The Church of the Holy Apostles (Thessaloniki) is cited as an archetypal structure of the late period, when the exterior walls were intricately decorated with complex brickwork patterns or with glazed ceramics. Other churches from the years immediately predating the fall of Constantinople survive on Mount Athos and in Mistra (e.g. Brontochion Monastery). In Middle Byzantine architecture "cloisonné masonry" refers to walls built with a regular mix of stone and brick, often with more of the latter. The 11th or 12th-century Pammakaristos Church in Istanbul is an example. [5]

As early as the building of Constantine's churches in Palestine there were two chief types of plan in use: the basilican, or axial, type, represented by the basilica at the Holy Sepulchre, and the circular, or central, type, represented by the great octagonal church once at Antioch.

Those of the latter type we must suppose were nearly always vaulted, for a central dome would seem to furnish their very purpose. The central space was sometimes surrounded by a very thick wall, in which deep recesses, to the interior, were formed, as at Church of St. George, Sofia, built by the Romans in the 4th century as a cylindrical domed structure built on a square base, and the noble Church of Saint George, Thessaloniki (5th century), or by a vaulted aisle, as at Santa Costanza, Rome (4th century) or annexes were thrown out from the central space in such a way as to form a cross, in which these additions helped to counterpoise the central vault, as at the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna (5th century). The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople. Vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type of plan for instance, at Hagia Irene, Constantinople (6th century), the long body of the church is covered by two domes.

At Saint Sergius, Constantinople, and San Vitale, Ravenna, churches of the central type, the space under the dome was enlarged by having apsidal additions made to the octagon. Finally, at Hagia Sophia (6th century) a combination was made which is perhaps the most remarkable piece of planning ever contrived. A central space of 100 ft (30 m) square is increased to 200 ft (60 m) in length by adding two hemicycles to it to the east and the west these are again extended by pushing out three minor apses eastward, and two others, one on either side of a straight extension, to the west. This unbroken area, about 260 ft (80 m) long, the larger part of which is over 100 ft (30 m) wide, is entirely covered by a system of domical surfaces. Above the conchs of the small apses rise the two great semi-domes which cover the hemicycles, and between these bursts out the vast dome over the central square. On the two sides, to the north and south of the dome, it is supported by vaulted aisles in two stories which bring the exterior form to a general square.

At the Holy Apostles (6th century) five domes were applied to a cruciform plan the central dome was the highest. After the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one type. The central area covered by the dome was included in a considerably larger square, of which the four divisions, to the east, west, north and south, were carried up higher in the vaulting and roof system than the four corners, forming in this way a sort of nave and transepts. Sometimes the central space was square, sometimes octagonal, or at least there were eight piers supporting the dome instead of four, and the nave and transepts were narrower in proportion.

If we draw a square and divide each side into three so that the middle parts are greater than the others, and then divide the area into nine from these points, we approximate to the typical setting out of a plan of this time. Now add three apses on the east side opening from the three divisions, and opposite to the west put a narrow entrance porch running right across the front. Still in front put a square court. The court is the atrium and usually has a fountain in the middle under a canopy resting on pillars. The entrance porch is the narthex. Directly under the center of the dome is the ambo, from which the Scriptures were proclaimed, and beneath the ambo at floor level was the place for the choir of singers. Across the eastern side of the central square was a screen which divided off the bema, where the altar was situated, from the body of the church this screen, bearing images, is the iconostasis. The altar was protected by a canopy or ciborium resting on pillars. Rows of rising seats around the curve of the apse with the patriarch's throne at the middle eastern point formed the synthronon. The two smaller compartments and apses at the sides of the bema were sacristies, the diaconicon i prothesis. The ambo and bema were connected by the solea, a raised walkway enclosed by a railing or low wall.

