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Mezopotamske zlatne naušnice

Mezopotamske zlatne naušnice


Antikni i starinski stilovi naušnica

Žene i muškarci od davnina ukrašavaju svoje režnjeve naušnicama. Većina najstarijih primjera, koje su općenito nosili kraljevski i vrlo bogati ljudi, danas se čuvaju u muzejima i rijetko ih otkrivaju kolekcionari. Povremeno će par koji datira još iz 1700 -ih izaći na površinu tokom starinskih avantura sretnog kolekcionara. Najčešće, međutim, datiraju negdje između kasnog viktorijanskog doba (od oko 1880. do 1900.) do modernih reprodukcija starijih stilova.

Imajte na umu prilikom ocjenjivanja i datiranja naušnica za koje vjerujete da su antikni da su se stilovi reciklirali decenijama. Par napravljen prije 10 godina možda je inspiriran, na primjer, viktorijanskim nakitom i ima vrlo sličan izgled. Par se također može promijeniti, poput onih pretvorenih s vijčanih naslona (popularnih od kasne viktorijanske ere do ranih 1950-ih) u probušene (favorizirane ranije u viktorijanskoj eri prije nego što su proglašene varvarskim i opet u modernim stilovima napravljenim od sredine 1960-ih ) u nekom trenutku.

Dakle, koristite stilove kao jedan trag da biste utvrdili kada je par starih naušnica možda napravljen, ali prije konačnog zaključka ispitajte elemente poput kamenja, sadržaja metala, konstrukcije, vrste leđa i drugih faktora. Bez obzira na dob, moći ćete pravilno opisati stil koristeći primjere u nastavku kao vodič.


Mezopotamske zlatne naušnice - povijest

Kako je izgledala odjeća u Mezopotamiji? Učinimo slom sumerske nošnje. U osnovi, moda se mijenja kad se svijet promijeni. A u Mezopotamiji se moda nije morala mijenjati 5000 godina. Kad pogledamo skulpture ili crteže iz tog doba, vidimo dosadne i neutralne boje i oblike, no je li to zaista bilo tako? Saznat ćete iz ovog članka.

Članak je zasnovan na videu Amande Hallay, historičarke mode

Učinimo slom sumerske nošnje. Ova kultura je postojala jako dugo, pa se moda ipak promijenila. Idemo samo nekako hronološki. Ali, u osnovi, moda se mijenja kad se svijet promijeni. Moda se mijenja kad je potrebno promijeniti. A u Mezopotamiji se moda nije morala mijenjati 5000 godina.

Oslonac rane mezopotamske mode bio je sljedeći. Zove se "kaunake" i predstavlja neku vrstu omotane suknje koja se nosi prilično visoko i na muškarcima i na ženama. Na muškarcima - odmah ispod bradavice na ženama - omotani ispod jedne ruke i preko ramena druge.

Ali od čega je napravljena mezopotamska suknja u više nivoa? Neki povjesničari nošnji tvrde da je napravljena od tkanine, da je ta tkanina samo izrezana u ove prekrasne oblike ošiljenih listova. Drugi povjesničari misle da je kaunake napravljen od lišća jer zaista izgledaju kao lišće na raznim mezopotamskim skulpturama. Drugi, međutim, kažu da su napravljeni od perja. Mezopotamska odjeća ne postoji do danas, pa moramo samo nagađati. Možda su napravljeni od sve tri.

Strukturni elementi

No, razložimo strukturne elemente bizantske odjeće. Vidite, sve je bilo zasnovano na omotima na početku ove kulture. No, kasnije, prilagođenu odjeću počinjemo vidjeti - u asirsko doba. Odjeća s rukavima, na primjer.

No, znamo da su nam Mezopotamci dali rub. Bili su orasi za resice - vidimo to na rezbarijama, vidimo na skulpturama. Ovo je kultura koja je zaista koristila odjeću da odražava sebe, odražava status. Na rubu svega - mora da je bilo spektakularno egzotično.

Odjeća kao status

Naravno, u Mezopotamiji je bilo društvenih slojeva. Očigledno je da su ljudi na vrhu-kraljevska porodica, aristokrati i veliki vlasnici zemljišta-odjeću koristili kao status.

Pogledajte sve ove elemente odjeće. Čovjek ovdje nosi tuniku i preko nje. Ima odjeću koja mu je omotana oko tijela. Ta odjeća bila je od svile, bila je vezena i imala je resice.

Ovdje pogledajte obojenu srednju sliku. Zaista možete steći ideju da se mnogo toga događalo. Što više ukrasa imate, to ste više statusa imali. Slika s desne strane pokazuje nam da se mnogo zlata koristilo u doba Mezopotamije.

Dakle, ovo je bila vrlo blistava odjeća. Odmaknite se od ideje da su ljudi u starom svijetu bili neutralni - nisu. Boja im je bila toliko važna, važnija nego što je nama danas. Svi često hodamo u crnoj, sivoj i neutralnoj boji - to ne bi bilo baš moderno u Mezopotamiji.

Ali tamo gdje su Mezopotamci zaista pokazali svoj stil nalazi se u njihovom nakitu, njihovom radu sa zlatom i njihovom radu s broncom. Pogledajte ove pokrivala za glavu i krune. Očigledno, ako ste žena pekara, niste nosili jedno od ovih. Ovo je bilo za kraljevsku porodicu, ovo je bilo za svećenice. Ali pogledajte detalje - cvijeće. Cvijeće je bilo tako važan motiv u mezopotamskoj, asirskoj i babilonskoj modi. Pogledajte i ove nevjerojatne naušnice, ogrlice i prstenje. Apsolutno prekrasno zlato, bronca, kamen, perle - ovo su drevne stvari.

Da biste preživjeli na planeti kao ljudsko biće, ne morate nositi zlatnu krunu s lišćem i cvijećem koje izvire iz nje. Nije potrebno. Dakle, ti su se komadi i mezopotamska moda općenito koristili za označavanje nečeg drugog-statusa, duhovnosti, novca ili samo dobrog staromodnog stila.

Kosa i ljepota

Pogledajmo kosu i ljepotu. Pa, toliko mezopotamskih skulptura prikazuje momke s dugom nabranom bradom i odgovarajućom dugom kosom. Znamo apsolutno da su ove brade često bile umjetno uvijene i da su svakako tretirane uljima. Brada je bila važna Mezopotamcima. Kad pogledamo kroz drevni svijet, otkrit ćemo da brada označava mudrost. Dakle, kad god vidite bradu na drevnoj skulpturi ili drevnoj slici, ovaj je tip bio mudar - bio je stariji, bio je mudriji, imao je status.

Dakle, znamo da su brade bile važne, ali i obrijane glave. Pogledajte ovog tipa - nema bradu, ima obrijanu glavu. A ovakvih kipova ima mnogo. Očigledno, da biste obrijali glavu i bili glatko obrijani, morali ste imati i status. Možda je ova frizura bila tipična za svećenike.

Ženska kosa je zasigurno bila nakostriješena. Čini se da mezopotamske dame nose ovu vrstu bulbous updos. Viđamo to tako često da je ovo zaista bila frizura Plodnog polumjeseca.

Šta je sa šminkom? Znamo da su nosili šminku i sigurni smo da je to bilo izuzetno egzotično, jer pogledajte njihovu odjeću, pogledajte njihov nakit - bilo je toliko egzotično, bilo je toliko blještavo da je vjerovatno bila i njihova šminka. A pouzdano znamo da su nosili šminku jer je mnogo toga ostalo netaknuto, poput ove ljuske pune šminke za oči: pigment u prahu u ovoj divnoj plavoj boji (koja je morala biti još više plava 4 ili 5 hiljada godina prije) koristiti kao sjenilo. A znamo da je to išlo na oči jer mnoge skulpture koje su ostale imaju odvojive oči i svaka je obložena ajlajnerom.

Vreme oduzima istoriju boja

Razmisli o tome. Sve što je ostalo od antičkog svijeta izgubilo je boju. Sve je boje pješčenjaka, ili bijelog mramora ili granita. Sve je neutralno ili bijelo.

