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Henry Thomas Hope

Henry Thomas Hope

Henry Thomas Hope, najstariji od tri sina Thomasa Hopea (1769–1831) i njegove supruge Louise de la Poer Beresford, rođen je 30. aprila 1808. Obrazovan na Trinity Collegeu u Cambridgeu, postao je direktor Londonskog i Westminster Joint Stock Bank i bio je sudija za Surrey i Gloucestershire.

Nada je izabrana za Tory M.P. za East Looe 1830. Protivio se parlamentarnoj reformi i tvorničkom zakonodavstvu. On je u Donjem domu 16. marta 1832. tvrdio: "Očigledno je da ćete, ako ograničite sate rada, gotovo u istoj mjeri smanjiti profit kapitala na kojem je radna snaga uposlena. u tim okolnostima proizvođači moraju ili povisiti cijenu proizvedenog predmeta ili smanjiti plaće svojim radnicima. Ako podignu cijenu proizvoda, stranac ima prednost. Obaviješten sam da strani proizvođači pamuka, a posebno Amerikanci , pažljivo gazite po petama naših proizvođača. "

Nada je poražena na Općim izborima 1832. Vratio se u Donji dom 1833. godine kada je izabran za M.P. za Gloucester i držao sjedište do 1841. Služio je i između 1847. i 1852. godine.

Henry Thomas Hope umro je 4. decembra 1862.

Očigledno je da ćete, ako ograničite sate rada, skoro u istoj mjeri smanjiti profit kapitala na kojem je radna snaga zaposlena. Obavešten sam da strani proizvođači pamuka, a posebno Amerikanci, blisko gaze naše proizvođače.

Čini se da časni član (Michael Sadler) smatra da je poželjno da odrasli zamijene djecu. Ne mogu se složiti s tim mišljenjem jer mislim da je rad djece veliki resurs za njihove roditelje i od velike koristi za njih same.

Stoga se, po ovim osnovama, protivim ovoj mjeri. Na prvom mjestu sumnjam da li parlament može zaštititi djecu jednako efikasno kao i njihove roditelje; drugo; jer smatram da još uvijek nije rasvijetljen slučaj uplitanja parlamenta; i treće, jer vjerujem da će prijedlog zakona izazvati velike neugodnosti, ne samo za osobe koje su uložile veliki kapital u proizvodnju pamuka, već čak i za radnike i samu djecu - da smatram svojom dužnošću da se usprotivim ovoj mjeri.


Istorija porodice Hope

Hopetoun je prapostojbina porodice Hope više od 300 godina, sadašnji grof od Hopetouna živi u kući, a četvrti markiz od Linlithgowa (glava porodice i otac lorda Hopetouna i#8217) živi na imanju. Porodica Hope ima dugu i časnu službu u kruni, zemlji, zakonu i vojsci. Općenito se vjeruje da porodično porijeklo datira od Johna Hopea, prikazanog u Edinburgh Burgess Rolls-u 1516-1517 sa pseudonimom Petit Johnne, Trumpetour. Kasnije je postao trgovac i brat iz gilde: zabilježeno je da je imao imanje u High Street, Edinburghu i zemljišta u blizini Leitha u Newhavenu ili Le Porte de Grace kako je tada bilo poznato.

John-ov sin Henry (oko 1533-1591) bio je građanin i u Dieppeu i u Edinburghu, a njegov sin, Sir Thomas Hope iz Craighalla (1573-1646), studirao je pravo, a Karlo I ga je 1626. imenovao za branitelja#8217s. Sir Thomas ’ četvrti sin, Sir James Hope (1614-1661) prvi je sebe stilizirao 'za Hopetouna ’ koristeći stari naziv za Leadhills u Lanarkshireu, gdje je, u braku s nasljednicom Anne Foulis, došao u posjed vredni rudnici olova. Ovo povećano bogatstvo omogućilo je njegovom sinu, Johnu Hopeu (1650-1682) da kupi zemlju Abercorn s namjerom da sebi izgradi lijepu kuću. Nažalost, prije nego što je to uspio, utopio se u brodolomu "Gloucestera"#8217, prateći vojvodu od Yorka (kasnije Jakova VII/II) na putovanju u Škotsku.

Njegova udovica, lady Margaret Hamilton, nastavila je rasprave i planove za podizanje vile na tom mjestu: 1699. godine naručila je zgradu Hopetouna za svog mladog sina Charlesa Hopea (1681-1742) povodom njegove udaje za sestru Markiz od Annandalea. Markiz je bio zapažen poznavalac umjetnosti i njegova je zbirka ostavljena u nasljeđe Hopetounu nakon njegove smrti. Charles je prvi grof od Hopetouna 1703. godine.

Radovi na Kući započeli su 1699. godine pod pokroviteljstvom Sir Williama Brucea koji je bio priznat kao jedan od najsjajnijih arhitekata tog doba. Radovi su završeni 1707. godine i proizveli su neke od najboljih primjera rezbarenja, obloga i slikanja stropova u Škotskoj, koji odražavaju modu i ukuse škotskog plemstva u to vrijeme. Mnoge detalje izveli su lokalni majstori, poput velikog stubišta koje je isklesao Alexander Eizat koji je radio s Bruceom prilikom renoviranja u palači Holyrood u Edinburghu.

Nekih četrnaest godina kasnije, 1721. godine, poznati škotski arhitekta William Adam dobio je zadatak da poduzme program izmjena i poboljšanja koji je trajao do 1767. To je donijelo impozantnu fasadu s veličanstvenim kolonadama, sjevernim i južnim paviljonima i stvaranje velike države Apartmani će se koristiti za zabavu i druženje. Rad je, međutim, nadživio Williama Adama, a nakon njegove smrti 1748. godine, unutrašnje uređenje Kuće izveli su njegovi sinovi John, James i Robert. Djelo je nadživjelo i prvog grofa: njegov sin Ivan drugi grof (1704-1781) nadgledao je dovršavanje unutrašnjosti. Drugi grof bio je vrlo religiozan čovjek i zapažen poboljšavač poljoprivrede, koji je kupio stanove Ormiston u istočnom Lothianu. Bio je i jedan od prvih guvernera Edinburške ambulante (kasnije Kraljevske ambulante Edinburga).

