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Rekonstrukcija dvorca Alamut

Rekonstrukcija dvorca Alamut


Azijskim dvorcima digitalnim čarobnjaštvom vraćen je nekadašnji sjaj

  • Šest najvećih dvoraca u Aziji#8217 obnovljeno je saradnjom majstora i arhitekata CGI -a
  • Ovdje možete vidjeti dvorac Alamut u Iranu i staru ljetnu palaču u Pekingu s digitalnim renoviranjem
  • Odabir preuređenja uključuje i dvorac Hagi u Japanu i uglavnom neoznačenu tvrđavu Raigad u Indiji

Drevna povijest napredovala je kroz vrijeme do današnjih dana – zahvaljujući nekim lukavim digitalnim čarobnjacima.

Šest najvećih dvoraca u Aziji#8217 vraćeno je u nekadašnji sjaj saradnjom između Budget Direct -a i tima digitalnih CGI majstora, istraživača i arhitekata.

Ovdje predstavljamo plodove njihovog rada, ruševine dvoraca od Irana do Japana preko Kine i Afganistana obnovljenih pred vašim očima …

Dvorac Alamut, dolina Alamut, Iran – izgrađen 865

Gotovo da nisu vidljivi ostaci dvorca Alamut u Iranu, koji datira iz 9. stoljeća i ušao je u legendu 1090. godine kada ga je osvojio Hassan-i Sabbah

Tijekom godina, dvorac Alamut uništavali su komad po dio razni osvajači, uključujući Mongole, koji su srušili njegovu opsežnu biblioteku

Dvorac Alamut u Iranu datira iz 9. veka i ima veoma šaroliku istoriju.

U legendu je ušao 1090. godine kada ga je osvojio Hassan-i Sabbah, koji je preuzeo kontrolu nad obližnjim selom Qazvin. Dok su stanovnici Qazvina radili u dvorcu, uspio je izbaciti njegovog vladara bez prolijevanja krvi.

On je učvrstio svoju moć naredivši svojim sljedbenicima da ubiju vođe neprijateljskih grupa. Ovi sljedbenici su pogrdno nazvani ‘Hashashin ’, što je rodilo englesku riječ ‘assassin ’.

Godinama su dvorac komad po dio uništavali različiti osvajači, uključujući Mongole, koji su srušili njegovu opsežnu biblioteku. Gotovo da je neki dvorac ostao danas, iako iranska vlada pokušava djelomično obnoviti ga za turiste.

Stara ljetna palača, Peking, Kina – izgrađena 1707

Sve što je ostalo od Stare ljetne palače u Pekingu, koja je bila kompleks palata, jezera, vrtova, kula i skulptura od 3,5 kvadratnih kilometara (1,3 kvadratnih milja)

Zapanjujuću palaču u velikoj su mjeri uništile i opljačkale britanske i francuske snage

Stara ljetna palača u Pekingu#8211 ili Yuanming Yuan – nekad je bila jedna od najvećih građevina na planeti, poznata kao ‘Versailles na istoku ’.

Kompleks, koji je izgradila dinastija Qing, prostirao se na 3,5 kvadratna kilometra i sadržavao je stotine palača, jezera, vrtova, kula i skulptura.

Carski carevi su ga jako voljeli, ali 1860. britanske i francuske snage su ga uvelike uništile i opljačkale u znak odmazde za smrt britanskog izaslanika tokom Drugog rata za opijum.

Palata je pretrpjela dodatna oštećenja tijekom Bokserske pobune (1900) i Kulturne revolucije (1966-1976), a ostalo je samo nekoliko gospodarskih zgrada.

Gornja rekonstrukcija prikazuje dio kompleksa Haiyantang (Palata mirnih mora), sa fontanom sa školjkom u središtu.

Dvorac Hagi, Hagi, Japan – izgrađen 1604. godine

Dvorac Hagi sagradili su samuraji Mori, uz dozvolu šokunata Tokugawa, koji je nadvladao njih u bitci za Sekigaharu

Dvorac je demontiran 1874. godine kao dio politike centralizacije i modernizacije

Ovaj nekada veličanstveni dvorac uzdigao se iz pepela bitke.

Kad je klan Mura Samurai izgubio bitku kod Sekigahare – i kao rezultat toga veći dio njihove zemlje –, pobjedonosni šokunat Tokugawa odobrio je Mori dozvolu za izgradnju novog dvorca u malom primorskom gradu Hagi, možda zato što bi tako neprijateljski klan prikovan uz obalu.

Mori su se na kraju ipak osvetili. Dvorac je postao glavni grad Choshu domene, čija je podrška bila ključna za konačno rušenje Tokugawa Shogunata tokom restauracije Meiji.

Ironično, novu vladu je 1874. demontirala dvorac kao dio politike centralizacije i modernizacije. Osobito je većina Hagija izgrađena u podnožju planine Shizukiyama, a ne na višem tlu. Ipak, to je u svoje vrijeme bilo prilično strašno. Više ograda i zidova štite okolno zemljište, od kojih se mnogi još uvijek mogu vidjeti.

Glavno drveno zdanje je demontirano, ali je njegova kamena podloga i dio opkopa izdržali. Gore na planini mogu se pronaći ostaci rezervnog zamka. Grad dvorac i dalje stoji kao šarmantno mjesto svjetske baštine.

Citadela Ghazni, Ghazni, Afganistan – izgrađena u 13. stoljeću

Gazni je jedini grad u Afganistanu koji je ostao pod zidinama i važno ekonomsko središte. Ostaci Citadele sjede na brdu u središtu starih gradskih zidina

Osvajanje Citadele od strane Britanaca 1839. godine bilo je ključno u okončanju Prvog anglo-afganistanskog rata

Ova tvrđava visoka 45 stopa zauzela je duga lista povijesnih VIP osvajača, uključujući Mongole, Timur (Tamerlan) i Mugole.

Osvajanje Citadele od strane Britanaca 1839. godine bilo je ključno u okončanju Prvog anglo-afganistanskog rata. Amerika ga je koristila i kao vojnu bazu nakon 2001.

Danas je Gazni#8211, koji se nalazi na nadmorskoj visini od 2225 metara i datira iz vjerovatno 7. stoljeća, samo je Afganistan preostali grad ograđen zidinama i važno ekonomsko središte. Ostaci Citadele sjede na brdu u središtu starih gradskih zidina. Međutim, zanemarivanje, rat i vrijeme ozbiljno su oštetili oboje. Četrnaest od izvornih 32 kule se srušilo, uključujući jednu tek 2019. Danas su zidovi, kule i Citadela Gazni#8217 u opasnosti da budu zauvijek izgubljeni vjetrovima vremena.

Utvrda Raigad, Raigad, Maharaštra, Indija – datira iz 11. stoljeća

Utvrda Raigad nalazi se na 820 metara nadmorske visine, a posjetitelji se mogu popeti na 1737 stepenica kako bi došli do nje

Britanska istočnoindijska kompanija bombardirala je i uništila Raigad 1818. godine, a ruševine indijska vlada tek treba u potpunosti mapirati

Glavni ulaz u ovaj dvorac nalazi se na 820 metara nadmorske visine, a posjetitelji se mogu popeti na 1737 stepenica kako bi došli do njega. Ili idite zračnim tramvajem. Jednom tamo, oni će otkriti impresivnu strukturu koja datira iz 1030. godine.

Osvojio ga je Shivaji Maharaj 1656. godine i krenuo je u proširenje, proglasivši ga na kraju svojim glavnim gradom.

Britanska istočnoindijska kompanija bombardovala je i uništila Raigad 1818. godine, a ruševine indijska vlada tek treba u potpunosti mapirati.

Posetioci i dalje mogu videti ostatke dve od tri karaule i čuvenog zida po imenu Hirakani Buruj. Raigad također sadrži nekoliko rezervoara, kamene štandove za trgovce i otvoreno tlo za proslavu holi hinduističkog festivala. Glavna palata, međutim, sagrađena je od drveta – od nje su ostali samo temelji.

Zamak Takeda, Asago, Hyogo, Japan – izgrađen 1441

Turistička atrakcija: Zamak Takeda često se opisuje kao japanski Machu Picchu

Dvorac se nalazi na planinskom grebenu na nadmorskoj visini od 353 m (1.158 stopa) i posjetiocima pruža veličanstven pogled

Ruševine dvorca Takeda u Asagu nalaze se na planinskom grebenu na 353 metra nadmorske visine i posjetiocima pružaju veličanstven pogled.