The continuous influence from the East is strangely shown in the fashion of decorating external brick walls of churches built about the 12th century, in which bricks roughly carved into form are set up so as to make bands of ornamentation which it is quite clear are imitated from Cufic writing. This fashion was associated with the disposition of the exterior brick and stone work generally into many varieties of pattern, zig-zags, key-patterns etc. and, as similar decoration is found in many Persian buildings, it is probable that this custom also was derived from the East. The domes and vaults to the exterior were covered with lead or with tiling of the Roman variety. The window and door frames were of marble. The interior surfaces were adorned all over by mosaics or frescoes in the higher parts of the edifice, and below with incrustations of marble slabs, which were frequently of very beautiful varieties, and disposed so that, although in one surface, the coloring formed a series of large panels. The better marbles were opened out so that the two surfaces produced by the division formed a symmetrical pattern.

In the West Edit

Ultimately, Byzantine architecture in the West gave way to Carolingian, Romanesque, and Gothic architecture. But a great part of current Italy used to belong to the Byzantine Empire before that. Great examples of Byzantine architecture are still visible in Ravenna (for example Basilica di San Vitale which architecture influenced the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne).

In the East Edit

As for the East, Byzantine architectural tradition exerted a profound influence on early Islamic architecture, particularly Umayyad architecture. During the Umayyad Caliphate era (661-750), as far as the Byzantine impact on early Islamic architecture is concerned, the Byzantine arts formed a fundamental source to the new Muslim artistic heritage, especially in Syria. There are considerable Byzantine influences which can be detected in the distinctive early Islamic monuments in Syria (709–715). While these give clear reference in plan - and somewhat in decoration - to Byzantine art, the plan of the Umayyad Mosque has also a remarkable similarity with 6th- and 7th-century Christian basilicas, but it has been modified and expanded on the transversal axis and not on the normal longitudinal axis as in the Christian basilicas. The tile work, geometric patterns, multiple arches, domes, and polychrome brick and stone work that characterize Muslim and Moorish architecture were influenced heavily by Byzantine architecture.

Post-Byzantine architecture in Eastern Orthodox countries Edit

In Bulgaria, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, North Macedonia, and other Orthodox countries the Byzantine architecture persisted even longer, from the 16th up to the 18th centuries, giving birth to local post-Byzantine schools of architecture.

Neo-Byzantine architecture Edit

Neo-Byzantine architecture was followed in the wake of the 19th-century Gothic revival, resulting in such jewels as Westminster Cathedral in London, and in Bristol from about 1850 to 1880 a related style known as Bristol Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. It was developed on a wide-scale basis in Russia during the reign of Alexander II by Grigory Gagarin and his followers who designed St Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kiev, St Nicholas Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, Saint Mark's church in Belgrade and the New Athos Monastery in New Athos near Sukhumi. The largest Neo-Byzantine project of the 20th century was the Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade.

Hagia Irene Edit

One of the less famous Byzantine churches is Hagia Irene. This church served as a model church for the more famous church, Hagia Sophia. Construction on the church began in the 4th century. This was the first church that was built in Constantinople, but due to its location, it was severely damaged by earthquakes and the Nika riots, and required repair several times. The Hagia Irene is defined by its large atrium, and is in fact the only surviving building of the Byzantine Empire to have such a feature. [7]

Konstrukcija Edit

Hagia Irene is composed mainly of three materials: stone, brick, and mortar. Bricks 70 cm x 35 cm x 5 cm were used, and these bricks were glued together using mortar approximately 5 cm thick. The building materials chosen for the construction of the church had to be lightweight, durable, and strong. Volcanic materials were chosen for this purpose, as volcanic concrete is very light and durable. Perhaps the most definite feature of the Hagia Irene is the strict contrast between the interior and exterior design. While the plain outside composed of stone and brick favors functionality, the interior is decorated in elaborate mosaics, decorative marble, and, in some places, covered in plaster. Another important characteristic of the church include two domes that follow one behind another, the first being a lower oval, and the second being a higher semi-circle. [7]

History of Hagia Irene Edit

Throughout history Hagia Irene has undergone several changes. There were multiple repairs due to the Nika riots and earthquakes. When the Ottomans took over Hagia Irene they repurposed it and made a few changes, but none as drastic as what was done to Hagia Sophia. [7] Today, Hagia Irene is still standing and open to visitors as a museum. It is open everyday, except for Tuesdays. [8]

Construction of Hagia Irene

Timeline [7]
Vrijeme Događaj
4th C. Construction Began
532 Church was burned during Nika revolt
548 Emperor Justinian repaired the church
740 Significant damages from earthquakes
1453 Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans - became a weapons storehouse
1700 Became a museum
1908-1978 Served as a military museum.