Kuća Hopetoun ne samo da predstavlja aristokratsku veličinu ranog 18. stoljeća, koja se može pohvaliti mnogim finim arhitektonskim obilježjima, već jasno pokazuje izrazitu promjenu ukusa i utjecaja dizajna koji su vladali u to vrijeme. Značajne razlike u stilu između izvorne Bruce House i kasnijih Adamovih dodataka mogu se cijeniti i danas. Stariji, mirniji Bruce House ima izgled i dojam udobne seoske kuće, dok Adam House ima potpuno sofisticiraniji osjećaj s utjecajima velikih europskih palača poput Versaja. Od svog završetka sredinom 18. stoljeća, kuća je ostala bitno nepromijenjena, osim za unutrašnje izmjene četvrtog grofa između 1816. i 1823. godine, uključujući stvaranje Velike i Male biblioteke i ukrašavanje državne blagovaonice od strane Jamesa Gillespieja Grahama.

Do vremena Jakova 3. grofa (1741-1816) porodica je posjedovala velike površine zemlje u istočnoj i zapadnoj Lothian, Fife i Lanarkshire. Međutim, kako James nije imao sina, naslijedio ga je njegov polubrat general Sir John Hope (1765-1823) kao 4. grof. Četvrti grof imao je istaknutu vojnu karijeru. Završio je evakuaciju britanskih trupa iz Corunne nakon smrti Sir Johna Moorea, zapovijedao je jednom od Wellingtonovih divizija u Poluotočnom ratu i odlikovan je za izuzetne zasluge i hrabrost. Kip četvrtog grofa u rimskoj haljini još uvijek se može vidjeti u dvorištu vrta Dundas House, bivšeg sjedišta Kraljevske banke Škotske (čiji je on bio guverner) na Trgu sv. Andrije, u Edinburgu postoje i drugi njegovi spomenici u Fife i East Lothian.

Mjerenje je važnosti Hopetouna u tome što je 1822. George IV posjetio kuću na kraju svoje državne posjete Škotskoj i primio ga je 4. grof. Državna posjeta bila je prvi put da je vladajući britanski suveren posjetio Škotsku 170 godina, a njome je upravljao Sir Walter Scott kao važan dio njegovog romantičnog pokreta u Škotskoj. Tokom cijele turneje Kralj je nosio hajdučku haljinu, koja je bila zabranjena od 1745. do 1782. godine nakon jakobitskih pobuna: kraljeva gesta je viđena kao čin pomirenja između Škotske i Engleske. Zapisi pokazuju da je kralj stigao u Hopetoun u 13.15 sati i da je nakon što su ga primili grof i grofica štedljivo ručao supu od kornjače i tri čaše vina. Zatim je vitezovao škotskog portretiste ser Henryja Raeburna i kapetana Adama Fergusona, čuvara regalija u Škotskoj, u Žutoj saloni koristeći mač lorda Hopetouna. U 15 sati oprostio se i kočijom otputovao do Port Edgara, nedaleko od South Queensferryja, gdje ga je Kraljevska jahta čekala da ga vrati u Englesku.
Četvrti grof bio je generalni kapetan Kraljevske čete strijelaca, koji je tokom posjete prepoznat kao kraljevski tjelohranitelj u Škotskoj. Kraljevska kompanija, još uvijek lični tjelohranitelj Suverene za Škotsku, još uvijek postoji i paradira u formalnim prilikama kao što je godišnja vrtna zabava kraljice#8217 u vrtnoj palači Holyrood. Takođe se sastaje u Hopetounu svakog ljeta kako bi snimio nagradu za kraljevsku komemoraciju Hopetoun, koju je 4. grof uručio Kompaniji u znak sjećanja na svoju ulogu u posjeti. Sadašnji grof aktivan je član Kraljevske kompanije.

Peti grof bio je aktivan u škotskim poslovima i u stalnom poboljšanju svojih posjeda. 6. grof je umro od tifusa u 42. godini života nakon kratkog života posvećenog Parizu i lovu na Pytchley. Sedmi grof, John (1860-1908), međutim, trebao je postati jedan od najeminentnijih članova porodice i stvoren je prvi markiz od Linlithgowa. Nakon što je s 29 godina bio guverner Viktorije u Australiji, vratio se u Britaniju da postane kraljica Viktorija Lord Chamberlain. Vratio se kao prvi generalni guverner novoformiranog Commonwealtha Australije 1900. Bio je i sekretar za Škotsku u vladi Arthura Balfoura 1905.

Njegov sin Victor, osmi grof i drugi markiz (1887-1952), zasjenio je čak i ta velika postignuća. Bio je građanski Lord Admiraliteta od 1922. do 1924. Predsjedavao je Kraljevskom komisijom za poljoprivredu u Indiji od 1926. do 1928. Godine 1928. proglašen je vitezom Reda čička. Predsjedavao je odborom za ustavnu reformu Indije 1933. godine i pomogao u formulisanju Akta o indijskoj vladi iz 1935. Nakon svog iskustva u Indiji, vratio se tamo kao vicekralj i generalni guverner od 1936. do 1943. godine, gotovo dva puna mandata, što ga čini najdužim -potpredsjednik. Zbog toga je stvoren kao vitez Reda podvezica, jedan od samo nekolicine ne-kraljevskih osoba koji će biti vitez podvezice i čička. Bio je kancelar Edinburškog univerziteta od 1944. do svoje smrti 1952. i predsjednik Midland banke.

Charles, 9. grof i 3. markiz (1912-1987) služili su u Drugom svjetskom ratu, osvojivši vojni križ, a zarobljen je sa 51. (gorštačkom) divizijom 1940. prije nego što je zadržan u Colditzu kao jedan od 'istaknutih ’' . Bio je partner londonskim burzovnim posrednicima Joseph Sebag i direktor osiguranja Eagle Star Insurance.


Rani život

Henry Jackson Thomas Jr. rođen je u San Antoniju u Teksasu 9. septembra 1971. Nakon što je odigrao ulogu Elliotta u E.T. vanzemaljskog 1982. godine Thomas se vratio u rodni grad San Antonio, gdje se fokusirao na školu i povremeno preuzimao filmske i TV uloge. Osamdesetih i devedesetih vratio se glumi.

Fotografija: Jeffrey Mayer/WireImage


ISTORIJA

Imanje Deepdene, smješteno na jugoistočnom rubu Dorkinga u Surreyu, nekada je bilo dom jednog od najzagonetnijih likova nacije, Thomasa Hopea.

Thomas Hope

Thomas Hope (1769 – 1831), rođen u Amsterdamu, bio je iz bogate bankarske porodice koja je bila vlasnik globalno uticajne banke Hope & amp Company.