Kad dobijemo ovu statuu iz doba Mezopotamije i pogledamo njenu frizuru - ona je pomalo poput princeze Leie iz Ratova zvijezda, zar ne? Sa ove dvije vrste lepinja s obje strane ušiju. Kad dobijemo ovakvu statuu, lako je zaboraviti da njena odjeća ne bi izgledala ovako prije 5000 godina.

Znamo da je Mesopotamija bila živa u boji. Mora da je gorjela od boje jer je egzotična boja bila toliko važna Mezopotamcima, Asircima, Babiloncima, cijeloj kulturi Sumera. Imali su nevjerovatne zlatne kape, naušnice i ogrlice. I znamo da su nosili mnogo šminke. Bio je to egzotičan izgled. Dakle, kada gledate dosadnu antičku skulpturu, sjetite se da je ona tada bila svijetla, šarena i privlačna.

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Mezopotamski nakit

Mezopotamski nakit pruža nam uvid u drevne kulture. Možda se pitate koliko je regija danas relevantna, i to biste trebali znati Mezopotamci su odgovorni za mnoge inovacije koje su ostavile traga u svim narednim decenijama koje dolaze.

Konkretno, vrhunski nakit pružio nam je opsežno znanje o njihovom društvu, kulturi i načinu života. Pronađeni i sačuvani nakit nose dio mezopotamskog naslijeđa.

Mezopotamija, što na grčkom znači "između rijeka", obuhvaća veliku površinu zemlje koja se trenutno sastoji od Iraka i istočne Sirije, a kada pogledamo nakit, zaprepašteni smo uglavnom doprinosom Sumera, sa starinom više od 4 hiljade godina.

Mesopotamija se ponekad naziva i rodnom mestu civilizacije. Napredak njihove civilizacije na polju tehnologije, nauke, religije i umetnosti označio je period u istoriji prelaska iz praistorijskog doba u moderno doba.

Možda bi to moglo biti iznenađenje, ali u tim vremenima žene, muškarci i djeca nosili su nakit. Svaki član društva, unatoč klasi i rasi, nosio je na sebi neki oblik ukrasnog predmeta ili amajliju. Za razliku od nekih drugih drevnih civilizacija, nakit nije bio isključivo kraljevski. Nakit je ugrađen u njihov način života.

Prepoznatljiv stil i ukus

Zanat izrade nakita usavršen je po najvišim standardima. Budući da kovači nisu imali sredstava za posjedovanje vlastitih objekata i uvoz vlastitog materijala, radili su za cehove koje kontroliše vlada. Materijali koji su im dostavili odveli su ih do revolucionarnih inovacija u srebrnarskim tehnikama.

Kako je njihovo društvo napredovalo, tako je rasla i potreba da se članovi izražavaju, svoj status i moć, to je učinjeno kroz njihovu odjeću kao i nakit. No, dobro su se pobrinuli za svoj dizajn održavajući ravnotežu između estetskog i vjerskog simbolika svakog djela.

Mezopotamski nakit sadržavao je mnogo različitih materijala, uključujući zlato, bakar, srebro i još veći izbor dragog kamenja. Naj simboličnije i najcjenjenije ogrlice bile su one izrađene od više niti koje su uključivale kamenje poput karneolina, žada i lapis lazulija.

Lapis lazuli bio je jedan od najcjenjenijih materijala, čak i iznad zlata. U vrijeme i na mjestu gdje su resursi bili ograničeni, sve sirovine su se uvozile i širile u druge regije kao gotovi komadi nakita. Nije ni čudo što se ekonomija tako brzo širila, da su srebrnari ovog kraja bili majstori umjetnosti.

Muškarci su nosili narukvice, naušnice, ogrlice, trake za glavu i druge ukrase u zlatu.

Žene su bile prekrivene cvjetnim ukrasima od zlatnog lišća, grozdovima i spiralama, naušnicama, ogrlicama, kaiševima i narukvicama. Zaista su imali obuhvaćene sve kategorije i više.

Nije ni čudo zašto je nakit u to vrijeme dominirao trgovinom i trgovačkom mrežom. Kako su gradovi rasli, tako je i potražnja za luksuznom robom stvarala veliku trgovačku mrežu i cijelo trgovačko preduzeće posvećeno nakitu.

Filigran je bio jedna od najraširenijih tehnika u mezopotamskom nakitu, koji se sastoji od zavarivanja uvijenih niti različitih debljina na podlozi lima, na taj način je u draguljima postignut efekt sjena i boja, baš kao što su i oni vježbali tehnika “otvorene fuzije ”, koji se sastojao od punjenja šupljine od kamena rastopljenim metalom. Nakon što se metal ohladio, prilagodio se prethodno utvrđenoj matrici. Na ovaj način su napravljeni poznati zlatari od etrurskog zlata.

Grobnice Ura

Budući da je nakit bio znak klase, grobnice kraljevske obitelji bile su prepune drevnih mezopotamskih nakita. Iskopani i očuvani koliko smo mogli, ljepota nakita može se vidjeti na izložbi danas.

Grobnice pronađene u gradu Uru sadržavale su neke od najznačajnijih predmeta u proučavanju mezopotamskog nakita. Gledajući ove jedinstvene predmete, sigurno ste primijetili temeljne motive. U srcu njihove inspiracije su lišće, grančice, grožđe, spiralni predmeti i drugi oblici i elementi prirode.

In Nammu pronaći ćete jedinstvene komade inspirisane mezopotamskim nakitom. Kao što sam već spomenuo, Lapis Lazuli je bio cijenjen iznad zlata u Mezopotamiji. Hipnotički kamen postao je amblem u svjetlu svoje historijske prošlosti.


Sadržaj

Pirsing uha jedan je od najstarijih poznatih oblika tjelesnih izmjena, s umjetničkim i pisanim referencama iz kultura širom svijeta koje datiraju iz rane povijesti. Zlatne naušnice, zajedno s drugim nakitom od zlata, lapis lazulija i karneola nađene su na drevnim lokalitetima u Lothalu u Indiji [3] i sumerskom kraljevskom groblju u Uru iz ranog dinastičkog razdoblja. [4] [5] [6] Zlatne, srebrne i bronzane minđuše bile su rasprostranjene u minojskoj civilizaciji (2000–1600 pne), a primjeri se mogu vidjeti na freskama na egejskom ostrvu Santorini u Grčkoj. Tokom kasnog minojskog i ranog mikenskog perioda grčkog bronzanog doba naušnice sa obručima sa stožastim privescima bile su u modi. [7] Rani dokazi o naušnicama koje su nosili muškarci mogu se vidjeti u arheološkim dokazima iz Persepolisa u drevnoj Perziji. Izrezane slike vojnika Perzijskog carstva, izložene na nekim od preživjelih zidova palače, prikazuju ih kako nose naušnice.

Howard Carter u svom opisu Tutankamonove grobnice piše da su faraonove ušne školjke bile perforirane, ali da se unutar omota nisu nalazile naušnice, iako je u grobnici bilo i njih. Uši maske za ukop također su perforirane, ali su rupe prekrivene zlatnim diskovima. To znači da su tada naušnice u Egiptu nosila samo djeca, slično kao u Egiptu iz Carterovih vremena. [8]

Drugi rani dokazi o nošenju naušnica evidentni su u biblijskom zapisu. U Izlasku 32: 1–4 piše da su, dok je Mojsije bio gore na Sinajskoj gori, Izraelci zahtijevali od Arona da im napravi boga. Zapisano je da im je naredio da mu donesu naušnice svojih sinova i kćeri (i druge komade nakita) kako bi udovoljio njihovom zahtjevu (oko 1500. godine prije nove ere). Do klasičnog razdoblja, uključujući i Bliski istok, općenito se smatralo da su isključivo ženski ukrasi. I u Grčkoj i u Rimu naušnice su nosile uglavnom žene, a za nošenje muškaraca često se govorilo o izrazito orijentalnoj. [9]

Praksa nošenja naušnica bila je tradicija za Ainu muškarce i žene, [10] ali je vlada Meiji Japana zabranila Ainu muškarcima da nose naušnice krajem 19. stoljeća. [11] Naušnice su takođe bile uobičajene među nomadskim turskim plemenima. Raskošni ukrasi za uši ostali su popularni u Indiji od davnina do danas.