Hagia Sophia Edit

The most famous example of Byzantine architecture is the Hagia Sophia. The Hagia Sophia held the title of largest church in the world until the Ottoman Empire sieged the Byzantine capital. After the fall of Constantinople, the church was used by the Muslims for their religious services until 1931, when it was reopened as a museum in 1935. Translated from Greek, the name Hagia Sophia means "Holy Wisdom". [9]

Construction of Hagia Sophia Edit

The construction is a combination of longitudinal and central structures. This church was a part of a larger complex of buildings created by Emperor Justinian. This style influenced the construction of several other buildings, such as St. Peter's Basilica. Hagia Sophia should have been built to withstand earthquakes, but since the construction of Hagia Sophia was rushed this technology was not implemented in the design, which is why the building has had to be repaired so many times due to damages from the earthquakes. The dome is the key feature of Hagia Sophia as the domed basilica is representative of Byzantine architecture. Both of the domes collapsed at different times throughout history due to earthquakes and had to be rebuilt. [10]

History of Hagia Sophia Edit

The original construction of Hagia Sophia was possibly ordered by Constantine, but ultimately carried out by his son Constantius II in 360. Constantine's building of churches, specifically the Hagia Sophia, was considered an incredibly significant component in his shift of the centralization of power from Rome in the west to Constantinople in the east, and was considered the high-point of religious and political celebration. The construction of the final version of the Hagia Sophia, which still stands today, was overseen by Emperor Justinian. Between the rule of these two Emperors, Hagia Sophia was destroyed and rebuilt twice. Following its reconstruction, Hagia Sophia was considered the center of Orthodox Christianity for 900 years, until the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. [11]

Timeline [12]
Vrijeme Događaj
360 Construction began
404 Hagia Sophia was burned down in public riot.
415 Construction begins on the next version of Hagia Sophia.
532 The church is once again demolished during Nika revolts.
537 The final version of Hagia Sophia opens to Christian Worship after five more years of construction.
558 Earthquake - dome collapsed
859 Fire damage
869 Earthquake damage
989 More earthquake damage
1317 Large buttresses added
1453 Constantinople is conquered by the Ottomans - converted into a Muslim place of worship
1935 Hagia Sophia is converted into a museum by secularists
2020 Reverted to a mosque

One of the most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey


Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Constantine the Great presents the city (Constantinople) and Justinian the Great presents Hagia Sophia to the Virgin, mosaic, probably 10th Century, Southwestern Entrance, Hagia Sophia (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

A symbol of Byzantium

The great church of the Byzantine capital Constantinople (Istanbul) took its current structural form under the direction of the Emperor Justinian I. The church was dedicated in 537, amid great ceremony and the pride of the emperor (who was sometimes said to have seen the completed building in a dream). The daring engineering feats of the building are well known. Numerous medieval travelers praise the size and embellishment of the church. Tales abound of miracles associated with the church. Hagia Sophia is the symbol of Byzantium in the same way that the Parthenon embodies Classical Greece or the Eiffel Tower typifies Paris.

Isidore of Miletus & Anthemius of Tralles for Emperor Justinian, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 532-37 (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Each of those structures express values and beliefs: perfect proportion, industrial confidence, a unique spirituality. By overall impression and attention to detail, the builders of Hagia Sophia left the world a mystical building. The fabric of the building denies that it can stand by its construction alone. Hagia Sophia’s being seems to cry out for an other-worldly explanation of why it stands because much within the building seems dematerialized, an impression that must have been very real in the perception of the medieval faithful. The dematerialization can be seen in as small a detail as a column capital or in the building’s dominant feature, its dome.

Let us start with a look at a column capital

Basket Capital, Hagia Sophia (photo: William Allen, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The capital is a derivative of the Classical Ionic order via the variations of the Roman composite capital and Byzantine invention. Shrunken volutes appear at the corners decorative detailing runs the circuit of lower regions of the capital. The column capital does important work, providing transition from what it supports to the round column beneath. What we see here is decoration that makes the capital appear light, even insubstantial. The whole appears more as filigree work than as robust stone capable of supporting enormous weight to the column.