Thomas je odrastao oko bogatstva, umjetnosti, skulpture i antikviteta i bio je na velikom putovanju, a njegova velika turneja po Bliskom istoku trajala je 8 godina. Godine 1790. i#8217. njegova porodica je pobjegla u Englesku kako bi izbjegla francuske revolucionarne vojske. Thomas je kupio londonsku kuću u ulici Vojvotkinja koju je uskoro započeo s preuređivanjem, a zatim je kupio kuću u Deepdeneu i okolnom imanju.

Thomas Hope

Thomas je bio izvanredan kolekcionar, graditelj i dizajner od velikog nacionalnog i međunarodnog značaja. Smatra se definitivnim proizvođačem ukusa iz Regency -a i odigrao je jedinstvenu ulogu u umjetnosti kao pokrovitelj, kolekcionar, pisac i dizajner koji je zaslužan za izmišljanje izraza ‘ dizajn interijera ’.

Uspon Deepdene -a

Kuću i pejzaž koji je Thomas kupio prvo je stvorila porodica Howard. Charles Howard je sredinom 17. stoljeća stvorio talijanski vrt od Deepdenea, jedan od prvih u Engleskoj, zajedno s terasama, špiljom, pa čak i laboratorijem ugrađenim u prirodne tunele u vrtovima. Nekoliko generacija Howardsa zatim je razvilo Deepdene, uključujući i izgradnju kuće u kasnom 18. stoljeću koju je Thomas Hope na kraju kupio.

Nakon kraćeg mandata u rukama porodice Burrell, Deepdene je kupio Thomas Hope 1807. Nakon deset godina zadovoljne okupacije, Hope je započela veliko preuređenje. Preuredio je kuću u jedinstvenu strukturu koja se povezivala s pejzažom Deepdenea, sagradio mauzolej za svog najmlađeg sina Charlesa, koji je umro samo 7 godina i proširio zemljište otkupom susjednog zemljišta. Njegov brat mu je 1814. poklonio susjedno imanje Chart Park za dodavanje u Deepdene. U znak sjećanja na ovaj dar, Hope je sagradila hram na visokoj tački parka, Deepdene Terrace, u čast njegova brata#8217.

Mauzolej nade

Nakon njegove smrti 1831., imanje je naslijedio njegov najstariji sin Henry Thomas Hope koji je dalje preuredio kuću i proširio teren tako da uključuje Betchworth Park, Betchworth Castle, selo Brockham i dio Box Hill -a.

Henry je 1862. godine ustupio imanje svojoj udovici Anne, a 1884. Deepdene je otišao njihovom unuku, lordu Francisu Hope-Pelham-Clintonu, kasnije osmom vojvodi od Newcastlea.

Pad Deepdene -a

Lord Francis Hope nikada nije živio u Deepdeneu, samo ga je posjetio, pa je 1894. godine proglašen bankrotom. Kuća je tada iznajmljena vojvotkinji udovici od Marlborougha, tetki jednog Winstona Churchilla. Vojvotkinja se zabavljala na imanju dugi niz godina, ali nakon njene smrti 1909., a s lordom Francisom koji je još uvijek bio u teškoćama, kuća i teren počeli su se razbijati i prodavati. Velika prodaja 1917. dovela je do gubitka velikog dijela sadržaja kuće, a 1920. je pretvorena u rezidencijalni hotel.

Hotel je opao 1930 -ih i#8217 -ih, a kada je izbio rat 1939. godine, Južna željeznica ga je kao ratnu hitnu mjeru kupila.

Južna željeznica je tamo postavila svoje sjedište i zauzela kuću tokom cijelog rata preuređujući vrtove kao komunikacijsko središte zajedno sa telefonskom centralom izlučenom u tunele na padini. Southern Rail je tamo održavao urede do 1967. godine, kada je kuća prodana Federated Homes Ltd, razvojnoj kompaniji.

Godine 1969. Deepdene House je nažalost srušena, međutim upečatljive karakteristike preostale iz njegovog živopisnog pejzaža ponovo se otkrivaju kao glavni dio The Deepdene Trail.

Rođena je Deepdene Trail

Staza Deepdene otvorena je 10. rujna 2016. godine nudeći ljepotu imanja Deepdene za uživanje. Vijeće okruga Mole Valley podržava Dorkingovi prijatelji, volonterska grupa koja je imala neprocjenjivu vrijednost u radu na lokaciji radi čišćenja vrtova i otkrivanja ogromnih hortikulturnih obilježja i pogleda.


& quotThomas Hope, jedan od najeminentnijih članova njegove porodice, bio je sin Henryja Hopea, ali tačan datum njegovog rođenja nije poznat. Poput svog brata Jamesa, on je postao 'sluga', ili ono što ne bismo trebali nazvati službenikom ili učenikom, gospodinu Johnu Nicholsonu iz Lasswadea, pa je kao takav svjedočio dvjema poveljama ser Patricka Murraya iz Geanessa u Edinburgu 28. veljače 1601. godine.

. Oženio se, prije ili prije 1602., s Elizabeth, kćerkom Johna Benneta iz Wallyforda, i imala je četrnaest djece. & Quot

Unos Oxfordskog indeksa biografije Thomas Hope iz Craighalla

Nada, Sir Thomas, iz Craighalla, prvi baron (1573 �), zagovornik i političar

Oxford Biography Index Number 101013736 [šta je ovo?] Http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/101013736/Thomas-Hope-of-Craighall Primarno tijelo: Oxford DNB Cijeli tekst dostupan Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

David Stevenson, ‘Hope, Sir Thomas, Craighall, prvi baronet (1573 �) ’, prvi put objavljen 2004.