U zapadnoj Evropi naušnice su postale moderne među engleskim dvorjanima i gospodom 1590 -ih godina tokom engleske renesanse. Dokument koji je 1577. objavio svećenik William Harrison, Opis Engleske, navodi: "Neki slatki dvorjani i odvažna gospoda nose u ušima ili zlatne prstenove, kamenje ili bisere." [ potreban citat ] Među mornarima, probušena ušna resica bila je simbol da je nosilac oplovio svijet ili prešao ekvator. [12]

Do kasnih 1950-ih ili ranih 1960-ih, praksa se ponovo pojavila u zapadnom svijetu. Poznato je da se tinejdžerke drže zabave za piercing ušiju, gdje su jedan na drugom izvršili postupak. Do sredine 1960-ih neki su liječnici ponudili pirsing ušiju kao uslugu. [ potreban citat ] Istovremeno, zlatarnice na Manhattanu bile su neke od najranijih komercijalnih, nemedicinskih lokacija za piercing ušiju. [ potreban citat ]

Kasnih 1960 -ih, piercing je počeo prodirati među muškarce kroz hipijevske i homoseksualne zajednice, iako su bili popularni među mornarima decenijama (ili duže). [14] Tradicionalno, pirsing na desnoj strani identificirao je muškarca kao homoseksualca kao dio LGBT "kulture i koda" kako bi se tajno identificirao sa zajednicom. [15] Lijeva strana je općenito prihvaćena kao heteroseksualna ili ravna, dok dvostruki pirsing ne ukazuje na seksualnu sklonost, iako neki vjeruju da ukazuje na biseksualne sklonosti. Posljednjih godina došlo je do izazova ovih normi, iako standardni pogled ostaje. [ potreban citat ]

Do ranih 1970 -ih, piercing je bio uobičajen među ženama, stvarajući tako šire tržište za ovu proceduru. Robne kuće širom zemlje održavale bi događaje za piercing ušiju, koje sponzoriraju proizvođači naušnica. U tim slučajevima, medicinska sestra ili druga obučena osoba izvodila bi postupak, gurajući izoštrenu i steriliziranu starter naušnica ručno kroz ušnu resicu ili pomoću instrumenta za bušenje ušiju modificiranog prema dizajnu koji koriste liječnici. [ potreban citat ]

Krajem 1970 -ih, amaterski pirsing, ponekad sa sigurnosnim iglama ili višestrukim pirsingom, postao je popularan u punk rock zajednici. Do 1980 -ih, trend muških izvođača popularne muzike da imaju probušene uši pomogao je uspostaviti modni trend za muškarce. Ovo su kasnije usvojili mnogi profesionalni sportisti. Britanci su počeli probijati oba uha 1980 -ih George Michael iz Whama! bio istaknuti primjer. Tokom whama! Često je nosio male zlatne naušnice. Kada je potom postao solo umjetnik sa svojim legendarnim debi albumom "Faith", nosio je križanu naušnicu na lijevom uhu. Za sada je općenito prihvatljivo da dječaci tinejdžeri i tinejdžeri imaju probušena oba uha jednostavno kao modni iskaz.

Višestruki pirsing na jednom ili oba uha prvi put se pojavio u mainstream Americi 1970 -ih. U početku je trend bio da žene nose drugi set naušnica u ušnim školjkama, ili da muškarci dvostruko probuše jednu ušnu resicu. Asimetrični stilovi sa sve više piercinga postali su popularni, što je na kraju dovelo do trenda probijanja hrskavice. Dvostruki piercing ušiju kod novorođenčadi fenomen je u Centralnoj Americi, posebno u Kostariki.

Različiti specijalizirani piercingi hrskavice postali su popularni. To uključuje tragus piercing, antitragus piercing, piercing tock, industrial piercing, helix piercing, orbital piercing, daith piercing i conch piercing. Osim toga, istezanje ušnih resica, iako je uobičajeno u autohtonim kulturama tisućama godina, počelo se pojavljivati ​​u zapadnom društvu devedesetih godina, a sada je prilično uobičajen prizor. Međutim, ovi oblici pirsinga ušiju još su rijetki u usporedbi sa standardnim pirsingom ušiju.

Religious Edit

Prema hinduističkoj dharmičkoj tradiciji, većini djevojčica i nekim dječacima (posebno "dvaput rođenima") probuše se uši u sklopu dharmičkog obreda poznatog kao Karnavedha prije nego što navrše pet godina. Dojenčadi se mogu probušiti uši već nekoliko dana nakon rođenja.

Slični običaji prakticiraju se u drugim azijskim zemljama, uključujući Nepal, Šri Lanku i Laos, iako tradicionalno većina muškaraca čeka da im probuši uši sve dok ne navrše odraslu dob.

Pirsing u ušima spominje se u Bibliji u nekoliko konteksta. Najpoznatiji se odnosi na hebrejskog roba koji je trebao biti oslobođen u sedmoj godini ropstva, ali želi nastaviti služiti svog gospodara i odbija otići na slobodu: "... njegov će ga gospodar odvesti pred Boga. Dovest će ga do vrata ili dovratnik, a njegov će mu gospodar šilom probiti uho i tada će ostati njegov rob doživotno “(Izlazak 21: 6).

Moderne standardne probušene naušnice Edit

Statement naušnice Edit

Statement naušnice se mogu definirati kao "naušnice koje privlače pažnju drugih demonstrirajući odvažan, originalan i jedinstven dizajn s inovativnom kombinacijom konstrukcije i materijala". Uključuju jednu ili više od sljedećih značajki dizajna:

Etikete/minimalne naušnice Edit

Glavna karakteristika naušnica je pojava plutanja na uhu ili ušnoj resici bez vidljive (s prednje strane) točke povezivanja. Klinovi su uvijek izgrađeni na kraju stuba koji prodire ravno kroz uho ili ušnu resicu. Stub se drži na mjestu pomoću uklonjivog trenja na leđima ili kvačilo (poznat i kao svitak leptira). Naušnica s klinom ima dragi kamen ili drugi ukras postavljen na uski stup koji prolazi kroz probadanje u uhu ili ušnoj resici, a pričvršćen je učvršćenjem s druge strane. Etikete obično dolaze u obliku dijamanata pasijansa. Neke naušnice izrađene su tako da su stupovi s navojem, što omogućava: zavrnuti nazad za sigurno držanje naušnice, što je korisno u sprječavanju gubitka skupih naušnica koje sadrže drago kamenje ili izrađenih od plemenitih metala.

Hoop naušnice Edit

Naušnice s obručem su kružnog ili polukružnog dizajna i vrlo su slične prstenu. Naušnice s obručem općenito dolaze u obliku metalnog obruča koji se može otvoriti kako bi prošao kroz piercing. Često su izrađene od metalnih cijevi, s tankim žičanim nastavkom koji prodire u uho. Šuplja cijev trajno je pričvršćena za žicu na prednjoj strani uha, a klizi u cijev straga. Cijeli uređaj drži zajedno napetošću između žice i cijevi. Drugi dizajn obruča ne upotpunjuje krug, već prodire kroz uho u stupu, koristeći iste tehnike pričvršćivanja koje se primjenjuju na naušnice s klinovima. Varijacija je kontinuirana minđuša sa obručem. U ovom dizajnu naušnica je izrađena od kontinuiranog komada čvrstog metala, koji prodire kroz uho i može se rotirati gotovo 360 °. Jedan od krajeva trajno je pričvršćen za mali komad metalne cijevi ili šuplju metalnu kuglicu. Drugi kraj umetnut je u cijev ili kuglicu i pričvršćen je zatezanjem. Jedna posebna vrsta naušnica u obliku obruča je naušnica za spavanje, kružna žica obično izrađena od zlata, promjera približno jedan centimetar. Šarke spavači, koji su bili uobičajeni u Velikoj Britaniji 1960-ih i 1970-ih godina, sastoje se od dvije polukružne zlatne žice povezane s malenom šarkom na jednom kraju, a pričvršćene pomoću male kopče na drugom, da tvore kontinuirani obruč čiji je mehanizam za pričvršćivanje zapravo nevidljiv golim okom. Budući da ih male dimenzije čine nenametljivim i udobnim i jer su inače bez ukrasa, spavači nazivaju se zato što su ih namjeravali nositi noću kako bi se spriječilo zatvaranje probušenog uha, a često su bili i izbor za prvi set naušnica neposredno nakon probijanja uha u desetljećima prije nego što su pištolji za bušenje ušiju postali uobičajeni, ali su često sami po sebi modni izbor zbog atraktivne jednostavnosti i zato što suptilno skreću pažnju na činjenicu da je uho izbušeno.