Ionic Capital, North Porch of the Erechtheion (Erechtheum), Acropolis, Athens, marble, 421-407 B.C.E., British Museum (photo: Steven Zucker CC:BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Compare the Hagia Sophia capital with a Classical Greek Ionic capital, this one from the Greek Erechtheum on the Acropolis, Athens. The capital has abundant decoration but the treatment does not diminish the work performed by the capital. The lines between the two spirals dip, suggesting the weight carried while the spirals seem to show a pent-up energy that pushes the capital up to meet the entablature, the weight it holds. The capital is a working member and its design expresses the working in an elegant way.

The relationship between the two is similar to the evolution of the antique to the medieval seen in the mosaics of San Vitale. A capital fragment on the grounds of Hagia Sophia illustrates the carving technique. The stone is deeply drilled, creating shadows behind the vegetative decoration. The capital surface appears thin. The capital contradicts its task rather than expressing it.

Deep Carving of Capital Fragment, Hagia Sophia (photo: William Allen, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

This deep carving appears throughout Hagia Sophia’s capitals, spandrels, and entablatures. Everywhere we look stone visually denying its ability to do the work that it must do. The important point is that the decoration suggests that something other than sound building technique must be at work in holding up the building.

A golden dome suspended from heaven

We know that the faithful attributed the structural success of Hagia Sophia to divine intervention. Nothing is more illustrative of the attitude than descriptions of the dome of Hagia Sophia. Procopius, biographer of the Emperor Justinian and author of a book on the buildings of Justinian is the first to assert that the dome hovered over the building by divine intervention.

“…the huge spherical dome [makes] the structure exceptionally beautiful. Yet it seems not to rest upon solid masonry, but to cover the space with its golden dome suspended from Heaven.” (from “The Buildings” by Procopius, Loeb Classical Library, 1940, online at the University of Chicago Penelope project)

The description became part of the lore of the great church and is repeated again and again over the centuries. A look at the base of the dome helps explain the descriptions.

Hagia Sophia Dome, Semi-Dome and Cherubim in the pendentive (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The windows at the bottom of the dome are closely spaced, visually asserting that the base of the dome is insubstantial and hardly touching the building itself. The building planners did more than squeeze the windows together, they also lined the jambs or sides of the windows with gold mosaic. As light hits the gold it bounces around the openings and eats away at the structure and makes room for the imagination to see a floating dome.

Windows at the Base of the Dome, Hagia Sophia (photo: William Allen, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

It would be difficult not to accept the fabric as consciously constructed to present a building that is dematerialized by common constructional expectation. Perception outweighs clinical explanation. To the faithful of Constantinople and its visitors, the building used divine intervention to do what otherwise would appear to be impossible. Perception supplies its own explanation: the dome is suspended from heaven by an invisible chain.

Advice from an angel?

An old story about Hagia Sophia, a story that comes down in several versions, is a pointed explanation of the miracle of the church. So goes the story: A youngster was among the craftsmen doing the construction. Realizing a problem with continuing work, the crew left the church to seek help (some versions say they sought help from the Imperial Palace). The youngster was left to guard the tools while the workmen were away. A figure appeared inside the building and told the boy the solution to the problem and told the boy to go to the workmen with the solution. Reassuring the boy that he, the figure, would stay and guard the tools until the boy returned, the boy set off. The solution that the boy delivered was so ingenious that the assembled problem solvers realized that the mysterious figure was no ordinary man but a divine presence, likely an angel. The boy was sent away and was never allowed to return to the capital. Thus the divine presence had to remain inside the great church by virtue of his promise and presumably is still there. Any doubt about the steadfastness of Hagia Sophia could hardly stand in the face of the fact that a divine guardian watches over the church.*

Damage and repairs

Hagia Sophia sits astride an earthquake fault. The building was severely damaged by three quakes during its early history. Extensive repairs were required. Despite the repairs, one assumes that the city saw the survival of the church, amid city rubble, as yet another indication of divine guardianship of the church.