Rođenje: 򑕳 Smrt: Okt. 1, 1646

Sin Henryja Hopea 1540 – 1591 i Jacqueline Juvitot De Tott, suprug dame Elizabeth Bennet Wallingford, oženio se 1602. u Craighallu u Škotskoj. Otac: Sir John Hope Craighill, 2. baronet 1605 – 1654 Thomas Hope 1606 – 1643 Alexander Hope 1611 – 1680 James Hope 1614 – 1661 Mary Hope 1620 – 1691 Anne Hope 1625 – 1653 Anne Nada 1625 – 1653 Charles Hope 1627 – Anna Hope 1634 – 1712

1. Baronet iz Craighila. Zagovornik Charlesa I.

Prihvaćen kao advokat 1605. godine, svoju reputaciju stekao je odbranom Johna Forbsa (1568.-1634.) I drugih ministara u Linlithgowu 1606. Pripremio je dokument kojim je Jamesu VI oduzeo crkvenu imovinu 1625. Imenovan je lordom advokatom. 1626., a dužnost je obnašao do 1641. Bio je baronet Nove Škotske 1628. Vodio je slučaj protiv Johna Elphinstonea, drugog lorda Balmerina 1634. Kao visoki komesar lorda u Generalnoj skupštini Škotske crkve 1643. godine. , zadržao je kraljevu privremenu politiku. 1645. Hope je imenovana za jednog od povjerenika za upravljanje državnom blagajnom, ali je umrla sljedeće godine. Dvojica njegovih sinova imenovani su na klupu dok je bio lord advokat, a prema ocjeni Suda nije bilo potrebno da se otac izjasni pred djecom, otkrivena mu je privilegija nošenja šešira. Ovu privilegiju njegovi nasljednici na dužnosti lorda advokata od tada uživaju, iako je sada u opasnosti da bude izgubljena zbog bezobrazluka. Njegova & quotPraktična zapažanja nad različitim naslovima Škotskog zakona & quot, koji se obično nazivaju & quot; Manje prakse & quot; objavljeni su 1726. Prema Wikipediji

Ukop: Greyfriars Kirkyard Edinburgh Grad Edinburgh, Škotska

Uredi podatke o virtualnom groblju [?]

Održava: Find A Grave Izvorno kreirala: Anne Shurtleff Stevens Zapis je dodan: 15. studenog 2011. Find A Grave Memorial# 80511800


Henry Thomas Buckle

Engleski istoričar Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-1862) bio je glavna ličnost u pozitivističkom pokretu u istorijskim naukama. On je primijenio metode prirodnih nauka na historiju u nastojanju da otkrije naučne zakone koji upravljaju historijskim procesom.

Henry Thomas Buckle rođen je u Leeu, Kent, 24. novembra 1821. Zbog svog osjetljivog zdravlja nije pohađao školu, već se obrazovao kroz puno čitanja i putovanja. Prije 20. godine postao je jedan od najistaknutijih šahista u Engleskoj. Nakon očeve smrti 1840. godine, putovao je po kontinentu i u tom periodu odlučio je svoju energiju usmjeriti na pripremu velikog historijskog djela. Prvo je odlučio da napiše istoriju srednjeg vijeka, ali je 1851. godine proširio svoj prvobitni plan i započeo rad na istoriji civilizacije. Objavio je prvi tom Istorija civilizacije u Engleskoj 1857. i drugi tom 1861. godine.

Buckle je smatrao da postoji potreba da se dokaže da se historijski razvoj odvija u skladu s univerzalnim zakonima, i možda je više od bilo kojeg drugog povjesničara 19. stoljeća popularizirao uvjerenje da se mogu formulirati naučni zakoni historije. Stoga je cilj njegovog rada bio otkriti induktivnim ispitivanjem uzročno -posljedične uniformnosti koje upravljaju društvom i njegovim razvojem. Buckleova historiografska metoda bila je pod utjecajem empirizma Johna Stuarta Milla i uvjerenja Augustea Comtea da društvo treba proučavati primjenom naučnih procedura.

U njegovom Istorija civilizacije u Engleskoj Buckle je tvrdio da je za razvoj znanstvenog proučavanja povijesti potrebno uzeti u obzir ne samo kako je čovjek modificirao prirodni svijet, već i kako je prirodni svijet promijenio čovjeka. Posebno je vjerovao da su fizički faktori (klima i hrana, između ostalog) najvažnija sila u određivanju načina na koji će se civilizacija razviti. Stoga su za Buckle razlike među svjetskim civilizacijama velikim dijelom posljedica jedinstvenih fizičkih okolnosti u kojima je svaka kultura evoluirala. Smatrao je da je visok nivo do kojeg se evropska civilizacija razvila posljedica kombinacije faktora okoline koji su potaknuli potpuno korištenje čovjekovih intelektualnih sposobnosti. Ključ ljudskog napretka bio je, dakle, razvoj znanja.

Buckleov rad je odmah postigao uspjeh, ali neuspjeh da asimilira evolucijske teorije Charlesa Darwina i Herberta Spencera rezultirao je naglim padom njegove slave. Dok je putovao po Bliskom istoku 1862. godine, dobio je groznicu i umro u Damasku.


“Niko me neće osloboditi ovog umiješanog svećenika? ” Istina iza ozloglašene tužaljke Henrika II.

Dana 8. juna 2017. godine Thomas Becket se iznenada pojavio u istrazi o mogućem miješanju Rusije u predsjedničke izbore 2016. godine. Bivši direktor FBI -a James Comey pozvan je da se pojavi pred saslušanjem obavještajnog odbora Senata kako bi pružio "teksturu i kontekst" o svojoj interakciji s predsjednikom Trumpom. Otprilike sat i 40 minuta nakon početka postupka, senator Angus, kralj Mainea, upitao je Comeyja za Trumpovu "nadu" da će Comey zaustaviti istragu protiv generala Michaela Flynna, osramoćenog bivšeg savjetnika za nacionalnu sigurnost - kada se Comey oštro osvrnuo na Becketovo mučeništvo .

Kralj: "Kada predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država u ovalnom uredu kaže nešto poput" nadam se "," predlažem "ili" biste li? ", Uzimate li to kao direktivu?"

Comey: „Da. Da. U ušima mi odzvanja poput "Zar me nitko neće riješiti ovog svećenika koji se petlja?"

Kralj: “Upravo sam to htio citirati! Dana 11. prosinca 1170. godine Henry II je rekao: ‘Tko će me osloboditi ovog svećenika koji se petlja?’, A sljedećeg dana je ubijen, Thomas à Becket, to je potpuno ista situacija. ”

To što je u takvom kontekstu korišten izraz "svećenički svećenik" dokazuje koliko su se te dvije riječi ispreplele sa sudbonosnim ispadom Henrika II o Becketu - ispadom, pa se priča kaže da su četiri viteza krivo protumačila direktivu da ubiju nadbiskupa. Ali, u stvarnosti, ne postoji način da se tačno zna šta je Henry rekao. Edward Grim, najutjecajniji od Becketovih hagiografa, navodi drugačiji usklik u svom izvještaju o c1171–72. Grim, koji je bio očevidac ubistva, napisao je da je Henry rekao: "Kakve sam jadne bespilotne letjelice i izdajnike njegovao i unaprijedio u svom domaćinstvu koji su dopustili da se njihov gospodar sa tako sramnim prijezirom odnosi prema nisko rođenom kleriku!"

