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American Fur Company

American Fur Company

Na put kući krenuo sam sa 50 ljudi, od kojih je 25 trebalo da me prati do plovne tačke reke Big Horn, odakle se vraćam sa konjima zaposlenima u transportu krzna. Imao sam četrdeset pet čopora dabra u kešu nekoliko milja istočno od naše direktne rute. Uzeo sam sa sobom 20 ljudi, prošao pored mjesta, podigao predmemoriju i krenuo u smjeru da se pridružim drugoj strani, ali prije nego što sam im se pridružio, Indijanci su me dva puta napali prvo grupa od oko 60 ljudi . Oni su se pojavili u dan dana, vikali su na najodvratniji način i koristili sva sredstva u svojoj moći da alarmiraju naše konje, iako su bili uskomešani, provalili su od stražara i pobjegli. Dio Indijanaca koji su bili uzjahani uspjeli su uhvatiti sve konje osim dva i ranili jednog čovjeka. Pokušano je i zauzimanje našeg logora, ali u tome nisu uspjeli. Sljedeće noći poslao sam ekspresno osiguranje konja iz grupe naših ljudi koji su krenuli direktnim putem. Za dva dana nakon toga, primio sam željenu pomoć i opet nastavio svojim putem, napravio oko deset milja i utaborio se u prihvatljivoj situaciji. Te noći, oko 12 sati, ponovo nas je napala ratna grupa Vrana Indijanaca, što je rezultiralo gubitkom jednog od ubijenih Indijanaca i drugim hicem kroz tijelo, bez ikakvih ozljeda. Sljedećeg dana pridružio sam se svojoj drugoj stranci i produžio direktno do mjesta ukrcaja neposredno ispod planine Big Horn, gdje sam stigao 7. avgusta.

Na svom prolazu tamo nisam otkrio ništa značajno u obilježjima zemlje. Omogućava općenito nesmetan način putovanja. Jedini vrlo krševit dio rute je prelazak preko planine Big Horn, široke oko 30 milja. Istražio sam rijeku Big Horn od planine Wind River do mjesta ukrcaja. Nema malih ili nikakvih poteškoća u plovidbi te rijeke od njenog ušća do planine Wind River. Može se uspnuti tako daleko u podnošljivoj fazi vode s brodom koji vuče tri metra vode. Rijeka Yellowstone je lijepa rijeka za plovidbu. Ima brzaka koji se protežu iznad rijeke Powder oko pedeset milja, ali najviše sam pronašao vodu visoku oko 4 stope.

Nakon što trgovac dođe na svoje mjesto, njegov prvi cilj je opskrbiti Indijance neophodnim artiklima ili ih opremiti opremom, kako se to naziva. Uočit će se da su Indijanci u ovom trenutku siromašni, da je prihod od njihovog rada tokom prethodne zime plaćen trgovcu, a on je zamijenio ili platio za prethodne zalihe. Stoga svaka porodica mora primiti predujam kako bi se pripremila za zimsku hajku, a to se mora sastojati od municije i odjeće, i općenito je proporcionalno broju porodice i karakteru muškaraca za vještinu i tačnost. Bez ovog kredita Indijanci bi poginuli, a iznos varira od pedeset do dvjesto dolara za svaku porodicu. Gubitak koji je trgovac pretrpio iz ovog sistema može se lako zamisliti, kada se prisjeti da ne postoje sredstva za prisilnu naplatu duga od Indijanaca, niti su običaji udaljenih plemena nečasni odbiti njegovo plaćanje; a nakon prve godine njihovi krediti se nazivaju mrtvim dugovima, jer nijedan Indijac nikada ne smatra potrebnim da ih podmiri. Tokom zime, Indijanci su raštrkani po cijeloj zemlji, zaposleni u hvatanju životinja koje im opskrbljuju hranu i krzno. U sretnim sezonama, omogućeno im je da uzmu dovoljno potonjeg za plaćanje kredita koje su primili; i oni su općenito voljni to učiniti, osim ako se suparnički trgovci međusobno ne miješaju, ili blizina britanskih trgovačkih objekata ne navede Indijance da se opskrbljuju na jednom mjestu, a da zamijene svoje krzno na drugom. Već u proljeće kada je plovidba otvorena, trgovci odlaze u mjesto snabdijevanja, kako bi obnovili carine i brige za prethodnu godinu; a za vrijeme njihovog odsustva neki od njihovih ljudi ostaju da preuzmu brigu o položajima i imanju koje im je preostalo, te, u regijama divlje riže, da sakupe količinu tog korisnog žita.

Angažovani zaposleni u ovoj trgovini uglavnom su Kanađani i polovice pasmina, a zapošljavaju se do godine. Plaća im je od 120 do 200 dolara godišnje, ovisno o udaljenosti radnih mjesta i prirodi usluge. Na svakom radnom mjestu zaposleno je pet ili šest muškaraca; ali u unutrašnjosti, gdje se opasnost uvijek može uhvatiti zbog grabežljivih navika Indijanaca, njihov se broj znatno povećava. Njihovo izdržavanje veliki je trošak za trgovca, a privatne gubitke koje moraju podnijeti nikada ne mogu ostvariti oni koji nisu prošli kroz državu. Svake zime mnogi Indijanci ginu od stvarne gladi; a kada je to slučaj, trgovac i njegovi ljudi moraju ozbiljno patiti, iako ne u jednakom stepenu. Na nekim posredničkim mjestima odredbe su redovan trgovački član. Nevidljivost Indijanaca je dobro poznata. Rijetko u vrijeme obilja pružaju vrijeme oskudice. Rad je sramotan među ljudima iz tih dalekih bendova i beznadežno je raspravljati s njima na tu temu. Ne mogu raditi, ali mogu umrijeti.

Snažna struja Missourija predstavlja ogromne prepreke uzlaznom navigatoru; i osim ako roba namijenjena Indijancima ne može napustiti St. Louis rano u proljeće, ne mogu stići do Žutog kamena iste sezone; i naravno da kapital ostaje nezaposlen, dok su troškovi trgovca neograničeni. Ekspedicije na Stjenovite planine općenito napuštaju Missouri na ili blizu Vijećničkih blefova, a odatle se roba prevozi konjima do odredišnih mjesta. Oni opskrbljuju lovce i lovce koji se nalaze u toj zemlji. Ove regije obiluju dabrom i vidrom, a krzna ovih životinja gotovo su jedini artikli koje trgovci primaju. U gonjenju ove trgovine učinjene su velike žrtve.

To je umjereno računanje koje smo izgubili u ovim neuspjelim pokušajima i u nekoliko manjih pokušaja, petsto ljudi i najmanje petsto hiljada dolara. U nadmetanju za superiornost u tim udaljenim regijama, između stranih trgovaca i našeg, Indijanci su uzbuđeni što mogu učestvovati; i do danas se vrši utjecaj i mjere koje se ne nanose manje štete našim građanima nego što su u suprotnosti s našim pravima. U roku od godinu dana, dvadeset muškaraca ubijeno je istim sredstvima koja su do sada uspješno zaposlena. Nije vjerojatno da se može primijeniti djelotvoran pravni lijek, sve dok ne zauzmemo državu u vojnom posjedu i ne uspostavimo takva mjesta za koja se smatra da su neophodna - mjera koju jednako zahtijevaju naši interesi i sigurnost.

Iz pregleda koji je napravljen o toku ove trgovine i o razmjeni roba između Indijaca i trgovaca, neće biti teško objasniti utjecaj koji su potonji stekli i izvršili nad prvima. Trgovci su općenito oženjeni u utjecajnim porodicama u indijskoj zemlji, a mnogi njihovi muškarci imaju žene Indijanke. Indijanci od njih traže zalihe neophodne za njihovu udobnost i opstanak. Trgovac se poistovjećuje s bendom u čijoj se zemlji nalazi, te se u svim sporovima zalaže za njihovu stvar, sudjeluje u njihovim predrasudama i osjeća vlastiti interes uključen u njihov.

S jedne strane postoji izvor zaštite, a s druge ovisnost. Posljedica svega ovoga je da se nijedna važna mjera ne usvaja bez znanja trgovca; a ako se njegov savjet formalno ne zatraži, on i dalje utječe na odlučnost usvojenu u požaru javnog vijeća. A kada dugo uspostavljeni trgovac, koji se prema Indijancima odnosio pravedno i ljubazno, odluči izvršiti svoj utjecaj za zlo ili dobro, može se zamisliti da takav napor neće biti uzaludan.