Extensive repair and restoration are ongoing in the modern period. We likely pride ourselves on the ability of modern engineering to compensate for daring 6th Century building technique. Both ages have their belief systems and we are understandably certain of the rightness of our modern approach to care of the great monument. But we must also know that we would be lesser if we did not contemplate with some admiration the structural belief system of the Byzantine Age.

*Helen C. Evans, Ph.D., “Byzantium Revisited: The Mosaics of Hagia Sophia in the Twentieth Century,” Fourth Annual Pallas Lecture (University of Michigan, 2006).

Historical outline: Isidore and Anthemius replaced the original 4th-century church commissioned by Emperor Constantine and a 5th-century structure that was destroyed during the Nika revolt of 532. The present Hagia Sophia or the Church of Holy Wisdom became a mosque in 1453 following the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II. In 1934, Atatürk, founder of Modern Turkey, converted the mosque into a museum.


Distorting history in the Hagia Sophia museum

By Engr. Edgar Mana-ay

The Hagia Sophia is an architectural masterpiece cathedral in Istanbul, Turkey, and a UNESCO world heritage site since 1985.

For almost a thousand years, beginning 360 AD, this enormous architectural marvel was the biggest basilica of the Greek Orthodox Christian Church during the Byzantine era which can house up to 10,000 worshippers.

For the past 1,700 years this famous edifice has changed its use this sad and checkered history includes changes from a Christian cathedral of the Greek Orthodox Church, then to a Mosque during the Ottoman Empire, then to a Museum during the early era of the Republic of Turkey and now back again as a Mosque last July 24 at the insistent clout of “Erdoganism” rule of Turkey President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

In 330 AD, there was a split in the Roman Empire and Church wherein Emperor Constantine I established his empire/church in Byzantine on the European side of the Bosporus calling his City Constantinople which is known today as Istanbul, the capital city of Turkey. This eastern half of the Roman empire outlasted its western counterpart as a Christian empire until 1453 when the Ottoman who are Muslims captured Constantinople and changed its name to Istanbul. In 476 BC the western part of the Roman empire fell to conquest by the Barbarian Odiacer who deposed its last Roman emperor.

Meanwhile, the Eastern Roman empire with its own emperor and pope, continued to prosper for centuries because of the flourishing Greek culture where it is located, known as the Byzantine era. Greek was the official language and the empire official religion became known as the Greek Orthodox Christian Church.

The Hagia Sophia cathedral became the center of Byzantine culture and politics for almost 1,000 years of its existence. As the Greek Christian Orthodox was the official religion of the Byzantine, the Hagia Sophia was the central Church of the faith where new emperors and popes were crowned. There is a big difference in the religious practices between the Roman Catholic and the Greek Orthodox, but this is not part of the discussion in this column.

Hagia Sophia was a Christian cathedral until 1453 when the Muslims of the Ottoman empire captured Constantinople, and by the threat of the sword forcibly converted the populace to embrace the Islam faith and in the process also converted Hagia Sophia cathedral into a Muslim mosque.

With the collapse of the Ottoman empire and the establishment of modern Turkey in 1930, its first president, the secular and modernist Mustafa Kema Ataturk who was aware of the history of Hagia Sophia, closed the mosque in 1931 and by 1935 its cabinet approved the use as museum, a master move to break Turkey overtly Muslim and Ottoman roots towards a true democratic and secular country.

But then as people change in running the government, ensuing policies and directions also change. The present Turkey President Erdogan encouraged by Turkish’s society rise in nationalistic fervor with growing recognition of the Ottoman era with he himself having the illusion of grandeur for the power and influence of the Ottoman empire, took upon himself to convert Hagia Sophia into a mosque.

Politically, the dispute over Hagia Sophia is NOT strictly an isolated geopolitical issue concerning Greece and Turkey or even simply the Western World and Turkey. Rather its more about lack of religious pluralism, freedom and tolerance in Turkey today and Turkish action regarding Hagia Sophia is a direct reflection of this troubling trend.