Dakle, ovdje se ne spominje "sveštenički svećenik". U stvari, prošlo je još 800 godina prije nego što je izraz prvi put ušao u popularnu maštu, kada ga je izgovorio Peter O'Toole, igrajući kralja Henryja II u filmu iz 1964. godine Becket. Nasuprot O'Tooleu bio je Richard Burton, u glavnoj ulozi, koji je izvodio s nepomičnom moralnom otpornošću.

Film je zasnovan na uspješnoj istoimenoj drami nagrađenoj Tonijem, koju je napisao francuski dramatičar Jean Anouilh. Prvi put je izvedena u Parizu 1959. godine, a zatim u New Yorku 1960. godine, gdje su glumili Lawrence Olivier i Anthony Quinn. No, u Anouilhovom scenariju nema spomena o "umiješanom svećeniku". Red bi umjesto toga trebao biti pripisan Edwardu Anhaltu, koji je prilagodio predstavu za srebrni ekran. Iako je film dobio 12 nominacija za Oscara, samo je Anhalt - čovjek koji je očito izradio jedan od najozloglašenijih refrena srednjeg vijeka - osvojio Oscara.


Sadržaj

The Railway Series

Henrijevo tačno porijeklo nije poznato. Priča kaže da ga je izgradio prema crtežima koje je Sir Dongel Gresley ukrao u Doncasteru 1919. od strane anonimnog graditelja lokomotiva koji mu je zamjerio. Špijun je, međutim, pogriješio i uzeo pogrešne crteže. Umjesto novih A1 "pacifičkih" lokomotiva koje je Gresley u to vrijeme dizajnirao, lopov je završio s planovima koji su rano odbijeni. Greška je shvaćena prekasno i Henry je izgrađen sa mnogo rezultirajućih mana, i samo površnom slikom na Gresley's Pacifics. Jedan od ovih nedostataka bilo je premalo ložište, što je Henryja učinilo nepouzdanim stidljivim parobrodom.

Lopov je bio oduševljen iskrcati svog "Bijelog slona" prvom očajnom kupcu koji je došao - Kontroloru masti. Nameravao je da kupi 8B robinzonski atlantik Velike centralne železnice, ali ga je umesto toga naterao da kupi Henrija. Henry je stigao 1922. godine, a zbog željeznice koja je očajnički željela lokomotive, Kontrolor masti nije imao drugog izbora nego zadržati ga.

Henry je bio tašt i zaustavio se u tunelu Ballahoo i odbio izaći, navodeći da će mu kišu pokvariti farbanje. Nakon nekoliko pokušaja da ga premjesti nije uspio, bio je zatvoren u tunelu sve dok se Gordon nije slomio dok je vukao Express. Kako Edward nije mogao sam pomaknuti vlak, Kontrolor masti je ponudio da pusti Henryja iz tunela da mu pomogne. Henry je željno prihvatio.

Henry se pokazao dobro i Kontrolor masti mu je obećao novi sloj boje, budući da je Henryjevu postojeću boju više pokvario njegov boravak u tunelu nego što bi to učinila kiša. Henry je tražio da bude obojen u plavo kao Edward, samo da bi ga mnogi zbunili s Gordonom, što je naljutilo motor. Stvar se pogoršala nakon putovanja u Works kada je Henry dobio rezervni set Gordonovih tampona. Negdje prije 1935. godine glavnim motorima ponuđena je nova boja. Henry je odabrao zelenu boju i tako je prestala zabuna Gordon/Henry.

Nažalost, Henry je morao pretrpjeti poniženje kada ga je odbjegli slon istisnuo iz tunela, a kasnije ga oblio vodom. Nakon što su Gordon i James pretrpjeli vlastita poniženja (a sva trojica su se već zasitili da moraju sami raditi manevriranje i dovoditi vlastite trenere), veliki motori su krenuli u štrajk. Kontrolor masti prirodno nije odobravao ove gluposti i zaključao ih je u šupu na nekoliko dana, ostavljajući ih jadnima. Međutim, ponovo su pušteni nakon što su obećali da će vrijedno raditi.

Loš motor i njegov sistem - koji je u najboljem slučaju već bio izbirljiv zbog nedostataka u dizajnu - nikada se nisu oporavili od boravka u tunelu. Henry je razvio probleme s parenjem, na koje se stalno žalio, iako nije naišao na simpatije motora, pogotovo kad je zbog toga zakasnio.

Došao je period kada su motori Main Line -a bili isporučeni sa lošom isporukom uglja i Henryju je to zaista bilo teško. Imao je snage vući vlakove sporadično, unatoč brojnim zamjenama dijelova, a govorilo se i o zamjeni drugim motorom. Konačno, Kontrolor masti je to lično pogledao i zatražio mišljenje Henrijevog vatrogasca, koji mu je rekao da su siromašni ugalj i Henrijevo ložište premali da bi ga efikasno sagorjeli. Vatrogasac je takođe predložio kupovinu visokokvalitetnog velškog uglja koji se koristi na Velikoj zapadnoj željeznici. Sir Topham Hatt pristao je kupiti nešto kako bi Henryju dao "poštenu šansu".

Kad je došao velški ugalj, Henryjeve performanse su se znatno poboljšale, tako da se mogao usporediti s Gordonom. Nastavio je koristiti ugljen sve dok nije naletio na teretni voz na Killdane Fieldu dok je vukao Leteći Kipper i poslan je u Crewe na obnovu 1935. Henry je pregrađen u Stanier 5MT. Kontrolor masti je imao veze sa Sir Williamom Stanierom, pa je to vjerovatno razlog što je uspio tako brzo obnoviti Henryja. Osim što je dobio novi oblik, Henry je dobio i veće ložište, što mu je omogućilo da ponovo koristi običan ugalj.

Nakon povratka, Henry je dodat rotaciji za Express i povukao ga je toliko dobro da je učinio Gordona ljubomornim. Gordon je pokušao da se osveti tako što je grubo kritikovao Henryja što je glasno zviždao na stanicama, ali morao je pojesti njegove reči kasnije tog dana nakon što mu se otvorio zviždački ventil. Nešto kasnije, Henry je išao sporim vozom. Dok je prolazio ispod mosta, tri dječaka za koja je pretpostavio da su željezničari bacali su kamenje na njega i njegove trenere. Na povratku ih je platio "kihanjem" pepela koji im se skupljao u njegovoj dimnjaci.