Stvarni trošak robe poslane u indijsku zemlju 1827. godine iznosio je 290.052,39 USD. Ovome se mora dodati vrijednost ulaganja koja smo naveli, plaće muškaraca i različiti nepredviđeni troškovi, neodvojivi od takvog posla. Sto pedeset i četiri radna mjesta zauzimaju naši trgovci, a vjerovatno ne manje od dvije hiljade ljudi zaposlenih u trgovini; i bilo je potrebno mnogo godina da ih se obuči za posao i prilagodi njihovim dužnostima, rizicima i umoru. No, ova je tema važnija kao mjera politike koja utječe na naše odnose s Indijancima, nego kao grana nacionalne industrije i poduzetništva. Naveli smo način na koji se trgovina odvija, i jezgrovito smo pokazali vrijeme koje je potrošeno, gubitak kapitala i živote koji su nastali, pri osiguranju položaja i formiranju objekata koje sada drže naši trgovci. Većina naših Indijanaca su migracijska plemena, lutaju šumama i prerijama i zauzimaju pograničnu zemlju, dijelom dijelom prirodnom, a dijelom zamišljenom granicom između Sjedinjenih Država i Velike Britanije. Duž ove granice, a u mnogim slučajevima i s naše strane, stacionirani su britanski trgovci, sa dosta zaliha za Indijance: ti su trgovci poduzetni, aktivni i dobro poznaju navike Indijanaca i tok trgovine ; i oni su zaposleni u velikoj kompaniji, ne žele ni moć, ni bogatstvo, ni raspoloženje da potisnu bilo kakve prednosti koje im se mogu ponuditi. Ako se pojave bilo kakve okolnosti koje bi natjerale naše trgovce da se povuku iz poslovanja, Indijance bi odmah snabdjela kompanija Hudson's Bay Company; i da li je to učinjeno slanjem trgovaca na naše teritorije, ili pozivanjem Indijanaca na njihovu teritoriju, učinak bi bio isti. Naši bi se objekti razbili, a mi bismo trebali izgubiti plodove dvadeset godina napora; ponovno bi se stekao utjecaj na Indijance, da bi se opet izvršio kada je jednoj strani najkorisniji, a drugoj najopasniji.

Britanski trgovci imaju dvije važne prednosti u odnosu na naše: ne plaćaju carine na svoju robu i dopušten im je besplatan uvoz njihovog krzna u Sjedinjene Države. Prvi im omogućuje, u sličnim situacijama, da potcjenjuju naše trgovce, a drugi im daje izbor tržišta. Poznato je da vrijednost krzna jako varira. Slučajne okolnosti, poput rata u Evropi ili promjena na neki način koji prevladava, povisit će cijenu određenog krzna; te će cijene opadati jednako brzo kao što rastu. Nesigurnost u stanju na tržištu predstavlja jednu od glavnih neugodnosti trgovine. Ponuda je, iz vlastite prirode, nesigurna, a potražnja ništa manje. U istoriji ove trgovine dogodilo se da su isporučene pošiljke u Englesku, koje su tamo prodavane uz takvu žrtvu da se neki od troškova ostave neplaćeni i da se potopi cijeli kapital.

Indijanci su neobični u svojim navikama; i, suprotno općenito prihvaćenom mišljenju, oni dobro procjenjuju članke koji im se nude. Trgovina nije sistem prevare za koji mnogi pretpostavljaju. Konkurencija je općenito dovoljna da smanji profit na vrlo razumnu količinu, a Indijanac lako zna vrijednost krzna koje posjeduje; zna i kvalitetu robe koja mu se nudi, a iskustvo ga je naučilo koje je najbolje prilagođeno njegovim željama.

Nastavili smo putovati u zapadnom smjeru - pronašli smo dosta igre - nismo imali poteškoća u snalaženju; i 27. avgusta stigli smo do spoja rijeke Laramies s rijekom Platte - oko 12 ili 1300 milja od Sjedinjenih Država, i dvije ili tristo s vrha Stjenovitih planina. Ovdje smo stali radi izviđanja. Nekoliko izviđačkih grupa poslano je u potragu za znakovima dabra, koji su se vratili za nekoliko dana i prijavili da su pronašli znakove dabra, a kapetan Gant je tada naredio da se pripreme za hvatanje. Shodno tome, četa je podijeljena u grupe od 15 do 20 ljudi u svakoj stranci, sa svojim kapetanima koji su im postavljeni - a kapetan Gant ih je uputio u kom smjeru da ide. Kapetan Washburn se popeo na Drvenu viljušku; Kapetan Stephens Laramies; Kapetan Gant Slatka voda - sve se to prazni u rijeku Platte blizu istog mjesta. Svaka od ovih kompanija bila je upućena da se penje uz ove rijeke sve dok ne pronađu dabra dovoljno za hvatanje, ili dok ih snijeg i hladno vrijeme ne natjeraju da prestanu; kada su se trebali vratiti na ušće rijeke Laramies, kako bi zajedno proveli zimu. Dok smo bili na ovom mjestu, bavili smo se izlučivanjem naše robe, što smo učinili iskopavši rupu u zemlji, dovoljno veliku da ih sadrži, i prekrili ih kako ih Indijanci ne bi otkrili. Četiri čovjeka (tri bijelca i jedan Indijac) došli su u naš šator. To nas je nimalo začudilo, jer je bijeli čovjek posljednje živo biće za koje smo očekivali da će nas posjetiti u ovoj ogromnoj divljini - gdje se od mraka do dnevne svjetlosti nije čulo ništa osim žestokog i zastrašujućeg režanja divljih zvijeri i još više prodorni krikovi nemilosrdnih divljaka. Direktor ovih ljudi bio je gospodin Fitzpatrick, koji je bio angažovan u hvatanju uz rijeku Columbia, na zapadnoj strani Stjenovitih planina, i tada je bio na putu za St. Louis. Bio je star u poslu i očekivali smo da ćemo od njega dobiti neke korisne informacije, ali smo bili razočarani. Čovjekova sebičnost često je sramotna za ljudsku prirodu; i nikada nisam vidio upečatljiviji dokaz ove činjenice, nego što je predstavljeno u ponašanju ovog čovjeka Fitzpatricka. Bez obzira na to što smo se prema njemu odnosili s velikim prijateljstvom i gostoljubivošću, samo zato što smo s njim trebali raditi isti posao, za koji je znao da ga nikada ne možemo iscrpiti, pa čak ni oštetiti - odbio nam je dati bilo kakvu informaciju i izgledao je spreman postupati s nama kao uljezi. Dana 3. septembra, kapetan Blackwell, sa još dvojicom, pridružio se Fitzpatricku i krenuo nazad u državu Missouri, radi dodatne zalihe robe, a trebali su se vratiti u ljeto 1832.

U određeno vrijeme, kada je lov završen, ili su ukrcali svoje tovarne životinje, hvatači nastavljaju do „sastanka“, za čije je mjesto prethodno dogovoreno; a ovdje ih čekaju trgovci i zastupnici krznenih kompanija s takvim asortimanom robe koji mogu zahtijevati njihovi izdržljivi kupci, uključujući općenito poštenu ponudu alkohola. Hvatači dolaze pojedinačno i u malim bendovima, donoseći čopor dabra na ovo planinsko tržište, nerijetko i do vrijednosti od po hiljadu dolara, proizvoda jednog lova. Rasipanje "sastanka", međutim, ubrzo okreće džep lovca naopačke. Roba koju su donijeli trgovci, iako je najniže kvalitete, prodaje se po ogromnim cijenama - kafa, dvadeset i trideset šilinga po šoljica, što je uobičajena mjera; duhan donosi deset i petnaest šilinga za čep; alkohol, od dvadeset do pedeset šilinga po litru; barut, šesnaest šilinga šolja za pola litre; i svi drugi artikli po proporcionalno visokim cijenama.