Ovo je, u kombinaciji s načinom na koji su raspoređeni na nekoliko nivoa, navelo neke da to mjesto opišu kao "#8216Machu Picchu iz Japana"#8217.

Posjetitelji mogu istražiti dvorac jednosmjernom stazom –, a tu su i hramovi povezani sa lokalitetom u podnožju planine.


Uvod

Ubojice (zvani Nizari Ismailiti), bile su heretička grupa šiitskih muslimana koji su bili moćni u Perziji i Siriji od 11. stoljeća prije Krista do njihovog poraza od Mongola sredinom 13. stoljeća. Sigurni u svojim utvrđenim dvorcima na brdu, postali su zloglasni zbog svoje strategije izdvajanja opozicionih ličnosti i njihovog ubistva, obično u timovima koji drže noževe. Neprijatelji su ovu grupu zvali Asasini u vezi s njihovom upotrebom hašiša, a#8216assassin ’ je korupcija Arapa hasisi (‘ hašišac ’), pa se ime od tada povezivalo s njihovim glavnim načinom rada, činom ubistva u političke ili vjerske svrhe. Nizari Ismailiti nastavljaju postojati kao grana islama i danas.


Oblast trešanja i istorija

Regija Alamut je prekrasna planina u blizini grada Gazvina. Ovo mjesto je poznato po višnjama i istorijskoj tvrđavi. Postoji mnogo vrtova ovog ukusnog voća. Najbolja sezona za putovanje je sredina marta kada drveće cvjeta i vrijeme nije prevruće. Ako ste propustili tu sezonu, ne brinite, sredina maja je takođe dobra za vidjeti i pojesti prekrasno voće. Postoje neke rezidencije za noćenje, ali nisu baš čiste. Dobro za turiste sa ruksakom. Tvrđava Alamut još se uvijek otkriva, međutim mnogi su dijelovi već izvađeni iz zemlje. Vrlo je impresivno vidjeti tako staro mjesto. Divljina je vrlo dohvatljiva. ako se redovno penjete, na vrhu možete vidjeti kozu, medvjeda itd

Dvorac sa nekoliko preostalih zgrada nalazi se na vrhu planine. Ima dobar pogled na obližnja poljoprivredna zemljišta i vrtove. Morate proći kroz previše stepenica na otvorenom.

Ostale su samo manje ruševine. I prekriveni su skelama i valovitim željezom, ne mogu li iranski arheolozi osmisliti manje ružno rješenje?
Područje i pogledi su odlični, ali vrijeme je bilo maglovito. Cvjetovi trešnje su ionako fantastični.
Savari i taksiji inozemnim turistima naplaćuju najmanje 50%.
Zapanjujuće je da ne postoji "pravi" hotel, restoran ili čak čajna kuća, uprkos brojnim Irancima koji ovdje dolaze u četvrtak i petak. 'Apartmani' u bungalovu iznad su u redu, a obroci u kući s lijeve strane također, vlasnik 'Golestan hotela' s desne strane je neugodan, sva tri mjesta pripadaju rodbini i glasno se svađaju oko toga ko ide kako bi dobili novac od turista.
U selu postoje i 2 smještajne jedinice, ali kad sam stigao nije bilo nikoga u blizini.

Lijepo mjesto za planinarenje. To je također dobra lokacija za odmor u blizini Teherana s prekrasnim pogledom i vegetacijom. Pristupni put je dug i ugodan.

Put je dobar ako nema snijega ili jake kiše. Pejzaž je savršen. Ovan jezero na putu za Alamut je prekrasno. Planine su u maju prekrasne, a na njima raste suptilna zelena grasa.

Nećete vjerovati kako je ova veličanstvena i teško dostupna tvrđava ovdje preživjela i usmjeravala borbu protiv osvajača Seldžuka više od 170 godina. Dvorovi ubojica su svi takvi. U njih nije lako ući. Ovaj nije lako ni locirati.

Očekujte iznenađenja čak i kad uđete u tvrđavu i vidite uglove ove građevine. Genijalni ljudi su omogućili život ovdje i osigurali jednu od najboljih biblioteka u to doba !!

Nedavno putovanje u Iran uključivalo je prikupljanje snage za posjetu i uspon na ovu istorijsku tvrđavu. To je oko 500 km autobusom od Teherana. Vožnja je slikovita, ceste su dobro asfaltirane, a regija planinska. Vidite suha brda i planine ispred i sa strane gotovo cijelim putem. U Alamutu je pitanje - penjati se ili ne. Budite avanturistički nastrojeni i penjajte se. Morao sam uzeti pomoć mazge da me odnese otprilike četvrtinu puta gore. Odavde je uspon bio izazov. Mnoštvo uskih koraka i jedan ne biste htjeli propustiti. Da jeste, dobrodošao bi vam strmi klizač. Jednom na vrhu otkrivate sa strahopoštovanjem kako se prikupljala i čuvala voda, gdje je bila molitvena dvorana i koliko je tvrđava strateška. Kako su se Hassan bin Sabbah i njegovi ljudi snašli bez asfaltiranih puteva i pogodnosti u ovoj izazovnoj tvrđavi i neravnom terenu? Pitanje se nastavlja.


AHAMED ISMAIL

Posetio je Iran u septembru 2013. godine kao deo grupe. Došao sam u Alamut da iz prve ruke vidim i iskusim o čemu se radi. Sama vožnja je bila nevjerovatna prolaskom kroz planinsko područje. Penjanje na utvrdu Alamut sama je avantura. Uzeo sam pomoć magarca da se popnem na pola puta, a nakon što sam se malo odmorio, nastavio sam se penjati preko mnoštva uskih i neravnih stepenica. Ako propustite korak, mogli biste završiti klizanjem na padini i vjerovatno u dolini. Na vrhu je otkriveno kako se prikupljala i čuvala voda, gdje se nalazila dvorana za molitvu i koliko je utvrda bila strateška. Primijetio je da su neki restauratorski radovi u toku. Jedna dama je poslužila čaj posetiocima. Može se samo zamisliti kako bi Hassan bin Sabbah i njegovi ljudi živjeli ovdje jer tih dana nije bilo asfaltiranih cesta, a teren bio vrlo izazovan.


Alamut u medijima

Priče i legende o vladarima Alamuta i dalje igraju ulogu na Bliskom istoku i u centralnoj Aziji, kao i u arapskim zemljama.

Pisali su ih i pisci sa Zapada, na primjer u nekim romanima Williama S. Burroughsa, u romanu Alamut Vladimira Bartola i romana Das Foucaultsche Pendel autor Umberto Eco ili in Samarkand od Amin Maalouf. U romanu se nalazi još jedna poznata književna obrada ovog motiva Das Halsband der Taube autor EW Heine. Osim toga, pad Alamuta i ubica u pentalogiji Petera Berlinga Deca grala , u trećem tomu pod naslovom Kruna sveta , detaljno je opisan i utkan u roman.

Alamut takođe igra važnu ulogu kao glavni grad carstva princeze Tamine i kao skrovište pješčanog sata sa "pijeskom vremena" u adaptaciji video igara 2010. godine Princ Perzije: Pijesak vremena .

U TV dokumentarnoj seriji Terra X ZDF -a rezultiralo je 72 naslova Tajno društvo ubojica - glasnici smrti iz Alamuta izvještaje o istoriji utvrde i njenim vladarima.