Kada je kraljica Elizabeta II trebala posjetiti Sodor 1953., Henry je (opravdano) pretpostavio da je on bio kontrolor masti koji je povukao Kraljevski vlak. Ali dan ranije, dok je mirovao na stanici, njegov dim zaslijepio je slikara, koji je zajedno sa posudom s bojom pao na Henryja. Boja je prskala po Henryjevom kotlu, a kako je bojanje trajalo predugo, umjesto njega je Gordon dobio posao.

Kad je Patka stigao 1955. godine da preuzme Percyjeve dužnosti kao pilot stanice, Henry ga je - zajedno s Gordonom i Jamesom - zadirkivao i pokušavao izdati naređenja, kao što su to činili Percyju. Uz Percyjevu pomoć, Duck je blokirao velike motore da uđu u šupu. Kontrolor masti je stigao i rekao da se dva tenkovska motora isključuju zbog izazivanja smetnji. Henry i ostali su se smijali - sve dok Kontrolor masti nije povikao na tišinu i rekao im da im je bilo gore, made smetnja. Rekao im je da je Patka bila u pravu - on, Sir Topham Hatt, je glavni i daje naređenja koja je Henry poštovao Ducka nakon toga.

Nešto nakon tog perioda, Henry je dobio tender za Fowlera iz nepoznatih razloga. Do tada je Henry jednom bio grub prema motorima u Barrow-in-Furnessu koji su bili usred razgovora s Percyjem, nazivajući njega i njih "glupostima" i osporavajući Percyjevu izjavu da se ne boji vode. Percy je uzvratio podsjetivši Henryja na njegov boravak u tunelu, ali pokazalo se da je Percy pogriješio kada je slučajno završio u kutiji za pušenje-prvo u moru u luci Knapford. Kad su sljedećeg dana Percyja trebali poslati na radove, Henry je ismijao Percyja i rekao mu da će biti hrabriji kad sljedeći put zaroni u more, ali Percy je bio sasvim odlučan da sljedećeg puta neće biti.

Henry će kasnije pratiti motore do Engleske.

Henryjevo dobro mišljenje o Patki nakratko će se pokvariti 1957. On i drugi motori glavne linije bili su sve umorniji od Duckovog neprestanog govora o Velikoj zapadnoj željeznici nakon posjete grada Trura. Dizel koji je poslan na ostrvo na suđenje brzo je izazvao ljutnju na Patka i širio gadne priče o motorima glavne linije na kamione, priče za koje je lažno tvrdio da mu je Patak rekao. Bijesan što su ga nazvali "Old Square Wheels", Henry se pridružio Gordonu i Jamesu u zabrani Ducka iz šupe baš kao što su Duck i Percy prethodno učinili. He felt sorry a few days later when he became the next target of Diesel's slander and when Duck returned after preventing an accident, Henry cheered for him loudly.

When Gordon started feeling depressed in 1967, Henry - who thought Gordon was just moaning and groaning - teased him and told him he should get a wash-out and would feel much better. When Gordon's brother Flying Scotsman visited Sodor, Henry was jealous of the visitor's second tender. Although Duck and Donald explained this (which Henry understood), he still was vain enough to want an additional tender. Deciding to bring Henry down to earth, Duck told the big engine that he had in his possession not one, but six spare tenders, which, as a tank engine, he had no need of. Henry accepted and all the engines waited to see him go past. But instead of a splendid sight, the tenders were old, rusted and full of boiler sludge. Gordon mocked him with a comment about wash-outs.

Henry became frustrated the day after 7101 and 199 arrived on trial. This made him so hot that his regulator fused wide open and his driver had to use the reverser to control him. On his return journey (no train), he stopped at a signal box next to 199, who had a train of fuel and oil tankers. The signalman told them that 199 - who he nicknamed "Spamcan" - had failed and that he needed to be moved out of the way to clear the line for the "Limited". Henry pulled the train clear, but shortly afterwards, 7101's ejector failed and the "Limited" ground to a halt. Henry then volunteered to help move oboje trains. Luckily all he had to do for 7101 was keep the vacuum brakes off, but it was still hard work. The cavalcade made it to a station where Flying Scotsman waited to take the coaches and Donald to take the goods. Henry brought 7101 to the Works afterwards and following this valiant rescue, he was no longer teased for the Tender incident. Henry also cheered for the arrival of Oliver and Toad several days later.

Later, when Gordon needed new tubes, Henry pulled the express, but soon fell ill as well. This left the job of the express to Thomas, Percy and Duck. A while later, Henry had to pull an extra long Flying Kipper and Duck had to help him up Gordon's Hill. But due to a tail-lamp falling off the rear van, Duck accidentally crashed into the train.

During the subject of paint colours, Henry commented on how he hated to be red and look like a fire engine. The next day, he was rough with his coaches and resulted in breaking the drawbar between him and his tender. Because of his separated source of water, his fireman was forced to throw out the fire, which set the sleepers alight. After the fire brigade put out the flames, Henry never made rude comments on fire engines again.

In 1985, Henry complained to Thomas the time that the Viaduct had gone under repairs, when Thomas became impatient with his connection between the main line engines and his branch line. Later when bringing passengers for Thomas, the tank engine ran away.

In 1986, when Gordon accidentally blew ashes when his smokebox was clogged, Henry suggested that Gordon should have a good "sneeze", but Gordon reminded Henry that The Fat Controller did not like Henry's sneeze. He also pulled the express when Gordon slipped on the icy rails and befriended Pip and Emma.

When Thomas had been invited to the Great Railway Show, Henry was angry at having not been chosen and later teased Percy that Thomas was old enough to become a museum piece.

In 1992, during the time when the railway began using a new type of coal, Henry began having problems with it. This resulted in his smokebox door having to be pasted shut with damp shredded newspaper when hot ashes damaged it. He was to head to Crovan's Gate with James on the Express, but after crossing the Viaduct one of the steel rims on his driving wheel broke off and shattered a window on one of the coaches. He was taken off and managed to get to the Works. After his repairs, he was given an undercoat of red paint, but before the green could be applied he was called out to pull the Express. Despite his looks, he managed to pull the train, even getting up Gordon's Hill on his own and returned home with his finished coat of green.

He later fretted over the Golden Jubilee despite Duck, Daisy, James and Donald trying to cheer him up.