Naušnica se pričvršćuje na ušnu resicu i sadrži dragi kamen ili ukras koji visi s lanca, obruča ili sličnog predmeta. Dužina ovih ukrasa varira od vrlo kratkih do ekstravagantno dugih. Takve su naušnice povremeno poznate kao kapljice, viseće naušnice ili naušnice. Uključuju i naušnice od lustera, koje se granaju u složene višeslojne privjeske.

Objesite naušnice Edit

Viseće naušnice (poznate i kao kapusne naušnice) dizajnirane su da se okače na dno ušnih resica. Njihove dužine variraju od centimetra do dva, pa sve do četkanja ramena korisnika. Probušena viseća naušnica općenito je pričvršćena na uho tankom žicom koja prolazi kroz ušnu resicu. Može se povezati sa sobom pomoću male kukice straga ili u Francuska udica dizajn, žica prolazi kroz probušenje ušne školjke bez zatvaranja, iako se na krajevima ponekad koriste mali plastični ili silikonski držači. Rijetko viseće naušnice koriste dizajn pričvršćivanja. Postoje i varijante koje se pričvršćuju bez probijanja.

Naušnice sa šipkom Edit

Naušnice sa utegima dobile su ime po sličnosti sa šipkom, općenito dolaze u obliku metalne šipke sa kuglom na oba kraja. Jedna od ovih kugli je pričvršćena na mjesto, dok se druga može odvojiti kako bi se omogućilo umetanje šipke u piercing. Postoji nekoliko varijacija ovog osnovnog dizajna, uključujući šipke s krivinama ili uglovima u šipci naušnice.

Huggy naušnice Edit

Uobičajeno je da je kamenje postavljeno u zagrljene naušnice.

Ušni konac Uređivanje

Ili čitač zemlje, žica za uši, konac, lanac koji je dovoljno tanak da sklizne u otvor za uho i izađe, visi. Ponekad ljudi dodaju perlice ili druge materijale na lanac, pa lanac visi s perlicama ispod uha.

Jhumka naušnice Edit

Vrsta tradicionalnih naušnica u obliku zvona koje uglavnom nose žene indijskog potkontinenta.

Nakit za pirsing na tijelu koji se koristi kao naušnice Edit

Nakit za pirsing na tijelu često se koristi za bušenje ušiju, a odabire se iz različitih razloga, uključujući dostupnost većih mjerača, bolje tehnike piercinga i prezir prema uobičajenom nakitu.

    - Zarobljeni prstenovi od perlica, često skraćeni kao CBR i ponekad se zovu prstenovi za zatvaranje kuglica, su stil nakita za pirsing na tijelu koji je prsten od gotovo 360 ° s malim razmakom za umetanje kroz uho. Jaz je zatvoren malom kuglicom koja je pričvršćena zatezanjem prstena. Prstenovi za zatvaranje kuglica većih dimenzija pokazuju značajnu napetost i mogu zahtijevati kliješta za proširenje prstena za umetanje i uklanjanje zrna. - Mreže se sastoje od tanke, ravne metalne šipke s perlicama koje su trajno pričvršćene na jednom kraju. Drugi kraj ima navoj, vanjski ili s unutarnjim navojem, a druga perlica je pričvršćena na mjesto nakon što se šipka provuče kroz uho. Budući da niti na mrežicama s vanjskim navojem imaju tendenciju iritirati probijanje, unutarnji niti postali su najčešća sorta. Druga varijacija su mrene bez navoja ili nakit s prešanjem, sa šupljim stupom, fiksnim stražnjim diskom i prednjim dijelom koji je pričvršćen s blago savijenom iglom koja je umetnuta u stub. [16]-Kružne mrene slične su prstenovima za zatvaranje kuglica, samo što imaju veći razmak i imaju trajno pričvršćenu perlicu na jednom kraju, a perle s navojem na drugom, poput mrena. To omogućuje mnogo lakše umetanje i uklanjanje nego sa prstenovima za zatvaranje kuglica, ali uz gubitak stalnog izgleda. - Čepići za uši su kratki cilindrični komadi nakita. Neki čepovi imaju proširene krajeve kako bi ih držali na mjestu, drugima su potrebni mali elastični gumeni prstenovi (O-prstenovi) kako ne bi ispali. Obično se koriste u pirsingima velikih širina. - Mesni tuneli, poznati i kao rupice ili rupe od metaka, slični su čepovima, ali su šuplji u sredini. Mesni tuneli najčešće se koriste u piercingima većih kolosijeka bilo zato što težina brine korisnika ili iz estetskih razloga.

Istezanje ušiju bez nakita

Mjerači i drugi mjerni sistemi Edit

Za objašnjenje kako se označavaju veličine naušnica pogledajte članak Veličine nakita za tijelo.

Klipne i druge neprobušene naušnice Edit

Postoji nekoliko vrsta naušnica bez bušenja.

  • Naušnice sa kopčom-Naušnice sa kopčom postoje duže od bilo koje druge vrste naušnica bez bušenja. Sama kopča je dvodijelni dio pričvršćen na stražnju stranu naušnice. Dva komada su se zatvorila oko ušne školjke, mehaničkim pritiskom držala naušnicu na mjestu.
  • Magnetske naušnice - Magnetne naušnice simuliraju izgled (izbušene) naušnice s klinom pričvršćivanjem na ušnu resicu s magnetskom stražnjom stranom koja magnetsku silu drži naušnicu na mjestu.
  • Stick-on naušnice-Stick-min naušnice su predmeti s ljepljivom podlogom koje se lijepe za kožu ušne resice i simuliraju izgled (probušene) naušnice s klinom. Smatraju se novitetom.
  • Opružne naušnice - Opružne obruče se gotovo ne razlikuju od standardnih naušnica s obručem i ostaju na mjestu pomoću sile opruge.
    • Alternativa koja se često koristi je savijanje žice ili čak samo korištenje prstenastog dijela CBR -a za stavljanje ušne resice, koja ostaje uključena štipanjem uha

    Trajne naušnice Edit

    Tamo gdje je većina naušnica koje se nose u zapadnom svijetu dizajnirane tako da se lako skidaju i mijenjaju po volji, naušnice mogu biti i trajne (koje se ne mogu ukloniti). Nekada su se koristili kao oznaka ropstva ili vlasništva (npr. Vidi Izl 21: 2–6, Ponovljeni zakonik 15: 16–17). Danas se pojavljuju u obliku većih prstenova koje je teško ili nemoguće ukloniti bez pomoći. Povremeno se naušnice s obručem trajno ugrađuju pomoću lemljenja [17], iako to predstavlja određene rizike zbog toksičnosti metala koji se koriste pri lemljenju i opasnosti od opeklina zbog vrućine. Osim stalnih instalacija, naušnice na zaključavanje se povremeno nose zbog njihove lične simbolike ili erotske vrijednosti.

    Izbušene uši su ušne resice ili dio hrskavice vanjskog uha u kojem je napravljena jedna ili više rupa za nošenje naušnica. Rupe mogu biti trajne ili privremene. Rupe postaju trajne kada se fistula stvara ožiljnim tkivom koje se stvara oko početne naušnice.

    Tehnike probijanja Edit

    Za probijanje ušiju koriste se razne tehnike, od metoda "uradi sam" korištenjem kućanskih potrepština do medicinski sterilnih metoda pomoću posebne opreme.

    Dugotrajna kućna metoda uključuje upotrebu leda kao lokalnog anestetika, šivaću iglu kao instrument za probijanje, šibicu za pečenje i alkohol za dezinfekciju i polumeki predmet, poput krompira, plute, sapuna ili gume gumica, kao tačka pritiska. Konac za šivanje može se provući kroz piercing i vezati, kao uređaj za držanje otvorenog piercinga tokom procesa zarastanja. Alternativno, zlatni klin ili žičana naušnica mogu se direktno umetnuti u svježi piercing kao početni uređaj za zadržavanje. Kućne metode često su nesigurne i rizične zbog problema s nepravilnom sterilizacijom ili postavljanjem.