Dvorac Alamut

Dvorci ubojica. Dakle, priča, koju je popularizirao, između ostalih, i Marko Polo, ipak ide. Ovih dana dvorac Alamut (koji se nazivaju i Dvorci asasina) uglavnom su dotrajale ruševine razasute po dolini Alamut u sjevernom Iranu Alamut (perzijski: الموت), povijesno poznat kao Rudbar (رودبار) ili Rudbar iz Alamuta (رودبار الموت Rūdbār- i Alamūt), nazvan po rijeci Shahrud. Tačnije, Alamut je mala regija u povijesnom Rudbaru u kojoj se nalazi istoimeni dvorac

Dvorac Alamut. Glavni dvorac u dolini je dvorac Alamut (sada većinom u ruševinama). Naziv 'Alamut' dvorac je dobio perzijski kralj, koji je, dok je bio na lovačkoj ekspediciji u zabačenoj dolini, slijedio ogromnog orla i vidio ga kako slijeće na stijenu na vrhu teško dostupne planine Hasan Sabbah Dvorac Alamut nalazi se sjeveroistočno od Kazvina, na planinama Elburz u Iranu. Dvorac je izgrađen na visokim stijenama. Riječ Alamut znači e .. Alamut. Dolina Alamut leži u planinskom lancu Alburz, na sjeveru današnjeg Irana, na pola puta između Teherana i Kaspijskog mora. Dvorac je izgrađen na uskom grebenu na vrhu visoke stijene u srcu planina i dominira zatvorenom dolinom, dugačkom oko 25 kilometara. Dok su Alamut i Lambsar uglavnom ruševine, nekoliko dvoraca Assassin i dalje je uglavnom netaknuto. Najpoznatiji od njih je dvorac Rudkhan, koji leži usred guste šume na vrhu. Dvorac Alamut. Proteklih nekoliko sedmica radio sam na zamku na MassiveCraft serveru. Napravljen je bez prijevara, svi resursi su minirani, teren je generirao server. Massivecraft je poslužitelj za igranje uloga, ovaj dvorac je izgrađen kako bi bio realan, zasnovan je na dvorcu iz stvarnog života u Iranu. Mislim da u Iranu nije tako snježno

Dvorac Alamut O, kako sretan ženka na obrađenoj zemlji! Vazduh je čist za tebe, pa položi jaja i zviždi! - Džingis -kan: Povijest osvajača svijeta (knjiga) Alamut (perzijski: الموت Alamūt) je regija u Perziji između suhe i neplodne ravnice Qazvin na jugu i gusto pošumljenih padina provincije Mazandaran na sjeveru Alamuta Dvorac je smješten u visinama, okružen ogromnim provalijama i dubokim pukotinama. Jedini način pristupa ovom dvorcu je uska staza prema sjeveru. Dvorac Alamoot (Alamut) ima istočni i zapadni sektor, od kojih se svaki sastoji od dva segmenta. To su donji i gornji zamkovi

Dvorac Alamut bio je tvrđava na vrhu planina izgrađena prije više od 1000 godina otprilike 100 km sjeverozapadno od današnjeg Teherana. Samo je mali dio dvorca zavjeran. Dvorac Alamut. Alamut je bila planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno Kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Perziji (Iran), otprilike 100 km od današnjeg Teherana. Između 1090. i 1256. godine poslije Krista, pod vodstvom Hasan-i Sabbaha, Alamut je postao mjesto intenzivnih aktivnosti šiitskog Nizari Ismai'lisa.

Dvorac Alamut Povijesne tvrđave poznate su kao Dvorci ubojica, dvorac Alamut Iran, dvorac Alamut Putne informacije, hoteli zamka Alamut. Poziv i Whatsapp +989174257008-E-pošta: [zaštićeni e-poštom Alamut i Hassan-i-Sabbah živopisno su opisani u Zapadnim zemljama Williama S. Burroughsa. Izmišljeni prikaz dvorca Alamut sredinom 13. stoljeća i njegovog pada 1256. prikazan je u seriji knjiga Djeca grala Petera Berlinga

Dvorac Alamut Vojna Wiki Fando

  • Dvorac Alamut na planini Alamut u Iranu. Alamut je bila planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini Rudbara. Čuveni dvorac Alamut Hassan Sabbah qazvin Iran. Dvorac Alamut
  • Alamut su pod opsadom sredinom 13. stoljeća osvojili Mongoli. Njena biblioteka je spaljena, a stanovnici koji nisu poklani zauvijek su pobjegli. Kasniji kraljevi su još više kritički uništili dvorac dok su agresivno tražili izgubljeno Assassin blago. Najbliži veliki grad Alamutu je Qazvin, koji je 2-3.
  • Dvorac Alamut-Hasan-i-Sabah Konačno gdje očekujete, dvorac Alamut. Iranci ga zovu dvorac Hasan-i-Sabah. Bio je osnivač i prvi vođa ismailija. Mali put do dvorca Alamut Svakako, osnivač je bio vrlo pametan čovjek da odabere lokaciju dvorca ovdje! Jedinstvene karakteristike dvoraca atentatora su bile u tome što su imali samo njih.

Dvorac Alamut Qazvin Iran Atrakcije IranOnTou

  1. Hotel nära Alamut Castle, Mo'allem Kalayeh: Recenzija, fotografija i fantastična ponuda za hotele u Mo'allem Kalayeh na Tripadvisoru
  2. Ovaj post govori o prekrasnoj dolini Alamut, zamku Assasina i mom iskustvu solo putnice. Dolina Alamut udaljena je oko 4 sata sjeverno od Qazvina u prekrasnim planinama Alborz. Bio je to jedan od vrhunaca mog putovanja u Iran, ne nužno zbog dvorca križara, već zbog njegovih zapanjujućih planinskih pejzaža
  3. U visokim stjenovitim planinama Alborz u provinciji Qazvin, Iran, leži jedna izuzetna priča u ruševinama srednjovjekovnog dvorca Alamut. Danas se čitava regija čini kao da je zamrznuta u vremenu i zaboravljena od ostatka svijeta, ali u prošlosti je dvorac Alamut, koji je više ličio na tvrđavu, oblikovao tok ljudske istorije

7252. Engleski: Dvorac Alamut, planinska tvrđava koja se nalazi u okrugu Qazvin, Iran. Pod vodstvom Hassan-i Sabbaha, Alamut je postao mjesto intenzivnih aktivnosti za Shi'a Nizari Isma'ilis. فارسی: قلعه الموت در ایران. 610 sviđanja. Alamut (perz. الموت, transliterirano Alamūt) bila je planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u južno Kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Iranu. Alamut Dvorac nakon Hassana Sabaha. Godine 1124. Hassan je bolovao od teške bolesti i ubrzo je umro. Njegov se grob godinama smatrao svetim mjestom za ubojice. Sudbina Alamut dvorac bio impregniran zbunjenjem, ponovo se suočio sa drugom invazijom. Sredinom 13. stoljeća Mongoli su napali.

Dvorac Alamut Alamut je bila planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno Kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Perziji (Iran), približno 100 km od današnjeg Teherana Dvorac Alamut Dvorac Lambesar The Canyons (Andaj Village) Alamut (ili Hasan - i - Sabah) Dvorac Jezero Ova

Alamut je bio planinski dvorac koji se nalazi u blizini Gazor Khana u Iranu, približno 100 km (60 milja) od današnjeg Teherana u Iranu. Ime znači Orlovo gnijezdo. Roman slovenskog pisca Vladimira Bartola Alamut (1938) podsjetio je Zapad na legende o ubojicama. Alamut i Hassan-i-Sabbah živopisno su opisani u William S. Burroughs's The Western Lands (1987). U romanu Umberta Eca Foucaultovo njihalo. Dvorac Alamut registrovan je 2003. godine kao jedan od nacionalnih spomenika Irana. Dvorac ima povijest uspona i padova i želimo vam više predstaviti ovaj povijesni dvorac. Prema nekim izvorima 1093. godine, osoba po imenu Hassan Sabah zauzima dvorac i zato je drugo Alamutovo ime dvorac Hassan Sabah. Priča iza ove riječi vrti se oko jednog od najnevjerovatnijih likova u perzijskoj povijesti koji se zove Hassan-i Sabbah, a također i legendarnog dvorca u prekrasnoj regiji Alamut pod nazivom Dvorac ubojica

Dvorac Alamut (Mo'allem Kalayeh, Iran) - omdöme

  • Tvrđava Alamut, dvorac ubojica. 24. jul 2018. 0 komentar. Tajanstvena priča o zamku Alamut, starcu iz planina i njegovim ubojicama pomiješana je s mnogo legendi i priča kroz stoljeća. Prije skoro hiljadu godina, u doba Seldžuka (1037-1307), u gradu Qom, u Perziji, rođen je dječak
  • Oznake: alamut, alamut dvorac, alamut pješačenje, alamut hostel, dolina alamut, planinarenje dolinom alamut, zemlja ubica, planinarenje dolinom alamut, planinarenje u iranu, fotografije doline Alamut, treking od alamut do kaspijskog mora, trekking u alamut, trekking in Ira
  • Ubice iz Alamuta Dolina Alamut bila je dom sljedbenicima male muslimanske sekte koja je mogla stvoriti riječ i ideju o ubojicama u svijetu, koji su nekoć vladali u dijelovima Irana gotovo dva stoljeća. Ubice iz Alamuta su ovu titulu dobile iz zapadnog sveta. Na istoku, gdje su nastali, nosili su naziv vjerske ideologije, npr. Nizari Ismailis
  • Rekonstrukcija zamka Alamut u današnjem Iranu, kakav se mogao pojaviti 1090. godine nove ere, kada ga je zauzeo imam Hassan-i Sabbāh, iz ubojica (zvani Nizari Ismailis). Dvorac je izgrađen c. 865. godine, iako je vremenom proširivan i utvrđivan

