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Kako je McKinleyjev atentat potaknuo zaštitu predsjednika Tajne službe

Kako je McKinleyjev atentat potaknuo zaštitu predsjednika Tajne službe

Danas su predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država i Tajna služba nerazdvojni - doslovno. Agenti američke Tajne službe prate predsjednika i Prvu porodicu posvuda i posebno su uočljivi na javnim događajima. Ali nije uvek bilo ovako. Bio bi potreban treći atentat na američkog predsjednika - Williama McKinleyja - da bi Kongres zatražio potpunu službenu zaštitu vršioca dužnosti predsjednika.

Tajna služba zapravo je osnovana 1865. godine kao odjel Ministarstva finansija Sjedinjenih Država koji je prvenstveno bio odgovoran za zaštitu imovine nacionalne riznice, čuvanje objekata za proizvodnju valute i istraživanje krivotvorenja. Počevši od 1894. godine, agenti Tajne službe štitili su tadašnjeg predsjednika Grovera Clevelanda, ali samo na pola radnog vremena.

Do tada, pa čak i u godinama nakon toga, članovi Kongresa nisu htjeli formalno osnovati nacionalnu agenciju za provođenje zakona, radije su prepustili funkcije vezane za zakon i red pojedinim državama. Međutim, kada je 1901. godine ubijen Clevelandov nasljednik, William McKinley, tada se počeo razvijati zamah za takvu federalno upravljanu agenciju.

POGLEDAJTE: Cijele epizode Američke knjige tajni na mreži sada i uključite se u potpuno nove epizode utorkom u 22:00.

"McKinleyjevo ubistvo dogodilo se u kritičnom trenutku u američkoj istoriji", napominje Cary Federman, vanredni profesor na Odsjeku za studije pravosuđa, Državnog univerziteta Montclair u New Jerseyju i autor knjige Ubistvo Williama McKinleyja: Anarhizam, ludilo i rođenje društvenih nauka.

“Do tada je postojalo opće neprijateljstvo prema centraliziranoj vlasti, a preuređenje Tajne službe u nacionalnu policiju, zapravo bi oduzelo određena ovlaštenja za provođenje zakona državama. Međutim, nakon što je McKinley ubijen, incident je postao faktor u utvrđivanju uloge Tajne službe u zaštiti predsjednika. Bilo je priznanje predsjednika kao mete. ”

Ipak, Federman naglašava da su postojali i drugi faktori. Zaista, nakon ubistva Abrahama Lincolna 1865. i Jamesa A. Garfielda 1881., prijedlozi zakona čiji je cilj formalizirati ulogu Tajne službe u zaštiti predsjednika nisu dobili odobrenje u Kongresu. Dakle, što je bilo drugačije u vezi McKinleyjeve smrti?

SAD su postale dominantni igrač na međunarodnoj sceni.

Činjenica da je McKinley bio treći predsjednik ubijen dok je bio na funkciji u periodu od 36 godina bila je svakako značajna. U to vrijeme su se Sjedinjene Države počele pojavljivati ​​kao imperijalna sila, a lideri na nacionalnom nivou počeli su biti sve više zabrinuti zbog političkih prijetnji unutar i izvan državnih granica.

Od 1870 -ih, anarhisti su organizirali napade na vlade i osoblje za provođenje zakona u cijelom svijetu, uključujući i za vrijeme pobune na Haymarketu u Chicagu 1886. Iako postoje dokazi koji ukazuju na to da je McKinleyjev ubojica, Leon Czolgosz, bio više mentalno bolestan nego politički motiviran , proglašen je anarhistom neposredno nakon svojih postupaka.

Theodore Roosevelt, koji se nakon McKinleyjeve smrti popeo na najvišu državnu dužnost, čak je tada rekao: "U usporedbi sa suzbijanjem anarhije, svako drugo pitanje tone u beznačajnost."

Prema Federmanu, Roosevelt je također bio "snažan nacionalist", što znači da je vjerovao u centralizaciju vlasti. To je, zajedno s uočenim političkim i društvenim prijetnjama s kojima se zemlja tada suočila, motiviralo Kongres da djeluje i formalizira ulogu Tajne službe u zaštiti šefa države.

Strah od stranih prijetnji odigrao je svoju ulogu.

1902. godine, nekoliko mjeseci nakon McKinleyjeve smrti, tajna služba je dodijeljena da čuva predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država 24-7-365. I to je i dalje norma do danas.

"Po tadašnjem mišljenju, Lincolnov ubica, John Wilkes Booth, bio je" jedan od nas ", bijeli Amerikanac", objašnjava Federman.

„Ali Czolgosz? Imao je to ime "misterioznog zvuka". Iako je i on bio Amerikanac. Dakle, da, iako je McKinleyjeva smrt istaknula ovu ideju predsjednika kao metu, to je zaista bio početak Sjedinjenih Država koje su bile zabrinute zbog mogućih prijetnji koje im upućuju, i unutar zemlje, od strane "opasnih stranaca". bilo što drugo zaista je postalo opravdanje za stvaranje Tajne službe. ”


Kako funkcionira američka tajna služba

Kada je 1865. godine pokrenuta Tajna služba, krivotvorenje je predstavljalo veliku brigu. Tada je zapanjujuća trećina do polovina novca koji teče po zemlji bila lažna. Stoga je stvaranje tajne službe predsjednika Abrahama Lincolna za iskrcavanje kriminalaca. Samo dvije godine kasnije, 1867., dužnosti agencije proširene su i na hvatanje ljudi koji pokušavaju prevariti vladu krijumčarenjem, pljačkom pošte, prijevarom zemljišta i drugim sredstvima [izvori: Blakemore, Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država].