Sastanak je jedna stalna scena pijanstva, kockanja, tučnjave i tuče, sve dok traju novac i kreditni zamci. Sjedeći, indijski, okruženi vatrom, sa pokrivačem prekrivenim ispred sebe, vide se grupe sa svojim "špilima" karata, igranjem pokera i sedmercima, redovnim planinskim igrama. Ulog je 'dabar', koji je ovdje trenutni novac; a kad krzno nestane, uloženi su im konji, mazge, puške i košulje, lovački čopori i hlače. Odvažni kockari obilaze kamp, ​​izazivajući jedni druge da igraju za najveći ulog hvatača - njegovog konja, njegovu skvo (ako ga ima) i, kao što se jednom dogodilo, i tjeme.

Lovac često razbacuje proizvode iz svog lova, koji iznose stotine dolara, u nekoliko sati; i, opskrbljen na kredit s drugom opremom, ostavlja sastanak za drugu ekspediciju, koja s vremena na vrijeme ima isti rezultat, iako bi mu jedan podnošljivo uspješan lov omogućio povratak u naselja i civilizirani život, sa dovoljno novca za kupovinu i zalihe farmu, i uživajte u lagodnosti i udobnosti do kraja dana.


Luda istinita priča o trgovini krznom u Sjevernoj Americi

Nijedna zapadna biblioteka filmova nije potpuna bez kopije iz 1972. godine Jeremiah Johnson, izmišljena priča o bivšem vojniku koji napušta život u civiliziranom svijetu da bi se tražio u šumi kao planinar i zamka. Ne šteti što je u filmu Robert Redford glumio mladog Johnsona, koji nesigurno balansira svoje odnose s domorocima i vojskom, pokušavajući ostvariti svoj san - s nimalo lijepom plavom kosom koja nije na mjestu. Ono što film ne razjašnjava je da je trgovina krznom bila važno vrijeme u istoriji i da je doprinijela rastu Sjedinjenih Država.

Iako je radnja filma smještena u 1850 -te, trgovina krznom datira još iz Sjeverne Amerike. Novcu ovdje nije bilo mjesta, zamke su naučile trgovati robom s domorocima i drugima kako bi ušle u svijet. Prema Nacionalnom kaubojskom muzeju, trgovina krznom bila je u velikoj mjeri odgovorna za otvaranje Zapada bijelim doseljenicima. Povijest Colorado potvrđuje da je hvatanje krzna bilo težak, iscrpljujući posao. Vremenom je veliki dio povijesti trgovine krznom u određenoj mjeri romantiziran, a mit često zamjenjuje činjenice. Čitajte dalje da vidite kako je trgovina krznom zapravo pomogla naseljavanju Zapada.


Istorija američke kompanije za proizvodnju krzna

& ldquo Amerikanci su nasilno usmeni. Zato je u Americi majka najvažnija, a otac nema nikakvog položaja niti se najmanje poštuje. Čak i američko strast za laksativima može se objasniti kao usmena manifestacija. Žele se riješiti svih neugodnosti koje se unose kroz usta. & rdquo
& mdashW.H. (Wystan Hugh)

& ldquo Možete reći da mačka koristi dobru gramatiku. Pa, mačka jeste, ali dopustite joj da se uzbudi nakon što pustite mačku da povuče krzno s drugom mačkom u šupi, noći, a vi ćete čuti gramatiku koja će vam dati zaključavanje. Neznalice misle da je buka koju stvaraju borbene mačke toliko otežavajuća, ali nije ni toliko loša gramatika koju koriste. & rdquo
& mdashMark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens] (1835 �)

& ldquo “U vašem kompanija čovjek bi mogao umrijeti, ” rekao sam, “ovjek bi mogao umrijeti, a vi ne biste ni primijetili, nema traga prijateljstva, čovjek bi mogao umrijeti u vašem kompanija. ” & rdquo
& mdashMax Frisch (1911 �)

& ldquo Niko nije ispred svog vremena, samo što posebnost u stvaranju svog vremena odbijaju prihvatiti njegovi savremenici koji također stvaraju svoje vrijeme. Dugo svi odbijaju, a onda gotovo bez pauze gotovo svi prihvataju. U istorija odbijenih u umjetnosti i književnosti brzina promjene uvijek je zapanjujuća. & rdquo
& mdashGertrude Stein (1874 �)


Tag: američka kompanija za proizvodnju krzna

Danas u istoriji, 17. jula: 1763 – John Jacob Astor rođen je u Njemačkoj u skromnim okolnostima. Imigrirao bi u Ameriku i prodavao flaute. Uvjeren da prodaje muzičke instrumente u New Yorku i ulaže u trgovinu krznom, postao je prvi milioner Amerike#8217 sa svojom američkom kompanijom za krzno. 12. aprila 1912. njegov unuk i imenjak, najbogatiji čovjek na svijetu, John Jacob Astor IV umrijet će u katastrofi na Titaniku.

17. jul 1918. – Ukrštanje puteva u istoriji. RMS Carpathia potopila je podmornica U-55 tokom Prvog svjetskog rata. Svi osim njene 5 posade uspjeli su pobjeći do čamaca za spašavanje. Zauzvrat ih je spasila Sloop HMS Snowdrop, koja je stigla i odvezla njemačku podmornicu prije nego što je posadu mogla mitraljeziti u svojim čamcima.

Kao što je ranije navedeno, 12. aprila 1912. RMS Titanic udario je u ledeni brijeg i potonuo u roku od 4 sata. Najbliži brod koji je primio njen signal nesreće bio je RMS Carpathia, koji je punom brzinom jurio dva sata do mjesta katastrofe. Po dolasku, spasila je 705 preživjelih iz ledenih voda sjevernog Atlantika. Posada Carpathia#8217 postala je heroj, nagrađena medaljama. Njen kapetan, Arthur Henry Rostron, noćen je i bio gost predsjednika Williama Tafta u Bijeloj kući. Tokom Prvog svjetskog rata Carpathia je služila kao brod trupa, prevozeći hiljade američkih vojnika preko Atlantika u rat u Evropi.

Među njima je bio Frank Buckles, koji će prije smrti 2011. postati posljednji preživjeli američki vojnik iz Prvog svjetskog rata. Bio je ratni zarobljenik na Filipinima tokom Drugog svjetskog rata (kao civil) i snažan zagovornik Memorijala iz Prvog svjetskog rata, koji je da bude gost predsjednika Georgea W. Busha u Bijeloj kući.


McKenzie iz američke kompanije za krzno bio je kralj Gornjeg Missourija

Takozvani kralj postavljen je na čelo dugačkog stola na koji su sjeli dobro odjeveni muškarci prema činu. Sluge su pred njih stavile najbolju divljač i kulinarske užitke. Podignuvši čaše ledenih vina i likera, vesela kompanija predložila je zdravice.

Ova gozba iz 1830 -ih nije se dogodila u europskom kraljevstvu, pa čak ni na istočnoj obali Sjedinjenih Država. Svečane večere bile su redovna pojava u Fort Unionu, predstraži na američkoj granici 1800 riječnih milja od St. Glavni čovjek, Kenneth McKenzie, vladao je ekonomskim carstvom većim od većine evropskih zemalja. Kako je ovaj Škot stekao takvu moć i utjecaj da su ga i prijatelji i neprijatelji nazvali "kraljem Gornjeg Missourija"?

Kenneth McKenzie, rođen 15. aprila 1797. godine u Škotskoj, stekao je dobro obrazovanje, emigrirao u Kanadu 1816. godine i radio za kompaniju North West Company. Godinama su Nor ’Westers bili jedina konkurencija moćnoj kompaniji Hudson's Bay. 1821. dvije kompanije su se spojile i zadržale naziv Hudson's Bay Company. McKenzie i mnogi drugi Nor ’Westeri ostali su bez posla.

McKenzie i dva prijatelja odletjeli su na jug do američke granice, gdje su se pridružili s nekoliko Amerikanaca i osnovali Columbia Fur Company na gornjoj rijeci Mississippi. Do 1823. godine proširili su se na gornju rijeku Missouri. Njihovo najveće mjesto bilo je utvrđenje Tecumseh, smješteno na rijeci Missouri u današnjoj Južnoj Dakoti.