Među tim utvrđenim lokacijama, Alamut je osvojio Hasan Sabbah 1090. Hasan Sabbah (1050-1124) pretvorio je ovu tvrđavu u jedno od najvažnijih središta Isma'ilisa. Ne samo da je ovaj dvorac pružio zaštitu Isma'ilisu, već im je dao i gnijezdo za svakodnevni život. Dvorac Alamut danas stoji kao podsjetnik na jedno mračnije razdoblje islama i kao upozorenje protiv opasnosti vjerskog fundamentalizma. Odavde su militanti protiv Abasida proveli tri stoljeća terorizirajući svoje suparnike, uključujući kalifat, umjerene ili sekularne sunite, raskolničke šiite i skoro sve ostale koji su im prešli puteve Dvorac Alamut Objavljeno 14. novembra 2017. Alamut je napravljen na vrhu brda u Qazvinu poznatom po svojoj nepristupačnosti i u kojem se nalazi pododsjek šiita poznat kao Ismailia s vodstvom Hasana Sabaha. PODELITE Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Plus Email

Dvorac Alamut Posjetite Ira

Dvorac Alamut. Dvorac ubojica. Turističke atrakcije Irana. Čuvena dolina Alamut nudi primamljiv poziv za pješačenje, istraživanje i razmišljanje među čuvenim Dvorcem ubojica. Može biti zanimljivo znati o priči koja stoji iza riječi Assassin, a još je više moguće pronaći njen korijen u starom Iranu Dvorac Alamut napali su Mongoli 1256. godine i predao im ih je Ruknudin-Khurshah. Biblioteka i njen fond su uništeni. Kako otići u Alamut i kako vidjeti dvorac Alamut. Danas je dvorac Alamut djelomično obnovljen i otvoren je za posjetu, zbog svog značaja u perzijskoj povijesti Alamut drži najstarije zapise u povijesti frakcije zbog napora učenjaka da ga zabilježe. Ima statue svojih najznačajnijih članova, a oni koji se poštuju najviše nalaze se na vrhu dvorca. Njegovo porijeklo je Abasidski kalifat, iako bi ga mnoge druge frakcije mogle osvojiti. Nalazi se u lijevom centru karte. 1 Ingame 2 Kovač 3 Dvorac 4 Tonic.

Pretražujte fotografije iz zamka Alamut, slike i slike bez autorskih prava s usluge iStock. Pronađite visokokvalitetne fotografije koje nećete pronaći nigdje drugdje. Dvorac Alamut je vrlo poznat po svojoj lokaciji koja se nalazi na vrhu vrlo strateških stijena i ima zadivljujući pogled na dolinu Alamut. Ovaj dvorac je bio pod kontrolom Hassan-I Sabbaha, osnivača države Nizari Ismaili 1090. Dvorac Alamut bio je glavna četvrt države Ismalili sve dok se zamak Alamut nije srušio 1256. godine tokom invazije Mongola Dvorac Alamut, Iran Vodiči na otvorenom temeljeni su na onome što je većina preporučuju blogeri za putovanja širom svijeta. Ovaj vodič selektivno prikuplja najbolje preporuke za dvorac Alamut iz 2 postova na blogu Alamut (perz. الموت, što znači orlovo gnijezdo) bila je planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno Kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Perziji (Iran). Između 1090. i 1256. godine poslije Krista, pod vodstvom Hasan-i Sabbaha, Alamut je postao mjesto intenzivnih aktivnosti za šiitski Nizari Ismai'lis, koji je funkcionirao kao sjedište njihove države, koja je bila. Dvorac Alamut izgradio je vladar Justanida Wahsudan b. Marzuban, sljedbenik zejdijskog šiizma, oko 865. godine. [4] Tokom lovačkog izleta, vidio je orla koji se uzdigao visoko na stijenu. [5]: 29 Shvativši taktičku prednost ove lokacije, odabrao je mjesto za izgradnju tvrđave, koja se zvala Aluh āmū [kh] t vjerovatno znači Orlovo učenje ili Gnijezdo.

Dvorac Alamut, dolina Alamut, Iran - izgrađen 865. godine. Jedva da su vidljivi ostaci dvorca Alamut u Iranu, koji datira iz 9. stoljeća i ušao je u legendu 1090. godine kada je Hassan -i Sabbah. Alamut Dvorac. The Alamut Dvorac možda ne bi izgledalo isto kao prije, ali ipak zadržava svoju gracioznost i dostojanstvo. Preostali dijelovi dvorac nalaze se na sjeverozapadu provincije Qazvin, u blizini sela Gazor Khan. Potrebno je sat i pol do dolaska Alamut Dvorac iz dvorca Qazvin Alamut! »Sagrađen na 2100m visoko na vrhu te velike stijene, dvorac atentatora slovi za neosvojivog! Sada razumijemo izbor Nizarija koji su ovdje postavili svoje sjedište prije više od hiljadu godina. Ta tajna i mistična sekta podučila je neke od svojih učenika umjetnosti špijuniranja i ubistva TEHRAN - Tim iranskih arheologa nedavno je pronašao niz stoljetnih građevina u uništenom zamku Alamut u provinciji Qazvin. 2018-06-19 10:28 Jednodnevni izlet u dvorac Alamut! Odmornici obilaze ruševine dvorca Alamut, koji se nalazi u iranskoj provinciji Qazvin, 17. juna 2018

Alamut castl

  1. Alamut (perz. الموت, što znači Orlovo gnijezdo) bila je planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno Kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Iri
  2. Utvrda Alamut jedno je od najvažnijih povijesnih utvrđenja u Iranu koje je odigralo važnu ulogu u povijesti svoje ere. Alamutino ime vezano je za Ismailiju u iranskoj historiji, a Hassan Sabbah kao vođa ismailijske sekte, koristio je dvorac kao bazu za svoju vladu i promovirao ismailijska vjerovanja, te je ostao u dvorcu Alamut pet godina i vodio svoje sljedbenike
  3. Dvorac Alamut, dolina Alamut, Iran. Zasluge za sliku: budgetdirect. Zasluge za sliku: budgetdirect. 1090. imam Hassan-i Sabbāh je navodno osvojio dvorac bez da je prolio ni kap krvi. Nova država osigurala je svoju moć ciljanim napadima na neprijateljske vođe
  4. Ovaj dvorac je jedan od dvoraca Hassan Sabbah u Alamutu. U Almautu postoje još 2 dvorca, od kojih je jedan u selu Shams kelaye, a zadnji u Lambesaru. Čitaj više. Datum iskustva: maj 2017. Korisno. Podijelite. mjavadkhosraviani je napisao recenziju prosinac 2017. Provincija Qazvin, Iran 7 doprinosa 1 poen za pomoć

Vodič kroz dolinu Alamut i dvorac Alamut - izgubljeno sa

Početna stranica Iran Alborz Mountains Alamut Castle fotot nu. Och sök i iStocks bildbank efter fler royaltyfria bilder med blan annat Elburz Mountains -foton for snabb and enkel hämtning TEHRAN (Tasnim) - Dvorac Alamut, jedan od jedinstvenih historijskih dvoraca u Iranu, nalazi se na sjeverozapadu provincije Qazvin na vrhu stijena sa 200 m visine iznad okolnih zemalja Alamut (perz. الموت, što znači orlovo gnijezdo) bila je planinska tvrđava koja se nalazila u regiji Alamut u južno kaspijskoj provinciji Daylam u blizini regije Rudbar u Perziji (Ir Foto handla om Poznati dvorac Alamut Alamouth Hassan Sabbah qazvin Iran. Slika od ledare, slott - 15711184 Dvorac Alamut nudi prekrasan pogled na dolinu Alamut, obnavljaju dijelove dvorca, ali već vrlo vrijedno mjesto za posjetiti (Bastiaan protiv Utrechta, Nizozemska) Datum iskustva: septembar 2018.) Vrijedi odvojiti vrijeme za stepenice do summi

Dvorac Alamut udaljen je samo jedan kilometar od središta sela. Htjeli smo kupiti kilogram svježih trešanja, ali vlasnik nije od nas prihvatio novac. Umjesto toga, poklonio nam je nekoliko kilograma u sjećanje na starca s planine, kako su ga zvali Hasan-i Sabbah. U decembru 1256. godine, zamak Alamut je predat, a njegova biblioteka je spaljena. Prije nego što ju je spalio, uz Huleguovo dopuštenje, kroničar Juvayni istražio je biblioteku i odabrao nekoliko djela za koja je smatrao da su vrijedni spašavanja, prije nego što je ostatak zapaljen.