But Edrogan insisted that his decision to convert (without consulting UNESCO) represents a form of Turkish nationalism based upon traditional and Islamic values and that it was the desire of the Turkish people which is 99.8% Muslims. It also rejected the idea that the decision to change Hagia Sophia status was a calculated political move in order for him to gain more support after the failed coup in 2016.

Global reaction to Turkey’s conversion of Hagia Sophia has been largely negative and Turkey finds itself at odds with the western world. It had also diminished the chances of Turkey in joining the European Union (EU) of which it has vigorously lobbied for the past 10 years.

It is also viewed as a provocation to the civilized world which recognized the unique value and ecumenical nature of the monument and an affront to the basic freedom of religion. It also sends a distress signal to the minorities living in Turkey (Greeks, Armenians, Jews and Syriacs) that they are a conquered minorities living under the sword just like during the Ottoman and the crusaders era.

Even Turkey’s behavior in the world arena of geopolitics is approaching that of rogue nations, Iran and China. In the Libya turmoil, Turkey desperate for a foothold in the Arab world sides with Qatar in the Libya civil war against Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Seeing the vast potential in the Mediterranean Sea gas and oil resource, Turkey teamed up with Russia against Greece, Egypt, Israel and the United States to illegally lay claim to all the Mediterranean resources for themselves.

This column is not a calisthenics on world history and current events but about an object lesson we have to learn on the very serious behavior of Turkey in distorting history and suppressing other forms of beliefs outside of its Muslim faith. The freedom of religion and worship and its tolerance is a bulwark of any democratic country especially the Philippines.

Sad to say, the same religious faith practiced by the ISIS and Turkey is also slowly creeping at the very core values of our democratic freedom on faith and belief, forcing it by legal or illegal means to others who does not want to adopt it.

Although very farfetched, just imagine if the very old landmarks in Jaro representing the freedom and peaceful co-existence of the various religious groups, the Jaro Cathedral about 300 years old and the Jaro Evangelical Church about a hundred years old are converted to other religious edifices of worship! Many dead will turn over in their graves. We should be vigilant that the freedom of expression and worship and peaceful co-existence among the various religious groups is maintained in our society.

For according to Ralph W. Sockman: “The test of courage comes when we are in the minority. The test of tolerance comes when we are in the majority.”


Berkley Center

The political spectacle of the conversion of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul from a museum and site of global heritage to a place of everyday Muslim worship has been discussed passionately by many in the last few weeks. In the following, I hope to join this debate to emphasize the fact that this radical conversion took place as a state spectacle and historical performance, and argue that the extraordinary architectural space of the Byzantine basilica has been re-appropriated as a site of an atavistic (albeit poorly coordinated) re-enactment of Sultan Mehmed II’s conquest. Secondly, I will suggest that Hagia Sophia has been an icon of secular modernity in Turkey, whereas the AKP government’s neo-Ottoman, neo-imperial gesture to recapture the holy space of the Hagia Sophia constitutes a legal, political, and indeed architectural undermining of the modernist institutions of museums and global cultural heritage, not unlike recent iconoclastic (although far more violent) acts of fundamentalist governments in the Middle East. Third, I will suggest that understanding the spatial violence and heritage injustice that resulted from the conversion requires a close listening to the diversity of voices and desires in the public imagination in Turkey, which stunningly reveals a range of reactions from nationalist conquest narratives to spiritual attachment to a deeply Ottoman space, conceived to have been held hostage since its conversion to a museum/architectural heritage site since the decree of 1934.

One of the courses that I particularly enjoy teaching at the university is called Architecture and Memory, where my students and I explore case studies of monuments and ordinary buildings which are both sites of memory for world communities and sites of conflict. Architectural monuments often have deep geo-histories (relatively much deeper than the human timeframe). These histories are materially imprinted with cultural and political layers, laid by different religious and other heritage groups, and their long-lasting legacies. The destruction of the giant rock-carved Buddha images in Bamiyan Valley, Afghanistan in 2001, the demolition of the sixteenth-century Babri Masjid in India’s Uttar Pradesh region in 1992, Saddam Hussein’s reconstruction of the neo-Babylonian structures at Babylon, and overlapping and undermining claims over the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem by different religious stakeholders are some of the case studies that we cover. All of these deeply historical sites are layered, complex sites of heritage that are sites of both remembering and conflict, where desires directed at specific episodes in their prolonged lives are mobilized for contemporary political action, and sometimes destruction and violence.