    Druga metoda za probijanje ušiju, koja je prvi put postala popularna 1960-ih, bila je upotreba naoštrenih naušnica s oprugom poznatih kao samoubodni, treneri, ili spavači, koji je postupno probijao ušnu resicu. Međutim, oni bi mogli skliznuti s početnog položaja postavljanja, što je često rezultiralo većom nelagodom, a mnogo puta ne bi prošli do kraja kroz ušnu resicu bez dodatnog pritiska. Ova metoda je postala neupotrebljiva zbog popularnosti bržih i uspješnijih tehnika piercinga.

    Instrumenti za probijanje ušiju, koji se ponekad nazivaju pištolji za bušenje ušiju, prvobitno su razvijene za ljekarsku upotrebu, ali su s izmjenama postale dostupne u maloprodajnim postavkama. [18] Danas sve više ljudi u zapadnom svijetu ima izbušene uši instrumentom za probijanje ušiju u specijaliziranim prodavaonicama nakita ili dodatne opreme, ili kod kuće koristeći jednokratne instrumente za bušenje ušiju. Pirsing ušne resice izveden instrumentom za bušenje uha često se opisuje kao osjećaj sličan stezanju ili pucanju gumicom. Piercing with this method, especially for cartilage piercings, is not recommended by many piercing professionals and physicians, as it can cause blunt force trauma to the skin, and takes far longer to heal than needle piercing. In addition, the vast majority of ear piercing instruments are made of plastic, which means they can never be truly sterilized by use of an Autoclave, increasing chance of infection exponentially. In the case of cartilage piercing, doing it with an ear piercing instrument can shatter the ear cartilage and lead to serious complications.

    An alternative which is growing in practice is the use of a hollow piercing needle, as is done in body piercing. The piercer disinfects the earlobe with alcohol and puts a mark on the lobe with a pen. It gives the opportunity to the client to check whether the position is correct or not. Then, the piercer uses a clamp with flat ends and holes at the end to hold the earlobe, with the dot in the middle of the holes. This device will support the skin during the piercing process. A cork can be placed behind the earlobe to stop the movement of the needle after the piercing process, and protect the tip of the needle for the client's comfort. Then, the piercer places the hollow needle perpendicular to the skin's surface and check the position of the needle, to pierce at the desired place and the right angle. The piercing process consists of pushing the needle through the earlobe, until it gets out in the other side. The client has to remain still during all the process. Then, the clamp can be put off. After that, the piercer puts the jewel in the hollow needle and pushes the needle through until the jewel enters into the lobe. Then, the needle is removed and disposed properly. The jewel is attached to the lobe and the piercer disinfects the lobe again.

    In tribal cultures and among some neo-primitive body piercing enthusiasts, the piercing is made using other tools, such as animal or plant organics.

    Initial healing time for an earlobe piercing performed with an ear piercing instrument is typically six to eight weeks. After that time, earrings can be changed, but if the hole is left unfilled for an extended period of time, there is some risk of the piercing closing. Piercing professionals recommend wearing earrings in the newly pierced ears for at least six months, and sometimes even a full year. Cartilage piercing will usually require more healing time than earlobe piercing, sometimes two to three times as long. After healing, earlobe piercings will shrink to smaller gauges in the prolonged absence of earrings, and in most cases will completely disappear.

    Health risks Edit

    The health risks with conventional earlobe piercing are common but tend to be minor, particularly if proper technique and hygienic procedures are followed. One study found that up to 35 percent of persons with pierced ears had one or more complications, including minor infection (77 percent of pierced ear sites with complications), allergic reaction (43 percent), keloids (2.5 percent), and traumatic tearing (2.5 percent). [19] Pierced ears are a significant risk factor for contact allergies to the nickel in jewelry. [20] Earlobe tearing, during the healing period or after healing is complete, can be minimized by not wearing earrings, especially wire-based dangle earrings, during activities in which they are likely to become snagged, such as while playing sports. Also, larger gauge jewellery will lessen the chance of the earring being torn out. [ citation needed ]

    With cartilage piercing, the blunt force of an ear piercing instrument will traumatize the cartilage, and therefore make healing more difficult. Also, because there is substantially less blood flow in ear cartilage than in the earlobe, infection is a much more serious issue. There have been several documented cases of severe infections of the upper ear following piercing with an ear piercing instrument, which required courses of antibiotics to clear up. There are many ways that an infection can occur: the most common way is when the person that got pierced decides to take out the piercing too early. According to the A.M.A, [21] [ neuspješna verifikacija ] the proper waiting period to change or take out a piercing with substantially less risk of infection would be three weeks.

    For all ear piercings, the use of a sterilized hollow piercing needle tends to minimize the trauma to the tissue and minimize the chances of contracting a bacterial infection during the procedure. As with any invasive procedure, there is always a risk of infection from blood borne pathogens such as hepatitis and HIV. However, modern piercing techniques make this risk extremely small (the risk being greater to the piercer than to the pierced due to the potential splash-back of blood). There has never been a documented case of HIV transmission due to ear/body piercing or tattooing, although there have been instances of the Hepatitis B virus being transmitted through these practices. [22]

    Negative effects of wearing earrings in light of research

    The most frequent complications connected with wearing earrings are: [23]

    Researchers observed a correlation between the piercing of young girls' earlobes and subsequent development of allergies. [24] [25] [26]

    In Professor Ewa Czarnobilska's view (the manager of research team) the main reason of allergy (listed by allergists) is presence of nickel as a component of alloys used in the production of earrings – however the ingredients declared by producer is not significant, because nickel is a standard component of jewellery. [25] [26]

    Symptoms of allergy are visible as eczema. This symptom is often justified to be food allergy (e.g. to milk), meanwhile the reason is contact with the earring (precisely Ni ions) with the lymphatic system. [25] [26] Ceasing of wearing earrings by children doesn't result in vanishing allergy symptoms. Immune system remembers the presence of Ni ions that existed in someone's blood and lymph. Even though the children ceased wearing earrings, it can appear as an allergic reaction to: [25] [26]

    • metal parts of wardrobe
    • meals cooked in pots with addition of nickel
    • margarine (nickel is a catalyst in hydrogenation of unsaturated fats)
    • coins
    • chocolate
    • nuts
    • leguminous vegetables
    • wine
    • pivo

    Research studying a sample of 428 pupils, age seven and eight, and sixteen and seventeen noticed that: [25] [26]


    A Brief History of Earrings

    As an earring of gold, and an ornament of fine gold, so is a wise reprover upon an obedient ear.

    A Reconstruction of Ötzi the Iceman Based on Artifacts Found with the Body

    The history of earrings is an interesting one because they have been worn by both genders for millennia. The discovery of a 5,000-year old body in the Italian Alps has shown us that men wore earrings as early as the Bronze Age. Ötzi the Iceman, as Europe’s oldest mummy is now known, had a 7–11 mm diameter borehole in his earlobe.

    A Canoptic Coffinette from the Tomb of Tutankhamun

    Gilt objects from the tomb of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun (1341–1323 BC), including his death mask, also have earring boreholes.

    The ascetic and sage Siddhārtha Gautama (c. 563–483 BCE) was born into wealth and power. As a sign of status, he wore heavy earrings which stretched his earlobes. At the time of his enlightenment however, the founder of Buddhism discarded all material possessions, including his jewelry. To celebrate his act of self-sacrifice, images of the Buddha are depicted with distended earlobes.

    Friezes from Persepolis, the capital of the Persian Empire during the Achaemenid dynasty (550–330 BC), show warriors wearing earrings. And in a tradition that spans centuries, the earlobes of male and female babies in India are pierced shortly after they are born.

    A Frieze from Persepolis Depicting a Soldier with an Earring

    The ancients believed that sickness and evil spirits entered the body through its orifices. An individual could be protected if amulets were worn at these entryways, including the ears. Early doctors also believed that earrings—or the gemstones they contained—cured headaches and improved eyesight. Nevertheless, it is clear that the primary goal was to adorn the body.

    Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79) frequently criticized his fellow Romans for their conspicuous consumption. U njegovom Naturalis Historia (Trans. Bostock and Riley, 1855), he complained bitterly of the profligate lifestyles of his compatriots. He disdains women’s newfound taste for pearl earrings:

    Portrait Mosaic from Pompeii of a Woman with Earrings

    “Our ladies quite glory in having these suspended from their fingers, or two or three of them dangling from their ears. For the purpose of ministering to these luxurious tastes, there are various names and wearisome refinements which have been devised by profuseness and prodigality for after inventing these ear-rings, they have given them the name of ‘crotalia,’ or castanet pendants, as though quite delighted even with the rattling of the pearls as they knock against each other and now, at the present day, the poorer classes are even affecting them, as people are in the habit of saying, that ‘a pearl worn by a woman in public, is as good as a lictor walking before her’.”

    Earrings are mentioned in several places in the Bible, but the references are typically unflattering. For example, Hosea 2:13 states: Israel “decked herself with her earrings and jewels, and she went after her lovers, and forgat me, saith the Lord.”

    Ornamental earrings were designed to to be removed easily so that they might be changed at will. However, earrings were also designed to be more permanent fixtures in the ear—and a sign of slavery. According to Exodus 21:2–6:

    “If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him. If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself. And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children I will not go out free: Then his master shall bring him unto the judges he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul and he shall serve him for ever.”

    Mary of Burgundy (1457–1482)

    Earrings remained popular in Eastern jewelry through the ages, but Western tastes proved more variable. Although earrings were never considered unfashionable, at times they were not as popular as other items of jewelry. For example, during the Middle Ages, women wore bejeweled headgear and their hairstyles often covered the ears, so earrings became redundant.

    Detail of a _Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh_

    The popularity of earrings returned in the 16th century. Women wore all manner of earrings, but pearl earrings were especially popular. Men—including Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Francis Drake—also wore gold rings and other ornaments in their ears. Among seafaring men, a pierced earlobe meant a journey around the world or across the equator. Survivors of shipwreck wore an earring in the left earlobe.

    1. Helix, 2. Industrial, 3. Rook, 4. Daith, 5. Tragus, 6. Snug, 7. Conch, 8. Anti-Tragus, 9. Lobe

    In the early 20th century, it was considered improper to pierce the earlobes. Instead of eliminating the use earrings altogether, screw-back earrings were invented. Screw-back and clip-back earrings remained popular with women until piercing came back into style in the 1960s.

    During the 1980s, men once again embraced this ancient fashion. Today it is no longer shocking to see them wearing earrings. Perhaps this explains why piercings have become increasingly elaborate. Needless to say, today’s ear-piercing techniques and equipment are very different from taking an awl and running it through the ear into a door. But in other ways, things have come full circle: borehole sizes once again approximate those sported by Ötzi some 5,000 years ago.


    The history, art and culture of jewelry

    In his influential 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation, American psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed that all people had a strong desire to realize their full potential and were motivated by a number needs, some of which took precedence over others. Maslow’s needs are often represented in pyramid form and classified into five categories: Physiological, Safety, Love and Belonging, Esteem, i Self-Actualization. Maslow added a sixth dimension – Self-Transcendence – to the needs in his later years.

    Ancient Jewelry

    The one – and probably only – entity that meets all six of the human needs is Jewelry. Indeed, jewelry has been used to meet the basic needs of people for hundreds of centuries. A truly universal form of adornment, jewelry predates modern humans. It was used by the Homo Neanderthalensis, the Homo Sapiens, and the Denisova Hominin more than two hundred and fifty thousand, one hundred thousand and forty thousand years ago.

    Eagle talons first recovered, in Krapina, Croatia, by Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger, in 1899, are considered the earliest known Neanderthal ornaments. The were identified them as beads used for stringed jewelry items Professor Davorka Radovčić, in 2006. Dr. Marian Vanhaeren analyzed and identified three shells – two one-hundred-thousand-years-old found in Skhul Cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel, and one seventy-five-thousand-year-old shell discovered in Oued Djebbana, Algeria – as beads, which were a part of the earliest jewelry items used by human beings, in 2013.

    The oldest African beads were made of perforated ostrich eggshells and were found in the Enkapune Ya Muto cave in Kenya. They were dated to as being forty thousand years old and represent some of the earliest known personal ornaments.

    The oldest known stone bracelet was discovered in the Altai region of Siberia, in 2008. It is made of dark green polished chlorite and was crafted by the Denisovians, an extinct species that predates both humans and Neanderthals, in the Paleolithic Period.

    In 1970, archeologists discovered the Varna Necropolis, a burial site dating to 4560-4450 BCE, in the western industrial zone of Varna, Bulgaria. The extremely rich Varna civilization was an amazingly advanced, more ancient than the empires of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and the first known culture to create golden artifacts. More gold was found in the burial sites than in the rest of the world in the nineteen seventies.

    A pair of gold basket-shaped hair ornaments, from the Isin-larsa Period (2004 – 1595 BCE), discovered in the royal cemetery of Ur, Iraq, is amongst the oldest representatives of ancient Mesopotamian jewelry.

    Sixteen Faience (glazed ceramic work) amulets discovered on a mummy in Faiyum, Egypt, believed to be part of a large necklace, are one of the oldest pieces of Egyptian jewelry dated between 500 BCE and 600 BCE.

    Over the centuries, a very large number of materials – animal skin, bone, clay, feathers, fossil, glass, hair, hemp, plants, shell, stone, talons, teeth, and wood – have been used to make jewelry. However, the most popular materials have been metals, beads, enamel, and gemstones. Most jewelry made today employs some, or all, of these four elements.

    The most popular metals used in making jewelry are silver, gold and platinum. Historically, bronze, iron and copper has been used for making jewelry, as well. In recent years, palladium, rhodium and titanium have gained popularity as metals used for jewelry.

    Silver, first mined in Turkey and Greece in 3000 BCE, is shiny, durable and long lasting but soft and susceptible to tarnishing. It is often plated with rhodium to make it resistant to tarnishing. Copper is added to silver to make it stronger, so that it can be used for making jewelry. The alloy, which is 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 percent copper, is known as sterling silver.

    Gold has been used to make jewelry since as far back as 4000 BCE, in Eastern Europe, and 3000 BCE, in Iraq. The metal is associated with divinity, wisdom, perfection, and permanence. Gold does not tarnish and is the easiest metal to use for creating intricate jewelry due to its softness and malleability. The purity of gold is measured in karats, where 24 karat gold represents 100 percent gold. The addition of metals to pure gold affords a great variety of color, strength, purity and cost. Yellow gold is an alloy of gold, silver and copper. White gold is created by combining gold, silver, platinum, nickel, copper and zinc. It is coated with platinum, or rhodium, to improve whiteness and add durability and shine. Rose gold is an alloy of pure gold and a significant proportion of copper. It has a pink-red hue due to the relatively high content of copper. Green gold has a subtle green tint and is made of pure gold and silver. Harder metals, like nickel and zinc, are sometimes added to make green gold more durable.

    The earliest use of Platinum in jewelry was found in Egypt almost three thousand years ago. The famous Casket of Thebes, dating to 700 BCE, is adorned with platinum, along with gold and silver. Platinum is one of the rarest and most expensive precious metals. Its desirability comes from its bright bluish-white color, remarkable luster, resistance to tarnishing, strength, and durability. The metal is hypoallergenic. A jewelry item needs to have a minimum level of purity of 90 percent in order to be classified as platinum. Items of lesser purity are said to be made of platinum alloys.

    Palladium is the newest precious metal. It is lighter, less dense, and cheaper than platinum. More malleable than platinum, it can be used to make very fine, intricate jewelry. The metal is hypoallergenic and does not tarnish. Rhodium is the world’s most expensive precious metal. It has very high reflectance and is used to plate other precious metals to improve appearance, give shine and add luster. Titanium is a relatively new metal in jewelry. It is strong, durable, hypoallergenic, lightweight, and corrosion-resistant. It is difficult to set stones in the very hard metal. Titanium is used primarily for wedding bands.