Alamut - Wikipedija

Dvorac Alamut danas je arheološko nalazište i toplo se preporučuje onima koji se zanimaju za istoriju i arhitekturu. Čak i oni koji su zainteresirani za pješačke ture radije bi krenuli iz ove doline prema nekoj drugoj destinaciji. S obzirom na povijest ovog dvorca 2. Trebat će vam oko 4 sata da dođete do prekrasnog Ovan jezera u Alamutu. Tamo ćete svratiti na doručak. Nakon kratke pauze, uputit ćete se u selo Gazor Khan u kojem se nalaze ruševine Dvorca ubojica Alamut. Selo Gazor Khan poznato je i po prekrasnim zasadima trešanja. 3 Pretražite hotele i pronađite hotele u blizini dvorca Alamut sa Skyscanner -om. Plus miljontals hotell, resortter, lägenheter i vandrarhem över hela världen 9,648 Posts - Pogledajte Instagram fotografije i video zapise snimljene na Alamut Valley and Castles u zamku Alamut (april 2014) Povratak na web stranicu Iran 2014. Dolina Alamut nalazi se između Qazvina i Kaspijskog mora u srcu planina Alborz. U 11. stoljeću Hasan Sabbah (

1050-1124), vođa ismailitske grane islama, preobratio je lokalno stanovništvo i osnovao strašnu grupu Haššašin (ili ubojice)

Dolina Alamut: Dvorci ubojica - Ira

Najveća atrakcija regije je čuvena ruševina dvorca Alamut, poznate tvrđave Hasan-e Sabbah. The site is a dramatic crag rising abruptly above the unpretentious little cherry-growing village of Gazor Khan. The access path starts about 700m beyond the village square and requires a steep 25-minute climb via an obvious stairway Alamut Castle is similar to these buildings: Galarsan-Gorarsan, Milad Tower, Azadi Tower and more. Topic. Alamut Castle. Podijelite. Buildings similar to or like Alamut Castle. Ruined mountain fortress located in the Alamut region in the South Caspian province of Gilan near the Rudbar region in Iran, approximately 100 km (60 mi) from present-day Tehran Alamut Castle. Although today only ruins of this magnificent fortress have remained, it was once a very glorious structure, located in the mountainous region of Alamut in the southern part of Gilan province near Rudbar. Built around 865 AD, Alamut castle was considered to be impregnable to any attack and was famous for its paradisal gardens and libraries where, scientists, theologians and. The Nizari Ismaili state was a Shia Nizari Ismaili state founded by Hasan-i Sabbah by capturing the Alamut Castle in 1090 AD. The state was in fact a group of unconnected strategic strongholds throughout Persia (Iran) and Syria, surrounded by huge swathes of hostile territory. The Nizari Ismaili state managed a unified power structure that proved more effective than the Ismaili Fatimid.

Alamut Castle - Alamut Kalesi - YouTub

Dec 12, 2017 - Alamut Castle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi Alamut Castle is situated in the heights, surrounding by gigantic precipices and deep crevices. The only means of access to this castle is by a narrow trail to its north. The Alamoot Castle (Alamut) has an eastern and western sector, each of which comprises of two segments again. These are the lower and upper castles. The length of the. Alamut castle, one of the unique historical castles in Iran, is located in the northwest of Qazvin province on the top of rock with 200 m height upper than the surrounding lands.. This castle consists of two upper and lower castles built as a great building and the quadruplet walls of it constructed by following the shape and conditions of the rocks so that the walls width are especially. Alamut (Persian: Alamūt) was a mountain fortress located in Alamut region in the South Caspian province of Daylam near the Rudbar region in Iran, approximately 100 km (60 mi) from present-day Tehran

Alamut Castle which is the official name of the castle means Eagles Nest. Because of it's location on top of a peak overlooking the valley. The first buildings of the castle probably have been finished in the 9th century. About 2 centuries later Hassan-i Sabbah gained control of the castle The Assassin's main castle in Gazorkhan is the emblem of the region as far as political history is concerned but to see wild mountainous Alamut one needs to travel a little deeper into the valley either northwards to Khoshkechal and beyond or reach Garmarood, this is where rock formations, canyons, rivers and waterfalls, spectacular summits and glaciers, alpine plains together with the. Alamut Castle. Published in 20 October 2018. Those who favor ambitious excursions and unusual historical episodes are recommended to hire a car and a guide to go near the source of the Alamut river on the southern foothills of the Alborz Mountains (requiring one full day for the return journey) IRAN 2015 (HD) - DAMAVAND EXPEDITION, Caspian Sea,Golestan, Qazvin, Alamut Castle, Evan Lak . Approximately 200 hundred years later Hassan-i Sabbah came in the area. He was a devoted believer in the teachings of the Ismailism, an esoteric branch of Shia Islam, that was oppressed by the ruling Seljuk Empire

Castle of Alamut The Institute of Ismaili Studie

Explore. Log in. Sign u In 1090 AD, Alamut Castle was seized as a mountain fortress under the leadership of Hassan-i Sabbah, and until 1256 it was the site of intense activity for the Assassins (a Shi'a Nizari Isma'ili group), functioning as the headquarters of the Nizari Isma'ili state, which included of a series of strategic strongholds scattered throughout Persia and Syria, with each stronghold being surrounded by. Alamut castle Tour itinerary: Start from the hotel in the early morning toward the Alamut Castle, pass the mountainous road, and enjoy the specular views. Do not forget to wear suitable clothes considering the climate change on the top of the mountain, the best hiking shoes, and take the snacks with you

Alamut: The Secret Fortress of the Assassins by Discover

On your desired date, our Alamut tour guide picks you up at 7 o'clock in the morning from your hotel in Tehran or any clear address in this city. 2. It will take you around 3 hours to make a stop to have your breakfast aside of Shahrood .then you will get to the beautiful Lambsar castle in Razmiyan The castle of Alamut, Qazvin, Iran, one-time castle of the Assassins (aka Nizari Ismailis) before their destruction at the hands of the Mongols in the 1250s CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia has a new name! We are now World History Encyclopedia to better reflect the breadth of our non-profit organization's mission Alamut castle and valley tour | Located on a rugged peak soaring above a long valley, the Alamut castle was first built one thousand year ago, Iran tour and experienc Alamut • Posted by 1 day ago. Alamut Castle, Alamut Valley, Iran. OC. 224 points. 17 comments. 0 comments. share. save. hide. report. 100% Upvoted. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. Sort by. best. View discussions in 1 other community. no comments yet. Be the first to share what you think

Alamut Castle Minecraft Ma

Alamut castle got its fame for military activities done in that place. The magnificence of this two story castle attracts attention of those who like to explore the history. Alaedin Travel will help you in your journey to Qazvin and Alamut. Other Attractions alamut. Ovan Lake in Alamut Alamut is a ruin in Qazvin and has an elevation of 2090 metres. Alamut is situated nearby to Dāmekī. Alamut from Mapcarta, the open map Reconstruction of Alamut Castle. by Budget Direct Travel Insurance. published on 25 March 2021. . Reconstruction of Alamut Castle in present-day Iran, as it may have appeared in 1090 when it was captured by Imam Hassan-i Sabbāh, of the Assassins (aka Nizari Ismailis). The castle was built c. 865, although it was expanded and fortified over time

In 1090 AD, Alamut Castle was seized as a mountain fortress under the leadership of Hasan-i Sabbah, and until 1256 it was the site of intense activity for the Assassins (a Shi'a ,505 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos taken at 'Alamut Castle'

Alamut Hashashin Wikia Fando

The Alamut Castle is situated on a huge lump of rock on the side of a mountain and it was a good half hour walk from where we were dropped off to get to the original entry gate. Most of the site is covered in tube and fitting and steel roofing, and you can see that the Mongols did a good job in destroying it So we teamed up with graphic designers and architects to visually reconstruct six extraordinary ruined castles from across Asia. Alamut Castle, Alamut Valley, Iran. In 1090, Imam Hassan-i Sabbāh supposedly conquered the castle without shedding a drop of blood. The new state secured its power with targeted attacks on enemy leaders