Thomas & amp Friends

In the television series, Henry loved visiting the forest. Because of how much he loves it, he helped to replant trees after it was destroyed by a storm.

He also has had to go back to the railway works on several occasions, such as when his tubes were leaking and after he had an accident with some trucks. But the reason most often given for Henry's poor state is that he needed special coal again, even though this was corrected in the first series. This error began with the tenth series episode Toby's Afternoon Off and in It's Good to be Gordon, Henry had to use ordinary Coal, since Gordon took his Special coal, but this has been fixed as of King of the Railway as Toby stated that the fact that Henry needing special coal was fixed years ago. The last time Henry was stated to need special coal was in the fifteenth series.

During one winter, he was tasked with working with Spencer to deliver trucks to Vicarstown. But Spencer teased him by making him think there was an abominable snowman on Sodor. After they had delivered their trucks, they both saw a strange white figure stumbling around on the tracks in front of them. Thinking it was the abominable snowman, Spencer tried to run away. Unfortunately, his valves burst and Henry stood his ground to try and to make the snowman go away. Luckily, it was only Sir Topham Hatt who ended up running into trouble in the heavy snow.

One night, he saw Sailor John and Skiff rolling along the line and got a big fright, thinking Skiff was a ghost ship. Some of the engines teased him about it, even though he insisted the boat was real.

In the twentieth series, Henry had to pull the express for Gordon while he was having his firebox cleaned in the morning. He was initially hesitant but enjoyed himself, especially after the passengers complimented on how well he pulled it. Later, Henry was having a repaint at the Steamworks when Kevin gave him the wrong paint. Henry puffed into the night, his new paintwork glowing in the dark, causing his friends to think they had seen a ghost train. The Fat Controller realised that Henry had the wrong paint and told him to return to the Steamworks for some proper green paint, while praising Henry for being the only engine working as all the others were too scared to come out of the shed.

Henry would later go to the Mainland and be a part of the Great Railway Show, competing in the Strongest Engine Race. After the race, he met up with the other engines and informed them that he came in fifth. Philip congratulated him, only for Henry to reveal that there were only five engines.

In Journey Beyond Sodor, Henry was due to go back to the Mainland with a goods train. However, a faulty signal caused him to crash into the back of Hiro's train. After being rescued by the Breakdown Train, the Fat Controller arranged James to take his train while Henry is being repaired. However, Thomas took it before James could and James only went when Thomas did not return. Henry was soon fully repaired and returned to the sheds while the others finished singing The Most Important Thing is Being Friends, to which he asked, "What did I miss?"

Sometime after, Henry was relocated to Vicarstown Sheds with Rosie per his request. His old berth at Tidmouth Sheds was filled by Rebecca.

During the following Christmas, the boiler at the Sodor Animal Park broke down. Henry suggested taking the animals to the Steamworks to keep warm, but this was initially ignored by the Fat Controller.

Later, when Percy created rumours of a railway show for little engines at Ulfstead Castle, Henry was left to shunt his own train after Rosie abandoned her duties at Vicarstown to attend, making him run late.

When Thomas and Sir Topham Hatt went to London to meet the Queen again, Gordon voiced his displeasure at not being the engine chosen. Henry responded by teasing Gordon about his poor understanding of the names of the stations in London.

Thomas and the Magic Railroad

Henry in Thomas and the Magic Railroad

In the film, Henry had suffered from boiler trouble due to deposits left by fumes from Diesel 10. This time, his sickness was cured by "Sodor Coal". Henry was one of the few engines who knew the 'legend' about Lady was true as for he was the first to acknowledge the fact that Diesel 10 was looking for her. Later, Thomas found Henry with a boiler ache and offered to collect trucks of Sodor coal to make him feel better.


Govor Patricka Henryja "Sloboda ili smrt"

Revolution was in the air in early 1775. Only a few months earlier, delegates from the American colonies had held the first Continental Congress and sent Britain’s King George III a petition for redress of grievances, among them the repeal of the so-called “Intolerable Acts.” A mass boycott of British goods was underway, and Boston Harbor still languished under a British blockade as punishment for 1773’s Boston Tea Party. In a speech to Parliament in late-1774, King George had denounced the �ring spirit of resistance and disobedience to the law” which seemed to be spreading like wildfire across the American continent.

Amid these mounting tensions, the Second Virginia Convention convened to discuss the Old Dominion’s strategy in negotiating with the Crown. The roughly 120 delegates who filed into Richmond’s St. John’s Church were a veritable “who’s who” of Virginia’s colonial leaders. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were both in attendance, as were five of the six other Virginians who would later sign the Declaration of Independence. Prominent among the bewigged statesmen was Patrick Henry, a well-respected lawyer from Hanover County. Blessed with an unfailing wit and mellifluous speaking voice, Henry had long held a reputation as one of Virginia’s most vociferous opponents of British taxation schemes. During the Stamp Act controversy in 1765, he had even flirted with treason in a speech in which he hinted that King George risked suffering the same fate as Julius Caesar if he maintained his oppressive policies. As a recent delegate to the Continental Congress, he had sounded the call for colonial solidarity by proclaiming, “The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Virginian I am an American.”

Henry giving his “Liberty or Death” speech.[/caption]

Henry was convinced that war was around the corner, and he arrived at the Virginia Convention determined to persuade his fellow delegates to adopt a defensive stance against Great Britain. On March 23, he put forward a resolution proposing that Virginia’s counties raise militiamen “to secure our inestimable rights and liberties, from those further violations with which they are threatened.” The suggestion of forming a militia was not shocking in itself. Other colonies had passed similar resolutions, and Henry had already taken it upon himself to raise a volunteer outfit in Hanover County. Nevertheless, many in the audience balked at approving any measure that might be viewed as combative. Word that King George had rejected the Continental Congress’s petition for redress of grievances was yet to reach the colonies, and some still held out hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain.

After several delegates had spoken on the issue, Patrick Henry rose from his seat in the third pew and took the floor. A Baptist minister who was watching the proceedings would later describe him as having 𠇊n unearthly fire burning in his eye.” Just what happened next has long been a subject of debate. Henry spoke without notes, and no transcripts of his exact words have survived to today. The only known version of his remarks was reconstructed in the early 1800s by William Wirt, a biographer who corresponded with several men that attended the Convention. According to this version, Henry began by stating his intention to “speak forth my sentiments freely” before launching into an eloquent warning against appeasing the Crown.

“I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided,” he said, 𠇊nd that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves, and the House?”