    Enameling is an ancient decoration technique in which powdered glass is mixed with color pigments and fused to metals. The earliest known enameled jewelry items date to 1300 BCE. Enameled jewelry is very popular and a number of variations of the basic enameling process can be found all over the world. These include champlevé, cloisonné, émail brun, émail de basse-taille, émail de plique à jour, émail en resillé, émail en ronde bosse, guilloché, marquetry, meenakari, peinture sur émail, i pratapgarh.

    The history of beads is more than one hundred and twenty thousand years old. They have been used extensively in jewelry and for religious, financial and trading purposes, in many ancient cultures and civilizations. Beads are made of a variety of materials – clay, gemstones, glass, metal, plastic, polymer clay, resin, seeds, shells, wood, and many others – and are used in jewelry, all over the world. They are particularly popular with artisans, hobbyists, and amateur jewelers.

    Gemstones have long fascinated humans across cultures and the ages. They are pieces of mineral crystal, certain rocks, and some organic materials, which, after mining, cutting and polishing, are used in jewelry items, all over the world.

    A total of a little more than two hundred varieties of natural gemstones are known but about thirty are used in jewelry, on a regular basis. Gemstones can broadly be divided into two categories: precious and semi-precious stones. Diamonds, emerald, rubies, and sapphires fall in the category of precious stones because of their rarity, purity of color, translucency, desirability, and hardness. All other gemstones are considered semi-precious. Agate, amber, amethyst, aquamarine, citrine, coral, garnet, jade, lapis lazuli, malachite, onyx, opal, pearl, peridot, quartz, spinel, topaz, tourmaline, and turquoise are amongst the most popular semi-precious gemstones.

    Cut and shape

    The brilliance, color and luster of a gemstone is heavily influenced by its cut. The craft of cutting and polishing gemstones, for use in jewelry, is known as lapidary. They are three general styles of cutting gemstones: faceted, en cabochon i mixed-cut. Faceted gemstones have multiple geometric flat surfaces, known as facets, designed to increase the brilliance of a stone by reflecting incident light. The faceted cut is mostly applied to transparent and translucent gemstones. Cabochon gemstones have flat bottoms and rounded, convex tops.

    They do not have any facets. Generally, opaque stones are cut as cabochons. Mixed-cut gemstones, also known as buff-top, incorporate elements of both faceted and en cabochon cuts. The top is rounded whereas the bottom is faceted. The cut allows greater brilliance than the en cabochon cut and gives an illusion of depth to gemstones. Gemstones are cut – faceted, cabochon or mixed – in a variety of shapes. The most popular shapes include asscher, baguette, briolette, cushion, emerald, heart, marquise, octagon, oval, pear, princess, radiant, round, i trillion.

    Gem lore – religion , belief and superstition

    Gem lore is full of stories about the magical, spiritual, protective, and healing effects of gemstones. Gemstones have featured prominently in religion as well.

    Each one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, which, according to the Hebrew Bible, descended from the twelve sons of the patriarch Jacob, had an association with a specific gemstone. In Christianity, twelve gemstones represented the Twelve Apostles, the primary disciples of Jesus.

    The prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) wore a silver ring that held his seal. The seal read, Muhammad Rasool Allah (Muhammad, the prophet of Allah). The ring was lost during the caliphate of Hazrat Usman (رضي الله عنه) when it fell down the well of Aris and could not be recovered. An inexact replica of the ring was made and is a part of the collection of the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey. The prophet wore a second silver ring, set with an Abyssinian stone, on his little finger with the stone facing his palm. The Abyssinian stone has been variously identified as a carnelian, chrysolite and onyx.

    Hazrat Ali Ibne Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه), the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), wore four gem set rings. The gemstone in each one of the rings had a specific purpose. The agate was for protection and anger management, the hematite for protection against mischief, the ruby for beauty, nobility and dignity, and the turquoise for divine help, prosperity and victory.

    The Garuda Purana, one of the eight most important Hindu scriptures, includes a detailed discussion of gemology. Jyotish, the ancient Vedic astrological system, relates gemstones to various planets and explains their used in producing balancing effects to counter specific diseases, calamities and hardships. Jyotish therapeutic measures employee gemstones extensively to heal spiritual, mental and physical ailments.

    Fifteen classifications of jewelry

    A study of the history of jewelry results in fifteen classifications based on age, geography, aesthetics, and style. These include jewelry items produced in prehistoric times, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance period, and the Victorian era along with those produced in China, Egypt, Greece, India, Mesopotamia and Assyria, and the Roman Empire. They also include Native American jewelry and that made in the Art Nouveau (1890 – 1910) and Art Deco (1908 – 1935) styles. The fifteenth classification is avant-garde jewelry. It often combines traditional and modern styles. This class of jewelry is the work of modern jewelers and a result of ingenuity, innovation and experimentation.

    Development of early jewelry

    The development of early jewelry can be roughly divided across four ancient civilizations – China, Egypt, India and Mesopotamia.

    China is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It started producing jewelry in the Neolithic period, during the rise of the Yangshao (5000 BCE – 3000 BCE) and Longshan (3000 BCE – 1900 BCE) cultures. The Chinese preferred to use gold and silver as metals, and jade as a gemstone in their jewelry designs. China has produced large amounts of jewelry, in a variety of styles and using a number of techniques, in its history, and greatly influenced the style of a number of Asian countries. The five-thousand-year-long history of Chinese jewelry is known for seven major jewelry-making techniques: cloisonné, engraving, filigree inlaying, jade carving, kingfisher feather ornamentation, precious metal threading, i silver enamel.

    The ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia are credited with starting the organized production of jewelry. Egypt became the leading force of jewelry manufacture due to its advanced knowledge of metallurgy, access to precious metals and gemstones, development of innovative jewelry-making techniques, glass-manufacturing prowess, and a culture that valued beauty, luxury and ostentation. Everyone – male and female, young and old, and poor and rich – wore jewelry, in ancient Egypt. A widespread belief in the magical properties of jewelry existed in the region. Jewelry was worn, primarily, for protection from evil, disease, adversity, and misfortune. Certain materials, colors, and designs were believed to have specific magical properties and associated with gods who governed the kingdom. Egyptian jewelry was made of gold and silver and encrusted with colored glass, beads and semi-precious gemstones like carnelian, coral, jasper, lapis lazuli, and turquoise. It included amulets, bangles, bracelets, collars, earrings, necklaces, and rings. The most popular motifs used in ancient Egyptian jewelry included animals, birds, flowers, fruits, gods and goddesses, insects, and leaves. The civilization made huge contributions to the development of jewelry-making techniques

    Known as the Birthplace of Human Civilization, Mesopotamian civilization flourished in a region of richness, located around the riverbeds of Tigris i Euphrates. Mesopotamians started making jewelry around four thousand years ago, initially in cities of Sumer and Akkad, and later all over Mesopotamia, from Assyria to the Babylonian cities of Nineveh and Ur. The use of jewelry, in Mesopotamia, was not limited to the clergy, nobility and royalty the entire population wore jewelry. Mesopotamian jewelry is known for its distinct style, pioneering technique and wide variety. It was made of thin sheets of metal and employed engraving, filigree, gem-setting, granulation i cloisonné techniques. The motifs of Mesopotamian jewelry were inspired by nature and included branches, cones, grapes, leaves, and twigs. The Mesopotamians worshiped the planets and paired each one of them with a unique gemstone, laying the foundation of the concept of birthstones. The accomplishments of the Mesopotamians in the area of gemstone collection, metallurgy, and jewelry-making, along with those of the Egyptians, played important role for the production of jewelry in all later civilizations.