TOP 12 MOST INCREDIBLE CASTLES IN IRAN Falak-ol-Aflak Castle. This amazing castle, dates back to Sassanid era and is located on top of the Falak-ol-Aflak hill. Alamut Castle. Although today only ruins of this magnificent fortress have remained, it was once a very glorious. Shush Castle. Situated. Alamut Castle, Alamut Valley, Iran. Posted in Uncategorized. Published by Hasnain. View all posts by Hasnain . Post navigation. Prev This Is How People In The Past Century Imagined The Future (7 Pics) Next Microbes 'Unknown' To Science Found On The International Space Station On the next day we will visit the beautiful village of Alamut and go on a 25-minute hike from the village to Alamut Dvorac. We will enjoy the rest of our tour by visiting the breathtaking views of the largest lake in Qazvin, called the Ovan Lake. Join us in this guided tour and enjoy the history and nature at the same time Alamut Castle. The region's greatest attraction is the fabled ruin of Alamut Castle, Hasan-e Sabbah's famous fortress. The site is a dramatic crag rising abruptly above the unpretentious little cherry-growing village of Gazor Khan. The access path starts about 700m beyond the village square and requires a steep 25-minute climb via an. Alamut Castle was his headquarters impenetrable fortresses however the Assassins had several fearful fortresses on the Alborz Mountains. On this tour you'll be visiting Alamut, Lamsar , Samiran, Roodkhan castles and villages on route all setting within the space of outstanding natural beauty Hi, I am planning a trip to Iran. From Qazvin I want to visit the Alamut Castle and the Lamiasar Castle Does anyone Know how much cost by taxi fro


Stunning castles of ancient Asia restored to their former glory by digital wizardry

Ancient history has been pinged forward in time to the present day – thanks to some cunning digital wizardy. Six of Asia’s grandest castles have been restored to their former glory by a collaboration between Budget Direct and a team of digital CGI masters, researchers and architects. Here we present the fruits of their labour, the ruins of castles from Iran to Japan via China and Afghanistan rebuilt before your very eyes…

Alamut Castle, Alamut Valley, Iran – built in 865: Alamut Castle in Iran dates back to the 9th century and has had a very colorful history. It entered legend in 1090 when it was conquered by Hassan-i Sabbah, who had seized control of the nearby village of Qazvin. As the residents of Qazvin staffed the castle, he was able to oust its ruler without any blood being shed. Pictured: What the castle looks like today.

He consolidated his power by ordering his followers to kill leaders of enemy groups. These followers were derogatorily called ‘Hashashin’, which gave birth to the English word ‘assassin’. Over the years, the castle was destroyed piece by piece by various conquerors, including the Mongols, who tore down its extensive library. Hardly any of the castle remains today, although the Iranian government is attempting to partially restore it for tourists. Pictured: What the castle would have looked like according to CGI.

TODAY – The Old Summer Palace, Beijing, China – built in 1707: This is all that remains of Beijing’s Old Summer Palace, which was a 3.5-square-kilometer- (1.3 sq mile) complex of palaces, lakes, gardens, towers and sculptures.

The stunning palace was largely destroyed and looted by British and French forces, but may have looked something like this if it had survived. The complex, built by the Qing Dynasty, was spread over 3.5 square kilometers (1.3 square miles) and contained hundreds of palaces, lakes, gardens, towers and sculptures in its prime. The reconstruction above shows the Haiyantang (The Palace of Calm Seas) part of the complex, with a seashell fountain as the centerpiece.

Hagi Castle, Hagi, Japan – built in 1604: When the Mori Samurai clan lost the Battle of Sekigahara – and much of their land as a result – the triumphant Tokugawa Shogunate granted the Mori permission to build a new castle in the small seaside city of Hagi, perhaps because this would keep the enemy clan pinned by the coast. The Mori, however, eventually got their revenge. The castle became the capital of the Choshu Domain, whose support was instrumental in the eventual overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Meiji Restoration. Ironically, the castle was dismantled by the new government in 1874 as part of a policy of centralization and modernization. Pictured: The land where the castle once stood today.

The castle was quite formidable in its day. Multiple baileys and walls protect the surrounding land, many of which can still be seen. CGI wizards imagine it would look something like this if it still stood today.

Citadel of Ghazni, Ghazni, Afghanistan – built in the 13th century: Ghazni is Afghanistan’s only remaining walled city, and an important economic center. The remains of the Citadel (pictured) sit on a hill in the center of the old city walls.

Fourteen of the original 32 towers have collapsed, including one as recently as 2019. Today, Ghazni’s walls, towers, and Citadel are in danger of being lost to the winds of time for good — but could look like this if they hadn’t sustained damage according to CGI imaging.

Raigad Fort, Raigad, Maharashtra, India – dates back to the 11th century: The main entrance to this castle sits at 820m (2,690ft) above sea level and visitors can climb 1,737 steps to reach it. Or take an aerial tramway. Once there, they’ll discover an impressive structure that dates back to 1030 AD. The British East India Company bombarded and destroyed Raigad in 1818, and the ruins have yet to be fully mapped by the Indian government. Visitors can still see the remains of two of the three watchtowers and a famous wall named Hirakani Buruj.

In its prime, Raigad contained several reservoirs, stone stalls for merchants, and open ground for the celebration of the Holi Hindu festival. The main palace, however, was built of wood – only the bases of its pillars remain. Here, we see what the structure may have looked like prior to 1818.

Takeda Castle, Asago, Hyogo, Japan – built in 1441: The ruins of Takeda Castle, in Asago, sit on a mountain ridge at an elevation of 353m (1,158ft) and afford visitors magnificent views. This, combined with the way they’re staggered over several levels, has led some to describe the site as ‘the Machu Picchu of Japan’. Visitors today can explore the castle via a one-way trail – and there are temples associated with the site at the base of the mountain — even though the site is just shadow of its former glory.

CGI wizards imagined what the castle and surrounding land may have looked like before it fell into disrepair over the years. To see the original research for these reconstructions visit www.budgetdirect.com.au/blog/asian-royalty-6-ruined-castles-across-asia-reconstructed.html.

Stunning castles of ancient Asia restored to their former glory by digital wizardry Source link Stunning castles of ancient Asia restored to their former glory by digital wizardry


May 6, 1937 Hindenburg

The largest dirigible ever built, an airship the size of Titanic burst into flames as the hull collapsed and plummeted to the ground. Passengers and crew jumped for their lives and scrambled to safety along with ground crews only moments earlier, positioned to receive the ship.

The airship Hindenburg left Frankfurt airfield on her last flight at 7:16pm, May 3, 1937, carrying 97 passengers and crew. Crossing over Cologne, Beachy Head and Newfoundland, the largest dirigible ever constructed arrived over Boston at noon on May 6. By 3:00pm she was over the skyscrapers of Manhattan, headed for the Naval Air Station in Lakehurst, New Jersey.

Foul weather caused a half-day’s delay but the landing was eventually cleared, the final S turn approach executed toward the landing tower, at 7:21pm. Within moments, the ship arrived at the mooring mast. She was 180-feet above the ground with forward landing ropes deployed when the first flames appeared near the top tail fin.

Eyewitness accounts differ as to where the fire, came from. The leading theory is that, with the metal framework grounded through the landing line, the ship’s fabric covering became charged in the electrically charged atmosphere, sending a spark to the air frame and igniting a hydrogen leak. Seven million cubic feet of hydrogen ignited almost simultaneously. It was over in less than 40 seconds.

The largest dirigible ever built, an airship the size of Titanic burst into flames as the hull collapsed and plummeted to the ground. Passengers and crew jumped for their lives and scrambled to safety along with ground crews only moments earlier, positioned to receive the ship.

The famous film shows ground crew running for their lives, and then turning and running back to the flames. It’s natural enough to have run, but there’s something the film doesn’t show. That was Chief Petty Officer Frederick “Bull” Tobin, the airship veteran in charge of the landing party, bellowing at his sailors above the roar of the flames. “Navy men, Stand fast! We’ve got to get those people out of there!” On September 4, 1923 Tobin had survived the crash of the USS Shenandoah. He wasn’t about to abandon his post, even if it cost him his life. Tobin’s Navy men obeyed. That’s what you’re seeing when they turn and run back to the flames.