McKenzie se pojavio kao glavni partner kompanije Columbia Fur Company, koristeći Fort Tecumseh kao sjedište od 1822. do 1829. Osim trgovanja s plemenima za dabrovu kožu, McKenzie je shvatio da na istoku Sjedinjenih Država postoji tržište za bivolje haljine. Do 1826. godine Columbia Fur Company trgovala je krznom i bivolskim haljinama s plemenima Lakota, Arikara, Hidatsa, Mandan, Yankton, Ponca i Omaha.

Trgovina ogrtačima od bivola učinila je Columbia Fur Company profitabilnom. John Jacob Astor, glavni partner American Fur Company, otkupio ih je 1827. godine, uz uvjet da McKenzie i njegovi partneri postanu partneri u American Fur Company. Utvrde rijeke Missouri bivše Columbia Fur Company ostale su poluautonomne kao odjeća Gornji Missouri. McKenzie je postao glavni agent odjeće.

Američka kompanija za krzno proširila se uz rijeku Missouri na teritorij pod utjecajem kompanije Hudson's Bay. McKenzie je shvatio da mu je za osvajanje trgovine od te strašne organizacije bila potrebna utvrda blizu spoja rijeka Yellowstone i Missouri uz današnju granicu Sjeverna Dakota-Montana. 1828. poslao je radnike na ušće rijeka da sagrade trgovačku kolibu za pleme Assiniboine. Iste godine, McKenzie je poslao ljude na Stjenovite planine da trguju na sastanku sa besplatnim zamkama.

1829. McKenzie je poslao radnike da sagrade utvrdu u trgovačkoj kabini Assiniboine i nazvao ga Fort Union. Tamo je preselio svoje sjedište 1830. godine. Ljudi su počeli nazivati ​​američku kompaniju krzna "kompanijom", a bilo koje takmičenje "opozicijom". U isto vrijeme, ljudi su počeli nazivati ​​McKenzieja kraljem Gornjeg Missourija.

McKenzie je vjerovao da će se trgovina, ako bi parobrod mogao putovati uz rijeku Missouri do Fort Union, znatno poboljšati. U kolovozu 1830. otišao je u St. Louis kako bi potaknuo partnere da kupe parobrod. Odustali su, ali McKenzie je uvjerio jednog od partnera, Pierrea Chouteaua Jr. -a, i zajedno su poljuljali ostale. Kompanija je izgradila parobrod, nazvavši ga Yellow Stone. Putovao je čak do tvrđave Tecumseh 1831. godine, ali ga je niska voda spriječila da nastavi dalje uzvodno. Naredne godine, 17. juna 1832. Yellow Stone stigao u Fort Union. Parobrod je ubrzo povećao efikasnost kompanije, brže i lakše premještajući krzno, kožu i trgujući robom.

McKenzie je želio trgovati sa Blackfeet -om, koji su sve Amerikance smatrali svojim neprijateljima i trgovao je isključivo s Hudson's Bay Company. 1830. McKenzie je poslao Jacoba Bergera na Blackfeet, pozivajući ih u Fort Union da razgovaraju o trgovinskim mogućnostima. Berger, stari lovac iz Hadsonovog zaliva i prijatelj Crnonogih, doveo je plemensku delegaciju u Fort Union. Nakon što je McKenzie dao poklone i obećao dobru zamjenu za njihovo krzno, Blackfeet se složio da dozvoli kompaniji da izgradi trgovačko mjesto na njihovoj teritoriji u današnjoj Montani.

Tijekom 1832. John Jacob Astor prodao je svoje udjele u American Fur Company Pierre Chouteau Jr. i drugim partnerima, dok je McKenzie izgradio Fort Cass na rijeci Yellowstone za trgovinu s plemenom Vrana. Kompanija je sada trgovala sa svim većim plemenima na rijeci Gornji Missouri.

McKenzie je poslovno otputovao u St. Louis i Washington, DC i vratio se u Fort Union 23. juna 1833. na brodu. Assiniboine u pratnji nemačkog naučnika princa Maksimilijana i njegovog ličnog umetnika Karla Bodmera. U noći 5. jula, McKenzie je zabavljao stanovnike utvrde i posjećivao plemena ispaljivanjem raketa u zrak i bacanjem petardi u gomilu.

McKenzie je čitao udžbenike iz medicine, hemije i prirodnih nauka. Prikupljao je indijske zanate i prirodne zanimljivosti. Štaviše, u Fort Union je donio najnovije kućne zabave - čarobni fenjer, preteču dijaprojektora i električni generator iskre. Poslao je u St. Louis po luksuzne stvari - rakiju, cigare i kamenice - i naručio kompletno oklopno odelo iz Engleske.

Kad je McKenzie stigao na Fort Union Assiniboine 1833. donio je viski. Godinama je trgovina sa plemenima uključivala alkohol. Kongres se zabrinuo zbog prodaje alkohola Indijancima, a u julu 1832. donio je zakon koji zabranjuje unošenje alkohola u indijsku državu. Kompanija Hudson's Bay nije imala ograničenja i nastavila je isporučivati ​​plemenima alkohol.

McKenzie je ponovo otputovao u Washington, DC, ali nije uspio natjerati Kongres da promijeni zakon. Sastao se sa advokatom St. Louis kompanije American Fur Company koji je otkrio moguću rupu. Zakon kaže da se alkohol ne može unijeti u indijsku zemlju, ali ne govori ništa o njegovoj proizvodnji u indijskoj zemlji. McKenzie je poslao aparat za mirnu hranu u Fort Union, kupio kukuruz za kašu od Mandana i počeo praviti viski.

U jesen 1833. Robert Campbell, Milton Sublette i Nathaniel Wyeth-svi dio takozvane opozicije-zaustavili su se u Fort Unionu. Uvijek dobar domaćin, čak i konkurentskim trgovcima, McKenzie ih je osvajao i večerao, a zatim im pokazao mirovanje. Htjeli su kupiti piće, ali McKenzie je to odbio, misleći da će ga prodati Indijancima. Bili su ljuti zbog McKenziejevog odbijanja, a kada su stigli do Fort Leavenwortha, najudaljenijeg zapadnog američkog mjesta, jedan od njih rekao je službenicima o McKenziejevom mirovanju. Uslijedili su veliki problemi američke kompanije za krzno, pa je McKenzie naredio da se i dalje demontira i otpremi niz rijeku.

McKenzie, sada 40 -godišnjak, napustio je Fort Union 1837. kako bi radio u St. Louisu. Vratio se u Gornji Missouri 1844. godine, kako bi ponovno uspostavio trgovinu s Blackfeet -om nakon što su zaposlenici American Fur Company masakrirali veliki broj Blackfeet -a iz osvete za ubistvo jednog od njihovih ljudi. Ubrzo nakon toga, međutim, napustio je American Fur Company i bavio se raznim uspješnim poslovnim poduhvatima, oženio se i osnovao porodicu u St. On je nastavio pružati bogatu zabavu svojim prijateljima sve do svoje smrti 26. aprila 1861.

McKenzie je stvorio i održavao veze povjerenja i prijateljstva s različitim indijskim plemenima u regiji i u vrijeme kada je američka vlada imala mali utjecaj. Naporno je radio, ali je znao uživati ​​u dobrom životu ... čak i ako je to na granici. Kenneth McKenzie je zaista bio kralj Gornjeg Missourija.

Prvobitno objavljeno u avgustu 2007 Wild West. Za pretplatu kliknite ovdje.


Legende Amerike

Američku tvrtku za krzno osnovao je John Jacob Astor 1808. godine i postat će jedno od najvećih poduzeća u zemlji početkom 19. stoljeća. Astor je započeo ovaj ambiciozni poduhvat kako bi se natjecao s dvije velike kompanije koje se bave trgovinom krznom u Kanadi#8211, Hudson ’s Bay Company i North West Company.

U početku je Astor -ova operacija u dolini rijeke Columbia u Oregonu bila podružnica pod nazivom Pacific Fur Company, a njegovi napori na Velikim jezerima bili su pod drugom podružnicom i#8212 jugozapadnom kompanijom. Međutim, rat 1812. uništio je obje kompanije. Pet godina kasnije, 1817., Kongres je donio akt koji je isključio strane trgovce sa američkog teritorija, čime je Američka kompanija za krzno postala najveća u regiji Velikih jezera.