Even though the conversion of Hagia Sophia, the sixth-century Byzantine Basilica on the historical peninsula of Istanbul, has been carried out in a supposedly legal framework and under the protection of the state, it seems to have very specific motivations behind it: an atavistic desire to reclaim a religious space as a symbol of reconquest, and the erasure or concealing of its particular iconographic and architectural features in order to make space for refreshed religious practice. This newly initiated practice in Hagia Sophia’s 1500-year-old space is fueled by anachronistic nostalgia and romanticism for a long-lost heritage. The ceremonial opening of the Hagia Sophia on July 24, 2020, involved specific historical re-enactments, such as the hyperbolic accompaniment of an Ottoman sword to the Friday khutbah, the appearance of costumed participants in the first prayers, a lavish yet archaic-looking door sign in Ottoman Turkish announcing the building as a “Grand Mosque.” The agency of “authentic” materials was used to re-activate and re-consecrate the space, while the powerful icons of the Byzantine past were concealed, their agency muted. In a way, what art historian Bissera Pentcheva and her colleagues called the “voice of Hagia Sophia” is silenced.

Yet the romantic fanaticism and the neo-imperial Ottomanism of AKP should not be confused with the Ottoman treatment of Hagia Sophia, as Patricia Blessing and Ali Yaycıoğlu correctly pointed out. The re-use of architectural spaces and materials (spolia) from the classical and medieval past in Seljuk and Ottoman buildings was common, emphasizing the genealogical link of those states to earlier political and cultural pasts. Contemporary Islamists, however, have little or no tolerance for Byzantine mosaics and such traces of the past.

In the context of the neoliberal AKP government, this radical gesture to convert one of the most sacred, deeply rooted spaces of the public sphere and historical consciousness in Middle East (comparable in this sense perhaps to the Dome of the Rock) is yet another gesture to undermine the institutions of early twentieth-century modernity: the museum and the concept of cultural heritage itself. This undermining has long been established in the two most recent decades with the sacrificing of historical landscapes to development projects, large-scale looting of archaeological sites, and relentless restoration projects that rebuild historic environments as new Las Vegas style money-making spaces. The conversion of Hagia Sophia comes at a time of widescale cultural heritage destruction in Turkey and the wider geography of the Middle East, and it must be understood precisely in the context of this broad program of disposal and expulsion of heritage sites from the public commons in the hands of neoliberal governments.

In the end, what we have in our hands is an act of heritage injustice and spatial violence, due to the explicit closure of the building to at least part of its own genuine history: its mosaics, its marble floors, its “weeping column,” its reverberating sounds, its surfaces, the ongoing project of architectural conservation, the UNESCO-monitored management of the world heritage site, and so on. The conversion in this sense carries the abruptness of a political event or gesture that is motivated by the needs of the current political climate rather than bearing the fruit of a well-thought out process with consultation.

I end this essay with a note on Hagia Sophia’s “weeping column”—a spoliated marble column (said to have come from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus) in the north isle of the basilica, covered with brass and bronze plates. About this holy place, Ethel Sara Wolper writes that “the pillar marked the spot where, among other things, visions of the Byzantine saint, St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, occurred and the place where a body of a… Muslim saint [Khidr] was found.” According to the stories accumulated around the column over centuries, the column is associated with multiple Christian and Muslim saints and the perspiring water from its hole is believed to have healing qualities. Visitors and pilgrims who put their fingers into the hole make wishes for bright personal futures. I refer to this column to illustrate the truly holy and deeply historical character of the place with intimate material connections to a divine past, which is recognized by its pilgrims. I contrast this place and this practice with the contemporary AKP government’s destructive gesture of cleaning up historical spaces and giving these spaces a singular and purified meaning. In these purified spaces, only one story remains: the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople.


Pogledajte video: Nove molitve ispred Aja Sofije (Novembar 2021).

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