The Hindenburg disaster is sometimes compared with that of the Titanic, but there’s a common misconception that the former disaster was the more deadly of the two. In fact, 64% of the passengers and crew aboard the airship survived the fiery crash, despite having only seconds to react. In contrast, officers on board the Titanic had 2½ hours to evacuate, yet most of the lifeboats were launched from level decks with empty seats. Only 32% of Titanic passengers and crew survived the sinking. It’s estimated that an additional 500 lives could have been saved, had there been a more orderly, competent, evacuation of the ship.

As it was, 35 passengers and crew lost their lives on this day in 1937, and one civilian ground crew. Without doubt the number would have been higher, if not for the actions of Bull Tobin and is Navy men.

Where a person was inside the airship, had a lot to do with their chances of survival. Mr and Mrs Hermann Doehner and their three children (Irene, 16, Walter, 10, and Werner, 8) were in the dining room, watching the landing. Mr. Doehner left before the fire broke out. Mrs. Doehner and the two boys were able to jump out but Irene went looking for her father. Both died in the crash.

For all the film of the Hindenburg disaster, there is no footage showing the moment of ignition. Investigators theorized a loose cable creating a spark or static charge from the electrically charged atmosphere. Some believed the wreck to be the result of sabotage, but that theory is largely debunked.

Four score years after the disaster, the reigning hypothesis begins with the static electricity theory, the fire fed and magnified by the incendiary iron oxide/aluminum impregnated cellulose “dope” with which the highly flammable hydrogen envelope, was painted.

The 35 year era of the dirigible was filled with accidents before Hindenburg, but none dampened public enthusiasm for lighter-than-air travel. The British R-101 accident killed 48, the crash of the USS Akron 73. The LZ-4, LZ-5, Deutschland, Deutschland II, Italia, Schwaben, R-38, R-101, Shenandoah, Macon, and others. All had crashed, disappeared into the darkness, or over the ocean. Hindenburg alone was caught on film, the fiery crash recorded for all to see. The age of the dirigible, had come to an end.

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The states of the disintegrated caliphate - History of the East

Depriving the Caliph of political power led to the situation of polycentricity in the Islamic Middle East. One after another, emirates and sultanates began to emerge on the site of the former unified state, the rulers of which claimed not so much for a comprehensive spiritual power within their country (especially for the sultans who recognized the authority of the Baghdad caliph in the religious sphere) to remain virtually unlimited rulers. But their claims to absolute power were combined with the objective circumstance that newly created emirates and sultanates were often fragile and in many cases random political formations, the rise and fall of which often depended on the abilities and success of one or another courtier, commander, or even ancestor from the lower classes, rabagulyama. The weakness and short duration of the emirates and sultanates, their political instability largely depended on the insufficient legitimacy of power. The caliphate held for centuries, for it had the supreme divine sanction for power. Emirates and the sultanates of the disintegrated caliphate did not have such sanction, with the formal existence of the Baghdad Caliph,. It is not surprising that in the eyes of the masses of subjects, and even of envious courtiers, emirs and sultans were impostors, whose power was held only on strength. At the first opportunity, any of the approximate emir or sultan, gaining some strength, could not resist the temptation to try to implement this force in their own interests. Hence the instability of power.

Political map of the Middle East region in the X-XIII centuries. was not only very variegated, but also varied with kaleidoscopic rapidity. New political formations were replaced by the newly formed ones, and they were increasingly layered with ethnic waves alien to the Near East. However, neither frequent political changes nor the emergence of new ethnic waves changed the essence of those cardinal parameters that characterized the Middle Eastern Islamic structure as a whole. In the sphere of agrarian relations , the absolute dominance of the state with the characteristic for it redistribution of surplus product flocking to the treasury was preserved, even under Islamic rulers. The forms of levying this product were still rent-tax (ushr, kharaj and other types of taxes), labor obligations, duties, the form of redistribution - payment from the treasury or from the treasury of the share of taxes as salaries to officials and soldiers, for the maintenance of rulers and privileged layers of the population from among relatives and close-knit rulers. Conditional ownership of the ikta type was a variation of such a salary and a modification of redistribution. Private landholdings such as mules were few, and with them, too, took the treasury tax. In gradovima u sphere of crafts and trade , strict centralized control of power continued to prevail, with absolutely no formal or, more legally, stipulated freedoms or legal guarantees, let alone about privileges and privileges. Self-government in the cities did not go beyond the convenient for the authorities practice of conducting internal affairs within each of the numerous corporations whose heads unquestioningly obeyed the city administration in the person of the governor-hakim, the mayor of Raisa, , the guardian - muhtasib , the chief of the guard or the judge-kadi.

The state of the Bunds, which lost the power of the Caliph, existed for a relatively short time. Already in the 60-ies. X century. Samanidov fled to Afghanistan, where he founded the Sultanate of the Ghaznavids, , whose most prominent ruler, Mahmud Ghaznavi, who ruled in 998-1030, recaptured The Bunds are a significant part of their eastern possessions. Mahmud was a zealous Muslim. In his army, a considerable proportion were warriors-fanatics, fighters for faith ( gases , gazii ), with which he made several successful campaigns to Northern India. The death of Mahmud led to the decline of the Sultanate, and the nomination of the Seljuk Turks played a role here.

In the X century. many of the Turkic tribes who converted to Islam began to play an active political role. Thus, the Turkic dynasty of the Karakhanids in 999 replaced the Samanids in Central Asia, and a small tribe of Oguz Turks (Turkmens) led by the leader of the Seljuk family began to grow rich for account of the subordination of their power to the agricultural population of neighboring territories. In 1035, the Seljuk dynasty forced the descendants of Mahmud Gaznevi to give them part of Khorasan, in 1043 the Seljuk Turks conquered Khorezm. The Ghaznavids soon had to confine themselves to only a small area of ​​Afghanistan and the Punjab, while Oguzes began to spread their influence further, until in 1055 their leader, Togrul-bek , captured Baghdad, forcing the Caliph to give him the title Sultan of the East and the West.

Togrul-Bek's successors continued his successful conquests, uniting the lands of Iran and Iraq under his rule,

Transcaucasia, Syria and Palestine, even part of the Minor Asia conquered from Byzantium. But the internally expanded sultanate was weak, politically weakened. Not having centuries of worked out the administrative and political tradition and not attaching much importance to it, yesterday's nomads highly valued the tribal ties, which resulted in the practice of empowering members of the ruling house with semi-independent vassal possessions that quickly turned into autonomous political entities and new sultanates. In particular, already in the XI century. In the Seljuk State, the Kermansky and Rumsky Sultanates actually emerged, then the Khorassan and the Iraqi appeared. Potkraj 12. stoljeća. civil strife did its job: the state of the Seljuks finally disintegrated, which played a significant role in strengthening the ruler of Khorezm. At the beginning of the XIII century. the shahs of Khorezm united under their authority a significant part of Central Asia and Iran, Afghanistan and even Azerbaijan, but their political successes were stopped by the Mongol invasion.

In the 20-ies. XIII century. the Mongols defeated the troops of Khorezm and invaded Iran, destroying everything in their path. Encountering resistance, they continued the war for several decades, until in the middle of the 13th century. did not win. On the territory of Iran and the surrounding lands, the Mongolian state Ilkhanov, led by Hulagu, was established. Hulaguides ruled in Iran for about a century (1256-1353), and it was during their reign that the caliphs were forced to leave Baghdad, and the caliphate was virtually abolished. Unlike the Seljuk nomads of yesterday, the Mongols, also nomads, attached a strong bureaucratic administration a serious importance. Ilhan Gazan-khan (1295-1304) officially accepted Islam, made this religion state and conducted a number of important reforms.