1821. kompanija se udružila sa interesima Chouteaua u St. Louisu, Missouri, dajući kompaniji monopol u regiji rijeke Missouri, a kasnije i u Stjenovitim planinama. Sve veća iz godine u godinu, Američka kompanija za krzno prakticirala je otkup malih poduzeća ili njihovo isključivanje iz poslovanja s oštrom konkurencijom, pa je do 1830. godine praktično imalo tržište cjelokupne trgovine krznom. Astor se povukao 1834. i kompanija se podijelila na manje organizacije.

Kako bi se uštedjeli troškovi, brojna trgovačka mjesta su zatvorena, a jaka konkurencija počela se pojavljivati. Ubrzo, nakon toga, potražnja za krznom počela se dramatično smanjivati. Uprkos naporima da se poveća profit diverzifikacijom u druge industrije, poput rudarstva olova, American Fur Company raspala se 1842. Preostala imovina kompanije podijeljena je u nekoliko manjih operacija, od kojih je većina propala do 1850 -ih.


Legende Amerike

John Jacob Astor bio je poglavar dinastije porodica Astor i prvi milioner u Sjedinjenim Državama, prvenstveno se obogativši u trgovini krznom, ali i u nekretninama i opijumu.

Rođen kao Johann Jacob Astor 17. jula 1763. u Waldorfu u Njemačkoj, Astor je bio treći mesarski sin. Sa 16 godina preselio se u London da radi sa svojim bratom koji je započeo posao izrade muzičkih instrumenata. Dok je bio tamo, čuo je da muškarci bogate u Americi i uskoro se odlučio pridružiti jatu imigranata koji prelaze ribnjak. "

Došavši u New York 1783. godine, Astor je prvo radio kao mesar. Međutim, ubrzo je počeo kupovati krzno od lovaca i Indijanaca, osnovavši trgovinu krznenim proizvodima u New Yorku. In 1794, the Jay Treaty between Great Britain and the United States opened new markets in Canada and the Great Lakes region.

By 1795, Astor had purchased a dozen ships and began a thriving import/export business. Five years later, the man had amassed almost a quarter of a million dollars and had become one of the leading figures in the fur trade.

In 1800, Astor began to trade not only in furs, but also teas, sandalwood, opium, and other products, with China. However, in 1807, The Embargo Act disrupted his import/export business. Undaunted, in 1808, Astor established a new venture – the American Fur Company in order to control fur trading in the Columbia River and Great Lakes areas.

Astor began this ambitious venture to compete with the two great fur-trading companies in Canada – the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company. Initially, Astor’s operation in the Columbia River valley of Oregon was under a subsidiary called the Pacific Fur Company and his Great Lakes efforts were under another subsidiary — the South West Company.

In 1810, Astor financed the overland Astor Expedition which would discover South Pass, through which hundreds of thousands settlers would later travel the Oregon, California, and Mormon Trails through the Rocky Mountains. In April 1811, he established Fort Astoria, the first permanent United States community on the Pacific coast in present-day Oregon.

The War of 1812 nearly destroyed Astor’s company and he was forced to sell Fort Astoria, which was renamed Fort George. However, five years later, in 1817, Congress passed an act that excluded foreign traders from U.S. territory, making the American Fur Company the biggest in the Great Lakes region.

In 1821, the company partnered with the Chouteau interests of St. Louis, Missouri, giving the company a monopoly in the Missouri River region and later, in the Rocky Mountains. Growing larger each year, the American Fur Company made a practice of buying out small businesses or putting them out of business with stiff competition, virtually having a market on the entire fur trade by 1830.

In 1834 Astor sold his fur-trading business and began to invest in New York real estate. Sure that New York would emerge as one of the world’s greatest cities he aggressively began buying and developing large tracts of land in Manhattan. Adding millions to his already substantial wealth, he was the richest person in the United States at the time of his death in 1848, leaving the bulk of his fortune to his children.

John Jacob Astor, 1825 Portrait by John Wesley Jarvis

He also left $400,000 to build the Astor Library in New York, which is now the New York Public Library. When calculating his net worth, estimated at $20 million, as a fraction of the gross domestic product at the time, he would be the fifth richest person in American History.


John Jacob Astor and the American Fur Company

On April 6 , 1808 , Johann Jacob Astor osnovao American Fur Company in New York . The company grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States by 1830 , and became one of the largest businesses in the country and John Jacob Astor became the first multi-millionaire in the United States .

“The first hundred thousand—that was hard to get but afterwards it was easy to make more.”
– James Jacob Astor, quoted in [8]

John Jacob Astor Background

John Jacob Astor was born near Heidelberg , Germany and his career began at his father’s business, where he worked as a dairy salesman. However, at the age of 16, he moved to London, learning English and helping his brother manufacturing musical instruments. The next station was New York City. Astor moved there in 1784, followed by one of his brothers and began trading furs with Native Americans. Astor founded a fur goods business shortly after and became the New York agent of his brother’s musical instrument business.

Founding of the American Fur Company

In 1792, the Jay Treaty between the United States and England was signed, opening new markets in Canada and the Great Lakes area, which Astor took advantage of. Soon Astor began importing furs from Montreal to New York and shipping them to Europe. By then, John Jacob Astor was a leading figure in fur trade and in 1800, he even managed to trade furs, teas, and sandalwood with Canton in China. His success seemed unstoppable, but only seven years later, the American Embargo Act disrupted his business of importing and exporting goods. Therefore, the American Fur Company was founded on 6 April, 1808. Subsidiaries being the Pacific Fur Company, and the Southwest Fur Company were later on also founded in order to control fur trading in the Columbia River and Great Lakes areas. Astor even financed an expedition, the Astor Expedition. It traveled by land and sea to the mouth of the Columbia River to establish a fur trading “emporium”.

The Astor Expedition

Following the death of Meriwether Lewis in 1809,[5] a search commenced for a suitable governor for the area. Astor hoped to propose a solution with his proposed route west. Astor’s plans were to create a company that aimed to control the entire existing fur trade, as well as extend it all the way to the Pacific. Wilson Price Hunt, a St. Louis businessman who had no outback experience, led the overland party to the Columbia River. Hunt made a number of decisions which, in hindsight, were disastrous to the expedition. However, those mistakes were to lead to the expedition’s most famous discoveries. The overland expedition pioneered the route now known as the Oregon Trail and in other ways laid the foundations for future American settlement of Oregon and Washington.

The Astor House

However, the English captured his trading posts during the War of 1812 and four years later, Astor joined the opium smuggling trade. After the U.S. government passed a new law in 1817, which banned many foreign traders from U.S. territories, Astor’s business faced a rebound. In 1822, Astor established the Astor House on Mackinac Island as headquarters for the reorganized American Fur Company, making the island a metropolis of the fur trade. The company enjoyed nearly complete control of the fur trade in the United States, but in 1834, John Jacob Astor withdrew from the company. The popularity of fur in fashion decreased drastically and split up in several smaller companies.

John Jacob Astor House, Mackinac Island, Michigan (1898)

The first multi-millionaire

Still, the company was one of the largest enterprises in the United States and held a total monopoly of the lucrative fur trade in the young nation by the 1820s. John Jacob Astor became the richest man in the world and the first multi-millionaire in the United States. Astor used part of his fortune to found the Astor Library in New York City, which merged with the Lenox Library to form the New York Public Library later on. The American Fur Company opened the way for the settlement and economic development of the Midwestern and Western United States.

John Jacob Astor died on March 29, 1848, at age 84, leaving an estate estimated to be worth at least $20 million. His estimated net worth would have been equivalent to $110.1 billion in 2006 U.S. dollars, making him the fifth-richest person in American history.

At yovisto academic video search, you may be interested in a very short introduction to John Jacob Astor and the American Fur Company.


American Fur Company

The American Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808. The company grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States, and became one of the largest businesses in the country. The company was one the first great trusts in American business.

istorija

The American Fur Company began in 1808 with fur trading posts in the Midwest and the Great Lakes region as well as the Pacific Northwest. The company formed subsidiaries to manage the company's business in these areas. The South West Company handled the Midwestern fur trade, while the Pacific Fur Company dealt with operations in Oregon Country. The early operations of the company were often in competition with the great Canadian and British fur trading companies: the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. During the War of 1812 many of the American Fur Company's trading posts were lost to the British. For a time it seemed that the company had been destroyed, but following the war the United States passed a law excluding foreign traders from operating on U.S. territory. This freed the American Fur Company from its competition with the Canadian and British companies, and ensured a monopoly for the American Fur Company in the Great Lakes region and the Midwest. In the 1820s the company expanded its monopoly into the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. To maintain control of the industry, smaller competitors were bought out or destroyed by the American Fur Company's ruthless business tactics. By 1830, the company had near complete control of the fur trade in the United States.