Henry then turned his attention to the British troops mobilizing across the colonies. 𠇊re fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation?” he asked. “Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that force must be called in to win back our love? …Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us they can be meant for no other.”

Another engraving depicting Henry’s speech.

As he continued speaking, Henry’s dulcet tones began to darken with anger. 𠇎xcitement began to play more and more upon his features,” the minister later said. “The tendons of his neck stood out white and rigid like whipcords.”

“Our petitions have been slighted,” Henry said, “our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult our supplications have been disregarded and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne…we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!”

Henry stood silent for a moment, letting his defiant words hang in the air. When he finally began speaking again, it was in a thunderous bellow that seemed to shake “the walls of the building and all within them.” His fellow delegates leaned forward in their seats as he reached his crescendo.

“The war is actually begun!” Henry cried. “The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? Šta gospoda žele? Šta bi oni imali? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?” As he spoke, Henry held his wrists together as though they were manacled and raised them toward the heavens. 𠇏orbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take but as for me, give me liberty”—Henry burst from his imaginary chains and grasped an ivory letter opener—“or give me death!” As he uttered these final words, he plunged the letter opener toward his chest, mimicking a knife blow to the heart.

For several moments after Henry sat back down, the assembled delegates seemed at a loss for words. “No other member…was yet adventurous enough to interfere with that voice which had so recently subdued and captivated,” delegate Edmund Randolph later said. A hushed silence descended on the room. 𠇎very eye yet gazed entranced on Henry,” said the Baptist minister. “Men were beside themselves.” Colonel Edward Carrington, one of the many people watching the proceedings through the church windows, was so moved that he stood and proclaimed to his fellow spectators, “Let me be buried at this spot!” When he died decades later, his widow honored his request.


Henry Hope Reed, Architectural Historian, Is Dead at 97

Henry Hope Reed, an architecture critic and historian whose ardent opposition to modernism was purveyed in books, walking tours of New York City and a host of curmudgeonly barbs directed at advocates of the austere, the functional and unornamented in public buildings and spaces, died Wednesday at his home in Manhattan. He was 97.

The death was confirmed by Paul Gunther, president of the Institute of Classical Architecture and Art.

Walking historical tours of New York are now staples of the city’s cultural menu, but when Mr. Reed first began leading them for the Municipal Art Society in 1956, they were novel enough to be the subject of a news article in The New York Times.

Modernism was in favor at the time, but a reporter accompanying a tour on the East Side of Manhattan, north of Union Square, described how persuasive Mr. Reed’s bias against it was: “The tour ended at Pete’s Tavern,” the reporter, John Sibley, wrote. “Over their drinks, the hikers reviewed the tour. The flamboyant architectural adornments of the last century had impressed them, but they bemoaned the encroachment of bleak and sterile streamlined apartment buildings.”

Mr. Reed could have scripted the line himself. He had just finished his first book, “American Skyline,” written with Christopher Tunnard, a history of city planning that, contrary to contemporary thinking that emphasized traffic flow and functional design, praised urban architecture that drew on the decorative styles of previous eras.

It was four years earlier that he had first announced his presence as a critical voice with an article in Perspecta, the Yale architecture magazine, denouncing modernism in especially forthright terms: “We have sacrificed the past, learning, the crafts, all the arts on the altar of ‘honest functionalism,’ ” he wrote. In doing so, he added, architects and planners have turned their backs on “the very stuff which makes a city beautiful, the jewels in the civic designer’s diadem.”

Mr. Reed, who once dismissed Frank Lloyd Wright’s famous house Fallingwater as “a large split-level,” was often derided for what some deemed his extreme views. Ada Louise Huxtable, who would later become The Times’s architecture critic, wrote in a review of “American Skyline” that the book advocated “a way of building ludicrously out of character with contemporary life.”

But as time went on — and modernism waned as postmodernism waxed — he was also hailed for his cranky opposition. It was Mr. Reed, Mr. Gunther said, who in 1965 went to Mayor John V. Lindsay and suggested Central Park be closed to traffic, which it was, on weekends.

During the 1960s, Mr. Reed became known for his walking tours of Central Park, during which he emphasized its most pastoral elements and the art of the park’s 19th-century designers, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. In 1967, with Sophia Duckworth, Mr. Reed published a seminal book, “Central Park: A History and a Guide.” The previous year he had been named the park’s first curator — a nonpaying post — by the city’s parks commissioner, Thomas P. F. Hoving, who would go on to become the transformative director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Perhaps inevitably, Mr. Reed, who objected to just about any intrusion on the park’s natural beauty — including the Wollman skating rink — clashed with his new boss, decrying Mr. Hoving’s promotion of the park for concerts and other events sponsored by private companies.

After Barbra Streisand performed there in June 1967, resulting in tons of garbage left in the Sheep Meadow, Mr. Reed declared himself “disgusted” with Mr. Hoving’s having permitted “a commercial invasion” of the park. Mr. Hoving, who had recently left the parks post, responded quickly, calling Mr. Reed a “fuddy-duddy.”

Henry Hope Reed Jr. was born in Manhattan on Sept. 25, 1915. He studied history at Harvard and, according to a friend and protégé, Francis Morrone, Mr. Reed spent a few years after that “drifting,” during which he wrote for newspapers in the Midwest. Later he studied decorative arts at the École du Louvre in Paris.

“I think he had his revelatory experience in Paris, which is also where he saw his first walking tours,” said Mr. Morrone, who teaches architecture history at New York University.

Mr. Reed’s wife, the former Constance Culbertson Feeley, died in 2007. He leaves no immediate survivors.

In 1968, Mr. Reed helped found Classical America, an advocacy organization that, among other things, identified and helped revivify out-of-print architectural texts. In 2002 it merged with another organization under the name Institute of Classical Architecture and Art.

Mr. Reed’s other books include “The Golden City” (1959), an anti-Modernist manifesto in which he cagily used starkly juxtaposed photographs of classical and modern buildings to demonstrate the superiority of classical design, and, more recently, three scholarly studies of great American public buildings: “The New York Public Library,” which he co-wrote with Mr. Morrone “The Library of Congress,” co-edited with John Y. Cole and “The United States Capitol: Its Architecture and Decoration.”

Even his defenders agree that Mr. Reed grew more contentious and unrelenting as the years went on, though even his detractors admit that his fervid erudition served a purpose. As The Times wrote in an editorial, mediating his dispute with Mr. Hoving, “sometimes it is the one fuddy-duddy who has the principles to stick up for what is right.”


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