The reforms of Gazan Khan contributed to the restoration of the economically destroyed economy of Iran. But the cities of the once rich and prosperous Iran, trampled by Mongolian horses and burned by the Mongols, even after half a century, under Ghazan Khan, could not give much. According to some reports, after the reconstruction of Ghazan Khan, Iran's economy was able to provide an annual income of 21 million dinars, whereas a century earlier this level was about 100 million dinars. And this is in spite of the fact that with the Mongolians the taxes on the population were increased due to the imposition of all the additional poll tax on the merchant

The western part of the former caliphate, where the conquerors-Mongols did not reach, had its own history, political events from the 10th century onwards. few intersect with those of which we have just been talking. In the west at the turn of the VIII-IX centuries. the separation from the caliphate of a number of emirates began, but this natural process there was considerably complicated by religious disputes and disagreements. Of course, something like this was in the east of the caliphate, as mentioned above in connection with the history of the Karmats. One can only add that along with the Carmatians, other sects of Ismaili , in particular Assassins

Suicide warriors from the specially cultivated supporters of this sect (also called , fedayinami) were deliberately oriented to death in the name of faith. Well-trained and supported in their bellicose excitement by considerable shares of hashish (from which the name of the sect is gashasins, fr. Assassins), the fedainas cleverly penetrated both the court of the unwanted emir and the camp of the Crusaders, doing their work there. At the end of the XI century. the center of the sect was the mountain castle Alamut , after which in the mountainous areas adjacent to the castle of Kukhistan, as well as in several other places, the original Ismaili state, independent of the Seljuk sultans and other Iranian rulers, was formed, which was defeated together with the castle only by the Mongols.

For all the political significance of the activities of the Ismailis (Karmatians and Assassins) in the eastern part of the caliphate, in the west, their role, and the role of other sectarians, primarily Shiite, proved to be much more significant. Suffice it to recall that the first of the emirates, separated from the caliphate, not counting Cordoba, was Shiite, i.e. not recognizing for fundamental reasons the sacred holiness and authority of the authority of the Sunnite caliph. The influence of the Shiites in the western part of the caliphate was very large from the very beginning of the Abbasid rule. It can be recalled that this part of the caliphate, the most remote from the capital, was generally inclined to the opposition. It was here, in Cordoba, the last of the Umayyads fled. Here appeared the first semi-independent emirates (the Aglabids in Algeria and Tunis, the Tulunids in Egypt), which, though not yet Shiite, and therefore recognized the spiritual authority of the caliph, became very politically very semi-independent from the caliphate. From the turn of the IX-X centuries. The situation in this regard began to change even more decisively.

All the Shiites believed that only holy imams, leading from the prophet, have the right to rule Muslims. Only these imams, and after the suppression of their direct line, their closest relatives, i.e. again the descendants of Muhammad, albeit on the lateral line, seyids , should be caliphs. Ismaili Imams (the term "imam" is very capacious, it stands for the leaders ahead of him, leaders) throughout the IX century. They carried out very active missionary work, which was most successful among the tribes inhabiting the Maghreb, particularly among the Berbers. At first it was mainly a religious sermon, but at the turn of the 9th-10th centuries. it resulted in an armed uprising. The imam of the Ismailis is a certain Ubaidallah, who declared himself a descendant of Fatima and also the Messiah -Mahdi, led this uprising and proclaimed himself caliph. Thus, the Ismaili Caliphate of the Fatimids , which existed for more than two and a half centuries (909-1171), was replaced by the state of Aglabid.

First he had only part of the Maghreb, Algeria and Tunisia, the Fatimid caliphate soon entered into a fierce struggle with the Abbasids for Egypt and Syria. Egypt since 905, after the fall of the emirate of the Tulunids, again became the possession of the Baghdad caliph. It was the richest province of the Abbasids, the majority of whose population at that time were the Coptic Christians, the descendants of the ancient Egyptians, who paid kharaf Kharaj and Jizia to the treasury. After the formation of the Bund state and the deprivation of the Baghdad caliph of political power, the situation in Egypt was favorable for the Fatimids, who led active religious propaganda in that country and engaged in political intrigues. A number of successful campaigns, culminating in the conquest of Egypt in 969, led to the annexation of this country to the Fatimid state. They moved their capital to Egypt, rebuilding it in the form of a new city Al-Qahira ("victorious city"), i.e. Cairo. Developing their successes, the Fatimids transferred military operations to the north and, in 970, annexed their caliphate and Syria.

The struggle for Syria aggravated the relations of the Fatimid Ismailis with another branch of Shia-Ismailis, Karmatians, some of whom lived in Syria, while the other founded the state in Bahrain. The Carmatians of Bahrain waited for the return to the earth as the Mahdi of the son of Imam Ismail and therefore did not recognize the power of the Fatimids. However, they did not act sharply against the Fatimid caliphs. The Syrian pockets are another matter. Being forced to react to the Fatimid invasion of Syria, they entered into an alliance with the Buids and won Damascus. But in 977 Syrian karmatas were forced to leave Syria, partially moving to Bahrain, and Syria went to the Fatimids, whose prestige in the Arab world as a result rose even higher. Fatimid caliphate at the turn of the X-XI centuries. was, perhaps, the strongest independent Arab-Islamic state entity of his time. Its influence reached Mecca and Medina, rather than in Cairo, they were highly valued.

Like Egypt, Syria was the richest province of the Arab caliphs, and its cities - the ancient centers of international trade and developed crafts. Its population, including the descendants of the Phoenicians, was prosperous enough. As in Egypt, there was a very noticeable stratum of Christians, although Arabic and Arabic-Muslim culture already prevailed. But perhaps the highest value of Syria - at least in the eyes of European Christians - was included in it Palestine with the "God's City" Jerusalem, where the Sepulcher was located.

As you know, this was the reason for the so-called crusades (XI-XIII centuries.), directly related to our topic. The Fatimid caliphate, like many other political entities of the Arab world that arose on the ruins of the Abbasid state, was internally weak primarily because of a lack of a reliable legitimate basis. Already in the middle of the XI century. the descendants of the first caliphs turned out to be a toy in the hands of Guards commanders from among the gulams of Turkic or Sudanese origin, with whom the leaders of the Berber tribes also competed. Under Caliphos Mustancere (1036-1094) this struggle ended with the extermination of some guardsmen, but the gulyamas took the upper hand, that in the 12th century, led to a noticeable weakening of the political power of the Fatimids. The Crusaders took Syria and Palestine from them, and the new Jerusalem King Amalrich visited the walls of Cairo in 1167. In the west, a significant part of the Maghreb was under the rule of the Almoravides, who captured in the second half of the 11th century. not only all the North African Arab possessions, but also partly the lands of Ghana, and then the Moorish Spain, where under the blows of Christians the Cordoba Caliphate fell at that time. In the middle of XII century. to replace the Almoravides in the Maghreb came to power Almohad, which was transferred to the heritage of the Almoravids, including the Muslim territories of Spain.

In 1171 the commander Salah-ad-din (Saladin) committed a coup in Cairo, proclaiming himself a sultan. The authority of the Fatimid caliphs fell, and the sultans of the new dynasty Ayyubid (1171-1250), being Sunnis, recognized the authority of the Baghdad caliph. Having united under their authority also Syria, where in the middle of the XII century. crusaders were forced to return Damascus to Muslims (the emir of Damascus was the Kurdish commander Ayyub, Saladin's father), and having concluded a peace with the annoying assassins who had twice assailed his life, Salah-ad-din sent all his extraordinary energy to fight the Crusaders. In 1187, he occupied Jerusalem and captured almost all the most important strongholds of the Christian army. True, after the third crusade, Richard the Lionheart concluded a profitable peace with Saladin, stipulating the right of Christians to come to Jerusalem for pilgrimage to holy places. But the crusaders could no longer achieve it.

I must say that the appearance of Saladin made an indelible impression on the Crusaders. Being, unlike most of the contemporary eastern rulers, a man not only generous, but also modest, Saladin drew attention to his personality. In the West European tradition, he appears as a noble knight, which was reflected primarily in the writings of minstrels.

After Salah-ad-din's death, his heirs waged an internecine struggle for the Sultanate, whose possession by this time covered not only Egypt and Syria, but also the Hijaz with Mecca and Medina and part of Mesopotamia. The internecine strife reinforced the role of the Mameluke Guards, which the rulers created from the slaves they had bought. It is not surprising that in 1250 the last of the Ayyubids was overthrown by one of the Mamluks, after which Egypt for two and a half centuries was under the rule of the Mamluks rulers who managed not only to retain their power, but also to successfully resist the Mongolian troops. After the abolition of the Baghdad Caliphate under the Khulaguids, one of the close relatives of the latter (the Mongol-killed) caliph arrived in Cairo. The Mamluks sultans recognized and sheltered him, which resulted in the transformation of Cairo into the seat of the caliphs. The descendants of this branch of the rulers of the Abbasid caliphate, not without benefit to the Mamluks, maintained their sacred authority among all Sunni Muslims until the 16th century when the Turkish sultans conquered Egypt as successors to this sacred authority.


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