The company's time at the top of America's business world was short lived. Sensing the eventual decline of fur's popularity in fashion, John Jacob Astor withdrew from the company in 1834. The company split up, and the Pacific Fur Company became independent. The midwestern outfit would continue to be called the American Fur Company, and was now lead by Ramsey Crooks. To cut down on expenses, the company began closing many of its trading posts. Through the 1830s, competition began to resurface. At the same time, the availability of furs in the Midwest declined. By the 1840s, silk was replacing fur as the clothing fashion in Europe. The company was unable to cope with all these factors. Despite efforts to increase profits by diversifying into other industries like lead mining, the American Fur Company folded in 1842. The assets of the company were split into several smaller operations, most of which failed by the 1850s.

Uticaj

During its heyday, the American Fur Company was one of the largest trade in the United States, holding an almost total monopoly of the fur trade in the U.S. The company provided the money for the land investments that catapulted John Jacob Astor to the position of richest man in the world. Astor remains the fourth wealthiest American of all time, after John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt. Part of Astor's fortune went to found a library in New York City that later merged with the Lenox Library to create the New York Public Library.

On the frontier, the American Fur Company opened the way for the settlement and economic development of the Midwestern and Western United States. Mountain men working for the company would carve the trails that led settlers into the West. Many cities in the Midwest and West, such as Astoria, Oregon, grew up around American Fur Company trading posts. The American Fur Company played a major role in the development and expansion of the young United States.

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Fort Laramie

Fort Laramie is best known for the years from 1849 to 1890, when it served as a military post in the western Indian Wars. Earlier fur-trade, robe-trade and emigrant-supply forts that existed on the same site from 1834 to 1849 are less known and understood.

In the spring of 1834, Fort William on the Laramie was established by fur traders as a stockade made from cottonwood logs. In 1841, a replacement structure, Fort John, was built using adobe bricks. In 1849, the U. S. Army bought the structure and established a military post that became officially known as Fort Laramie, though the other two posts had often been known as the fort on the Laramie, or just Fort Laramie. The Army post existed until 1890. While not the earliest Euro-American settlement in what we now know as Wyoming, Fort William/John/Laramie remains the longest continuously occupied Euro-American location in the state.

In June of 1834, William Sublette and Robert Campbell established the first fur trading post at the confluence of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers. The confluence of these two rivers was one of Western America’s most strategic geographic places, especially for the developing buffalo-robe trade that was already replacing the beaver-fur trade by that time.

A trading post in this location could control supply to a vast area of the central Rocky Mountains and a large area of the bison range in the Great Plains, as stated in the journal of William Marshall Anderson:

“May 31, 1834 -- This day we laid the foundation log of a fort, on Laramee’s fork. A friendly dispute arose between our leader and myself, as to the name. He proposed to call it Fort Anderson, I insisted upon baptising it Fort Sublette, and holding the trump card in my hand, (a bottle of champagne) was about to claim the trick. Sublette stood by, cup reversed, still objecting, when Patton offered a compromise which was accepted, and the foam flew, in honor of Fort William which contained the triad prenames of clerk, leader and friend.”

In 1835, Sublette and Campbell sold Fort William to another fur trading company, Fontenelle, Fitzpatrick & Co, which in 1836 sold out to Pierre Chouteau and the American Fur Company. The American Fur Company and its trapping brigade, known as the Rocky Mountain Outfit, operated out of the fort until 1841 when competition caused the American Fur Company to rebuild. Lancaster Lupton, an independent trader, had built Fort Platte just north of Fort William, and had begun trade with the Indians.

By this time, the log stockade of Fort William was deteriorated and provided little real protection to its occupants. The shabby look and decaying features of Fort William were not good for business. In order to re-capture the trade, the American Fur Company invested $10,000 in the construction of a replacement.

Completed in 1841, the large and impressive Fort John was opened for business. Named for a partner in the company, John Sarpy, Fort John was built of thick adobe walls surrounding a central courtyard.

Fort John was the structure many of the early Oregon/California Trail emigrants associated with Fort Laramie. It was the impressive structure seen at the south end of the present parade ground throughout the early years of overland migration. As such, many more travelers sketched this structure. We thus have a much better record of what Fort John looked like than Fort William.

By 1849, the flood of westbound emigrants motivated the government to take steps for their safety. A string of army posts along the trail could provide a sense of security, keep the trail open, and allow for reliable points of supply and repair. In April 1849, the Regiment of Mounted Rifles moved into the old adobe fort after the U.S. Army purchased it from the American Fur Company for four thousand dollars. The 41-year military period then began and what we now see and know as Fort Laramie was established.

All three versions of the post were important stopping off places for the increasing number of travelers along the trails to Oregon, California and Utah. The post became an oasis. Through most of the 1840s it was the only permanent trading post for the 800-mile span between Fort Kearney in present Nebraska, and Fort Bridger in what’s now southwest Wyoming.

Historic trails and routes that passed through Fort Laramie, in addition to the Oregon and California Trails, were the Mormon Trail, Bozeman Trail, Pony Express Route, Transcontinental telegraph route, and the Deadwood and Cheyenne Stage Route.

Fort Laramie also served as headquarters for military campaigns. An estimated 50,000 pioneers had passed through the fort by 1852, and with the waves of emigrants, tensions with Plains Indian groups increased. The Grattan fight of 1854, which involved an incident with a wagon train near Fort Laramie, was the first major battle of the Indian Wars on the northern Great Plains.

Great Indian councils that attempted to bring peace to the land occurred at the fort in 1851, 1866 and 1868. Campaigns against the plains tribes during the last half of the nineteenth century,however, testified to the ultimate failure of these treaties to maintain peace. Operating from Fort Laramie and neighboring posts, the Army eventually subdued the Lakota Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho and other tribes in the area.

The fort witnessed the development of the open range cattle industry, the coming of homesteaders, and the settlement of the plains that marked the closing of the frontier. The Army abandoned the fort in 1890 and the buildings and land were auctioned off to the local citizens. More than 50 buildings during this time were moved elsewhere, demolished or dismantled.

The structures that remain today at Fort Laramie remain only because of the efforts of local homesteaders who forestalled the disappearance of the buildings. In 1927, the Wyoming Historical Landmark Commission focused public attention of the fort and by 1936, the National Park Service representatives showed an interest in preserving Fort Laramie.

By Presidential Proclamation of July 16, 1938, the fort became Fort Laramie National Historic Monument. It was redesignated a National Historic Site in 1960 when the monument was enlarged by Congress.

Fort Laramie’s visitors often ask, “Where is the original fur trader post [Fort William] located?” The National Park Service and fur-trade historians have long asked this same question. Despite the early depictions and descriptions of Fort William, the exact location of the fort has been lost to history.

Only archeology will determine the location of Fort William and other early structures. Such studies are vital to understanding the full history of Fort Laramie from its beginnings in 1834. The first archaeological investigations at Fort Laramie National Monument were begun in mid-August 1938 by a Civilian Conservation Corps work force under the direction of G. Hubert Smith, shortly after the property was designated a national monument.

This early work at Fort Laramie National Monument set the tone for the following eighty years: construction or restoration work was always preceded by archaeological investigations or monitored for archaeological content. More than 75 such projects have been completed and there is no end in sight. A recently completed geophysical survey of the central portion of the fort, including the area around all standing structures, revealed so much about the archaeology of Fort Laramie that it would take more than 100 years of excavation and analysis to completely record the site’s archaeology.


American Fur Company - History

The American Fur Company and Chicago

Transcribed by Candi Horton, 2006, for the Genealogy Trails History Group's webpages.