    The history of Indian jewelry is as old as the Indian civilization. The beginning of manufactured jewelry in the region can be traced back to the Neolithic era Mehergarh settlement (6500BCE), to the west of the Indus River. Mehergarh was the precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization. The earliest jewelry items from the era consist of beads made of soft stones, seeds and shell, strung together by thin cord. During the mature period of the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 BCE – 1900 BCE), metal jewelry made of bronze, copper, gold, and silver was crafted in Dholavira, Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Indians were the first to mine diamonds and master the process of mining, collecting and processing gold. The two facts, along with the huge supply of precious metals and gemstones, and a cultural emphasis on owning, wearing and amassing jewelry, helped make India one of the most prolific jewelry-making civilizations of all times. Indian jewelry has more variety than that produced anywhere else in the world thanks to the region’s cultural, religious, ethnic, and geographic diversity. Indian jewelry pieces are made for virtually all parts of the body and, in addition to standard items like bangles, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, and rings, include special ones such as the bazuband (arm bracelet), bichwa (toe ring), jadanagam (ornament for braided hair), kardhaniya (waist band), nuth (nose ring), oddiyanam (waist ornament), panjangla (handiece), payal (anklet), sarpech (turban ornament), tikka (forehead ornament), and vanki (armlet). Indian jewelry employs styles, techniques and aesthetics from all over the world. Jarau kaam, kundan, meenakari, pardaas, rawa, taarkashi, i thewa are most popular techniques in the region.

    Designer jewelry

    The jewelry made in present times falls into many classifications – artisan, commercial, designer, folk, hand-made, machine-made, mass-produced, and others. Designer jewelry is, however, the most desirable of all classes of jewelry. It is jewelry that adheres to design aesthetics determined by famous jewelers, or design companies, and is crafted by hand, using precious gemstones and metals. Four designer jewelry houses – Tiffany & Company (established 1884), House of Fabergé (established 1842), Cartier (established 1842), and Bvlgari (established 1884) – made major contributions to the popularity of designer jewelry, in the nineteenth century, and started the trend which continues to this day. Buccellati, Chanel, Chopard, Costis, Dior, Graff, Gurhan, Harry Winston, Hermes, HStern, Ilias Lalaounis, Mikimoto, Piaget, Van Cleef & Arpels have been some of the most influential jewelers in the history of jewelry.

    The need for jewelry

    For over one hundred thousand years, jewelry has fascinated civilizations on this planet. The desire to adorn oneself with jewelry has transcended boundaries of age, class, culture, gender, geography, religion, and time. Jewelry is a polymorphism of symbolism and has represented birth, commitment, death, friendship, marriage, mourning, scholarship, sex, success, virginity, and much else, over time. It has been used for adornment, healing, protection, safety, trade and a lot of other purposes. Most importantly, it has satisfied all six of Maslow’s needs in a way no other item ever has.


    NECKLACE/CHAINS

    Necklaces are adopted by early civilizations around the world. These are believed to be as old as 40,000 years. The oldest forms of the necklace are made from shells, teeth or bone beads, bird feathers, carved wood, seeds, stones and other artful natural elements found in the environment. Some used more precious materials from hard-to-find places, like the valuable necklace made of Mediterranean red coral beads found in a Neolithic remains in the Alps, dated around 4,200-3,400 BC.

    When metalworking was developed, it added more jewelry options for humans. A flat, crescent-shaped neckpiece made of metal, or the lunula, is found in Bronze Age Scotland and Ireland in 1,800-1,500 BC. Meanwhile, the torc, a large, rigid neckpiece made of twisted metal, was found in the Celtic, Scythian and other cultures of the European Iron Age during 800 BC to 300 AD. These neckpieces were made of gold, copper, and other metals.

    The ancient Egyptians’ necklaces were more complicated. From simple stringed bead necklaces, it evolved into a broad collar and pectoral types both women and men wore, especially the royalty and the wealthy.

    Jewelry with gemstones was first used by the Romans during the first century. Later on, it became a trend for women to wear many necklaces at once until it’s use waned. In the late 14 th century, necklaces regained popularity.

    During the Middle Ages, necklaces replaced brooches as the primary form of jewelry. Gold chain necklaces with pendants and necklace sets with gemstone were in style. Their neck accessory usually indicates their social status and level of wealth.

    Materials such as gold, silver, pearls, and diamonds have long been a popular choice for necklaces since the Western history of dressing until today. These often symbolize wealth, glamour, and prestige. Nowadays, the ideal necklace for professional, business and bridal dress are made up of these materials.

    Locket necklaces were widely used in the 18 th and 19 th centuries after photography was developed. It was mostly given as a betrothal gift. Matched sets of jewelry also became popular during this era. These sets usually included at least a matching earring or brooch, but it could also include bracelets, tiara or buckles.

    Men and women both used to wear necklaces until the 18 th century when this accessory became primarily feminine. This is why men used to call their necklace as chains today. American pop culture re-popularized the use of necklaces for men with the 1960s hippie “love beads” and the 1970s disco dance craze. Some included gold chains with charms like a gold cross or gold Italian horn, and some used amulets, charms and beads. Black and African-American hip-hop artists of the 20 th century had platinum and gold chains with diamond-encrusted pendants as their fashion statement, which is popularly known as “bling-bling.”


    Mesopotamian Governments

    Mesopotamian cities started as farming villages. Farming brought in surplus food and the population of the village began to grow. As the gods were the most important beings to the early Mesopotamians, priests, who mediated with the gods and divined their wills, became the most important people in the village. Slowly, priests took on a governing role.

    Climate change intervened in this simple form of governance. In order for farming to continue producing adequate food, the villagers had to begin irrigating the crops. Irrigation required a substantial amount of labor in building and maintaining canals and dams. Organizing this labor required intelligent leadership. While priests were capable men, they now needed assistance from a secular leader who could guide communal labor.

    By the time farming villages had grown into the great Mesopotamian cities, both priests and secular leaders were involved in governing the increasingly complex society of a city. The secular leader was called the lugal, the strongman. With specialization of labor—people finding lots of different jobs and tasks to do other than farming work—it made sense to have priests fully involved in keeping the gods happy while the lugal oversaw running the city.

    Gradually the lugal became a powerful king who dominated governance of the Mesopotamian city-state. While most of his duties as king were secular, the king had religious responsibilities as well. He, as well as the high priest, was an intermediary between the gods and the people. Kings participated in religious rituals. Common Mesopotamians considered the king as the representative of the city’s patron god, the god’s overseer on earth, so to speak.

    A king was expected to protect his city, to provide law, order and justice and to be a shepherd to the people, ensuring that widows and orphans were cared for. Kings formed dynasties and leadership passed from father to son. Women, in general, were not involved in politics, but there are instances of women ruling a city.

    A city-state is a complex entity and running it involved a civil bureaucracy of government officials, tax collectors, scribes and ward bosses. Government officials took the tithes from farmers and other workers, they oversaw the communal labor necessary for maintaining aqueducts, irrigation canals and water resources. They assisted merchants and traders when necessary, seeing to a caravan’s protection.

    Most kings sustained an active military that defended the city and went on military campaigns when the city needed more land or water resources. Kings also worked closely with the priesthood, both the en, the chief priest in charge of religious observances and the sanga, the priest involved in running the temple’s business concerns. It wasn’t until the Akkadians came to power, circa 2334 B.C., that Mesopotamian gained its first empire. For most of its history, Mesopotamian city-states each ruled its own area, ruled by a powerful king.

    This article is part of our larger resource on Mesopotamian culture, society, economics, and warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on ancient Mesopotamia.


    Mesopotamia Trade: Outposts

    As Mesopotamian trade developed, merchants even set up trade emporiums in other regions and cities. Around 1700 B.C., Assyrian traders set up a trading outpost in Kanesh, Anatolia. The traders traveled over 1,000 miles to this city in today’s Turkey. There the Assyrian merchants paid a tax to the city’s ruler to live in their own quarter of Kanesh and trade with the city dwellers and other merchants who came from afar to trade for their Mesopotamian goods.

    The Assyrian traders came with a caravan of donkeys loaded with fine textiles their womenfolk wove, and tin that originally came from farther east. They traded the textiles and tin for silver and other goods. The Assyrian merchants were part of a family business that traded all over Mesopotamia and beyond. An archeological excavation of 20,000 clay tablets in present-day Kultepe, Turkey, brought these detailed merchant records to light.

    By the time of the Assyrian Empire, Mesopotamia was trading exporting grains, cooking oil, pottery, leather goods, baskets, textiles and jewelry and importing Egyptian gold, Indian ivory and pearls, Anatolian silver, Arabian copper and Persian tin. Trade was always vital to resource-poor Mesopotamia.

    This article is part of our larger resource on Mesopotamian culture, society, economics, and warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on ancient Mesopotamia.


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