Source: Hurlbut, Henry H, Chicago Antiquities : Comprising original items and relations, letters, extracts, and notes pertaining to early Chicago, embellished with views, portraits, autographs, etc., Chicago, 1881, pages 28-36

All spelling and marks are the same as in the book. During the existence of the American Fur Company , Chicago was at times the home or head-quarters of various of its agents Hubbard, Beaubien, Crafts and the Kinzies, at least, sojourned here more or less. By the way of Chicago was the thoroughfare to the Illinois, St. Louis and below. While Mackinaw had been for more than a century the storehouse and great trading post of the fur dealers, Chicago was the port and point of a very limited district of distribution. But civilization has changed the character of trade, and the settlement and cultivation of the country by the white race has transferred from Michilimackinac to Chicago the commercial depot and trade centre of not only a great share of the region comprising the old Northwestern Territory but of a far greater area of empire.

To notice slightly the origin of the American Fur Company we will say that John Jacob Astor, a German by birth, who arrived in New York in 1784, commenced work for a bakery owned by a German acquaintance and peddled cakes and doughnuts about the city. He afterwards assisted to open a toy shop and this was followed by trafficking for small parcels of furs in the country towns and which led to his future operation in that line.

Mr. Astor's great and continued success in that branch of trade induced him in 1809 to obtain from the New York Legislature a charter of a million dollars. It is understood that Mr. Astor comprised the Company, though other names were used in it organization. In 1811, Mr. Astor, in connection with certain partners of the old Northwest Fur Company, whose beginning was in 1783 and permanently organized in 1787, bought out the association of British merchants known as the Mackinaw Company, then a strong competitor in the fur trade. The Mackinaw Company, with the American Fur Company was merged into a new association, called the Southwest Fur Company. But in 1815, Mr. Astor bought out the Southwest Company and the American Fur Company came again to the front. In the winter of 1815-16, Congress, through the influence of Mr. Astor, it is understood, passed an act excluding foreigners from participating in the Indian trade. In 1817-18, the American Fur Company bought a large number of clerks from Montreal and the United States to Mackinaw, some of whom made good Indian traders, while many others failed upon trial and were discharged. Among those who proved their capability was Gurdon S. Hubbard, Esq. then a youth of sixteen. He was born in Windsor, Vt., in 1802 and parents were Elizur and Abigail (Sage) Hubbard. Mr. Hubbard left Montreal, were his parents then lived, May 13, 1818, reaching Mackinaw, July 4 and first arrived at Chicago on the last day of October or first day of November of that year. In 1828 he purchased of the Fur Company their entire interest in the trade of Illinois. Mr. Hubbard related this about the American Fur Company:

"Having entire charge of the management of the company in the West, were Ramsey Crooks and Robert Stuart. To William Mathews was entrusted the engaging of voyageurs and clerks in Canada, with his head-quarters in Montreal. The voyageurs he took from the habitants (farmers) young, active, athletic men were sought for, indeed, none by such were engaged, and they passed under inspection of a surgeon. Mr. M. also purchased at Montreal such goods as were suited for the trade, to lead his boats. These boats were the Canadian batteaux, principally used in those days in transferring goods to upper St. Lawrence river and its tributaries, manned by four oarsmen and a steersman, capacity about six tons. The voyageurs and clerks were under indentures for a term of five years. Wages for voyageurs, $100, clerk from $120 to $500 per annum. These were all novices in the business the plan of the company was to arrange and secure the services of old traders and their voyageurs, who, at the (new) organization of the company were in the Indian country, depending on their influence and knowledge of the trade with the Indians and as fast as possible secure the vast trade in the West and North-West, within the district of the United States, interspersing the novices brought from Canada so as to consolidate, extend, and monopolize, as far as possible, over the country, the Indian trade. The first two years they had succeeded in bringing into their employ seven-eights of the old Indian traders on the tributaries as far north as the boundaries of the United States extended. The other eighth thought that their interest was to remain independent toward such, the company selected their best traders, and located them in opposition, with instructions so to manage by underselling to bring them to terms.

At Mackinaw, the trader's brigades were organized, the company selecting the most capable trader to be the manger of his particular bridge, which consisted of from five to twenty batteuix, laden with goods. Their chief manager, when searching the country allotted to him, made detachments, locating trading houses, with districts clearly defined, for the operations of that particular post, and so on, until his ground was fully occupied by traders under him, over whom he had absolute authority. Mr. John Crafts was a trader sent to Chicago by a Mr. Conant, of Detroit was here at the (new) organization of the American Fur Company. His trading house was located about half a mile below Bridgeport, ("Hardscrabble" - the same premises, where in April 1812, two murders were committed by the Indians) on the north side of the river, (south branch) and had, up to 1819, full control of this section, without opposition from the American Fur Company, sending outfits to Rock River and other points within a range say of a hundred miles of Chicago. In the fall of 1819, the company transferred Jean Baptiste Beaubien from Milwaukee to this point, for the purpose of opposing Mr. Crafts. He erected his trading houses at the mouth of Chicago River, then about the foot of Harrison Street. In 1822, Crafts succumbed, and engaged himself to the American Fur Company bought from the U.S. the Factory House, located just south of Fort Dearborn, to which Beaubien removed his family. Crafts died here of bilious fever in December, of I think the year 1823. Up to this date, Mr. John Kinzie was not in any business connected with the American Fur Company, but confined himself to his trade, silversmith, making Indian trinkets. At the death of Mr. Crafts, he acted as agent for the American Fur Company. He had no goods, as Mr. Beaubien bought out the Company's right of trade with the Indians. By this Time there was a very limited trade there in fact, this place never had been preeminent as a trading-post, as this was not the Indian hunting-ground."

We will here allude to Mr. Astor's attempt to establish an American emporium for the fur trade at the mouth of the Columbia River, which enterprise failed, through the capture of Astoria by the British in 1814, and the neglect of our Government to give him protection. The withdrawal of Mr. Astor from the Pacific coast left the Northwest Fur Company to consider themselves the lords of the country. They did not long enjoy the field unmolested, however.

Ramsey Crooks was a foremost man in the employ of Mr. Astor in the fur trade, not only in the east, but upon the western coast, and has been called "the adventurous Rocky Mountain trader." Intimately connected, as Mr. Crooks was, with the American Fur Company, a slight notice of him will not be out of place. Mr. Crooks was a native of Greenock, Scotland, and was employed as a trader, in Wisconsin, as early as 1806. He entered the service of Mr. Astor in 1809. In 1813, he returned from his three years' journey to the western coast, and in 1817 he joined Mr. Astor as a partner and, for four or five years ensuing, he was the company's Mackinaw agent, though residing mostly in New York. Mr. Crooks continued a partner until 1830, when this connection was dissolved and he resumed his place with Mr. Astor in his former capacity. In 1834, Mr. Astor, being advanced in years, sold out the stock of the company, and transferred the charter to Ramsey Crooks and his associates, whereupon Mr. C. was elected president of the company. Reverses, however, compelled an assignment in 1842 and with it the death of the American Fur Company. In 1845, Mr. Crooks opened a commission house, for the sale of furs and skins, in New York City. This business, which was successful, Mr. C. continued until his death. Mr. Crooks died in New York, June 6, 1859, in his 73d year.

[Through the politness of a lady of Chicago, we have been favored with the loan of a volume, formerly one of the books of the American Fur Company, containing various items of interest. The lady referred to was formerly of Mackinaw, and had good taste when noticing, some years since, the waste of numerous book and papers of the old Fur Company, to secure quite a number from such a fate. All those book and papers, excepting the lying one before us, she afterward presented to the Chicago Historical Society, and they shared the flames which consumed its valuable collection. Though only in part to our immediate locality, we think it will be excusable to place upon record the following extracts and items
(mostly of persons and their destination) from the volume above mentioned. The book comprises outward invoices of the year 1821 and '2, from the Agency at Mackinaw, or "Michilimackinac" as it was written. Pains have been taken to carefully follow the orthography, of the names of persons and place.]

( For account and risk of the American Fur Co., Merchandise delivered. )

Josette Gauthier, for the trade of Lake Superior. Michilimackinac, 23 July, 1821
Madeline Laframboise, for the Trade of Grand River and its dependencies. 3 Sept., 1821.
[Madeline Laframboise was of the Indian race, Ottawa women, whose husband had taught her to read and write. She was of tall and commanding figure, and Mr. Hubbard informs us that "she was a women of extraordinary ability, spoke French remarkably well, and, in deportment and conversation, a lady highly esteemed her husband was killed on the Upper Mississippi." After his death, " she took control of the business and continued as a trader in the Company's employ," was accustomed to visit the various trading posts, and looked closely after the doings of the clerks and employés. The daughter of Madeline Laframboise became the wife of Lieut. John S. Pierce, of the army, brother of the late President Pierce.]

( On their own account and risk. )

Therese Schindler, for her trade at and about Michilimackinac. 23 August, 1821.
Eliza and James Mitchell for their Trade. August 12, 1822.

( For account and risk of the American Fur Co. )

John F. Hogle, for the Trade of Lac du Flambeau and its dependencies. 24 July, 1821.
Jean Bt. Corbin for the Trade of Lac Courtoreille and its dependencies. 31 July, 1821.
Eustache Roussain, for Trade of Felleavoine and its dep. 31 July, 1821.
Goodrich Warner, for the Trade of Ance Quirvinan and its dep. 2 August, 1821.
Joseph Rolette, for the Trade of the Upper Mississippi and its dep. 15 August, 1821.
Amount of Invoice, $25,354.84.

[Joseph Rolette was at Prairie du Chien as early as 1804. He was a decided character in his day, and numerous anecdotes are told of him which establishes that fact. He held sway over the French inhabitants and voyageurs, and was exacting in his requirements his will was arbitrary, his word law, and the people feared him, it is said, worse than they did death. He was educated for the Catholic Church, officiated at one time as chief-justice, and it is told to have been rich to watch the proceedings and decisions of that court. In capture of Mackinaw from the Americans, in 1812, Rolette took active part on the side of the enemy, having command of the Canadians on that occasion. He also raised a company to take part in the expedition under Col. McKay, against Prairie du Chien and bore the dispatches to Mackinaw after its surrender. Mr. Rolette died at Prairie du Chien in 1841.]

William H. Wallace for trade of Lower Wasbash and its dep. 22 August, 1821.
[This gentleman was a Scotchman, and it understood to have died in Chicago about 1826. He was connected with the Fur Company upon the Pacific coast some years before. A manuscript narrative of his journey, in 1810, to the Northwest coast, from Montreal, via New York, Sandwich Islands, etc., left by him, was deposited with the Chicago Historical Society.]

John Henry Davis, for the trade of the Upper Wabash and its dep. 24 August, 1821.
Jeremie Clairemont, for the trade of Iroquois river and its dep. 22 August, 1821.
Truman A Warren, for the trade of Lac du Flambeau and its dep. July 15, 1822.
John Holliday, for the trade of Ance Quirvinan, and its dep. 26 July, 1822.

Joseph Bertrand and Pierre Navarre, for trade of St. Joseph and Kinkiki and its dep. Aug. 7, 1822.
[The present village of Bertrand, Mich., formerly called Parc aux Vaches, it is believed, was named for Joseph Bertrand.]

William Morrison, for the trade of Fon du Lac and its dep. July 20, 1822.
[This gentleman, who died in 1866, near Montreal, discovered, in 1804, the source of the Mississippi, in advance of Achoolcraft or Beltrami, or, indeed, any other white man.]

Antoine Deschamps, and Gurdon S. Hubbard, for the trade of Iroquis river, and its dep. August 9, 1822.
[Antoine Deschamps, in the year 1792, was at what was formerly called La Ville de Maillet, that was afterwards "fort Clark," and the village of Peoria. He lived there, at least, until 1811.]

Russell Farnham, for the trade of the lower Mississippi and its dep. 10 August, 1821.

Consignment to address of Jamie Kinzie for account of him and the American Fur Company for trade of Milliwaki, to Chicago.
Shipped per Schooner Ann, Capt. Ransom from Michilimackinac, to Chicago. 13 Sept., 1821.
[The late James Kinzie, formerly of Chicago, and half brother of the late John H. Kinzie.]

Joseph C. Dechereau, for the trade of Penatangonshine and its dep. 5 Oct., 1821

Louis Pensonneau, sen., for trade of Illinois river. Aug. 12, 1822.
[Louis Penceneau, both senior and junior, lived at Peoria the former built a house there soon after the peace of 1815.]

Etienne (otherwise Stephen) Lamorandiere, for trade at Drummond's Island. July 21, 1821.
Michael Cadotte, sen., for his trade at La Pointe, Lake Superior. 23 July, 1821.
Joseph La Perche, alias St. Jean, for his trade on the lower Mississippi. 30 July, 1821.
Joseph Bailly, for trade of Lake Michigan, etc. 10 August, 1821.

Augustin Grignon, John Lawe, Jaques Porlier, sen., Pierre Grignon, and Louis Grignon all of Green bay, for their trade there. 3 Sept. 1821.
[The Grignons were grandsons of Charles DeLanglade, who settled at Green Bay as early as 1745.]

Antoine Deschamps, for the trade of Masquigon. 11 Sept. 1821.
Richard M. Pierce, for the trade of Drummon Island. 5 Sept., 1821.
Daniel Dingley, for the trade of Folleavoine, south Lake Superior. July 30, 1822.
Edward Biddle, from 1st Oct., 1821 to 15 Aug., 1822.
Ignace Pichet. June 28, 1822.

Rix Robinson, for trade of Grand River, Lake Michigan. Aug. 23, 1822.
[He studied law in the State of New York, but abandoned it and came to Mackinaw to take up business of Indian trader.]

William A. Aitken, for his trade at Fond u Lac and its dep. July 4, 1822.

Jean Bt. Beaubien, for his trade at Milliwakie.
[The late Col. J.B. Beaubien, of Chicago.]

Pierre Caune for his trade. Aug. 31, 1822.

Washington Irving, in his "Astoria," gives a graphic account of the occasional meetings of partners, agents and employés of the old Northwest Fur Company, at Montreal and Fort William, where they kept high days and nights of wassail and feasting of song and tales of adventure and hair-breath escapes. But of those lavish and merry halls of the old "Northwest," we need suggest no comparison with the Agency dwelling of the American Fur Company at Mackinaw, where the expenses charged for the year 1821 were only $678.49. in that account however, we notice the following entries: 31 ¼ gallons Tenerifte Wine 4 ½ gallons Port Wine 10 gallons best Madeira 70 ½ gallons Red wine nine gallons brandy one barrel flour.

We will close this article by giving a catalogue of goods furnished for trade of the Chicago country, fifty-three years ago:

Arm bands, blankets, broad cord, blue cloth, brown Russia sheeting, blue bernagore handkerchiefs, black silk do., black ribbon, boxwood combs, barrel biscuit, black bottles, boys' roram hats, brass jewsharps, beads, blue cloth, trwers, blue cloth capotes, beaver shot, balls, black wampum, barrel salt, colored ribbon, colored gartering, crimson bed-lace, cartouche knives, colored cock feathers, cod lines, colored worsted thread, cotton-wick balls, cow bells, covered copper kettles, common needles, cotton bandanna handkerchiefs, duck shot, darning needles, embossed serge, English playing cards, embossed brooches, ear wheels, furniture cotton, fox tail feathers, flour, fine steels, gun flints, girls' worsted hose, gorgets, gunpowder, gurrahs, highland striped gartering, hawk's bills, hair trucks, half axes, highwines, hose hand sleds, Irish lines, Indian calico handkerchiefs, ingrain ribbon, ivory combs, ingrain worsted thread, ink powder, japanned quart jacks, kettle chains, knee straps, London scots gartering, large round ear bobs, looking glasses, mock garnets, maitre de rels, men's shirts, men's imitation beaver hats, moon paper, narrow cord, nun's thread, nails, northwest guns, printed cotton shawls, plain bath rings, pen knives, pierced brooches, portage collars, pepper, pins, pipes, pork, scarlet cloth, shoes, spotted swan skin, silk ferrets, scarlet milled caps, scalping knives, St. Lawrence shells, stone rings, sturgeon twine, stitching thread, snuff, snuff boxes, snaffle bridles, stirrup irons, two sheeting, therick, tomahawks, tobacco, vermillion, white crash brushes, white molton, waist straps, white wampum, whiskey.


Pogledajte video: WATCH: Historical Fort Has Amazing Fur Trade History (Decembar 2021).

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