Ironično, Lincoln je ubijen navečer kada je potpisao zakon o stvaranju Tajne službe. No, tek nakon atentata na predsjednika Williama McKinleya 1901. godine - trećeg od zasjedanja predsjednika - dužnosti Tajne službe proširene su i na predsjedničku zaštitu. Tokom sljedećeg stoljeća, predsjednička zaštita stalno se mijenjala, često kao rezultat drugog atentata ili pokušaja.

Danas, zaštita Tajne službe ima mandat za predsjednika i potpredsjednika i njihove uže porodice, bivše predsjednike, supružnike i maloljetnu djecu mlađu od 16 godina, glavne predsjedničke i potpredsjedničke kandidate te njihove supružnike i šefove stranih država i njihove supružnike prilikom posjete SAD (Odrasla djeca predsjednika mogu odbiti zaštitu.)

Zaštita tajne službe također je naložena na događajima koje je načelnik Odjela za nacionalnu sigurnost označio kao događaje nacionalne posebne sigurnosti - na primjer, Super Bowl. Na tim događajima Tajna služba će preuzeti vodeću ulogu u sigurnosnim operacijama. Surađivat će s lokalnim policijskim tijelima kako bi se osiguralo da su svi - i uglednici i opća javnost - zaštićeni [izvor: Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država.]

Tokom ovih 100 i više godina, unutar agencije su se dogodile i druge promjene. Na primjer, Tajna služba preuzela je kontrolu nad Bijelom kućom 1930. godine i Snagom trezorske straže, koja se sada naziva Policijom trezora, 1937. 1971. Agencija se zaklela u svojih prvih pet specijalnih žena. A 2003. godine, Tajna služba je prebačena iz Ministarstva finansija u novo Odjeljenje za domovinsku sigurnost [izvor: Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država].

Nakon terorističkih napada 11. rujna 2001. i usvajanja američkog Patriotskog zakona, agencija je imala zadatak stvoriti nacionalnu mrežu radnih grupa za elektronske zločine (ECTF) zasnovanu na modelu koji se tada koristio u New Yorku. ECTF -ovi rade na sprečavanju i borbi protiv napada na američke građane, institucije i kritične strukture, naime one koji se odnose na kibernetički kriminal.


Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država

Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država

Pregled agencije
Godišnji budžet 1,483 milijarde USD (2010. FG) [1]
Pravni subjekt Vlada: Vladina agencija
Struktura nadležnosti
Federalna agencija SAD
Opća priroda Federalno provođenje zakona
Civilna agencija

Specijalistička nadležnost
Operativna struktura
Zakleti članovi 4.400
Izvršni direktor agencije Mark J. Sullivan, direktor
Matična agencija Ministarstvo za unutrašnju sigurnost Sjedinjenih Država
Terenski uredi 136
Objekti
Ured stalnog zastupnika 68
Kancelarije u inostranstvu 19
Website
http://www.SecretService.gov


Tajna služba Sjedinjenih Država je savezna agencija za provođenje zakona Sjedinjenih Država koja je dio američkog Ministarstva za nacionalnu sigurnost. [2] Zakleti članovi podijeljeni su između Specijalnih agenata i Uniformirane divizije. Do 1. marta 2003. Služba je bila dio Ministarstva finansija Sjedinjenih Država. [3]

Tajna služba SAD -a ima dva različita područja odgovornosti:

Uloge trezora, koje pokrivaju misije poput sprječavanja i istrage krivotvorenja američke valute i američkih trezorskih vrijednosnih papira, te istrage velikih prijevara. [4]
Zaštitne uloge, koje osiguravaju sigurnost sadašnjih i bivših državnih čelnika i njihovih porodica, poput predsjednika, bivših predsjednika, potpredsjednika, predsjedničkih kandidata, stranih ambasada (prema sporazumu s Uredom Ureda za diplomatsku sigurnost (DS) Stejt departmenta SAD -a Strane misije (OFM)) itd. [5]
Prvobitna odgovornost Tajne službe bila je da istražuje zločine povezane s trezorom, a zatim je evoluirala u prvu domaću obavještajnu i kontraobavještajnu agenciju Sjedinjenih Država. Mnoge misije agencije kasnije su preuzele sljedeće agencije, poput Federalnog istražnog biroa (FBI), Zavoda za alkohol, duhan, vatreno oružje i eksplozive (ATF), Imigracije i carine (ICE) i Službe za interne prihode (IRS) ).

Sadržaj [sakrij]
1 Uloge
2 Uniformisana divizija
2.1 Struktura ranga Uniformisanog odjeljenja
3 Odjeća
4 Istorija
4.1 Rane godine
4.2 Pokušaj Trumanovog ubistva
4.3 1960 -ih do 1990 -ih
4.4 Promjena uloga
4.5 Napadi na predsjednika
4.6 Napadi 11. septembra 2001
5 Proširenje na elektronske zločine nakon 11. septembra 2001
5.1 Domaći
5.2 Međunarodni
5.3 Zapaženi slučajevi
6 Obuka i naoružanje
7 Direktori
8 Terenski uredi
9 U popularnoj kulturi
10 sličnih organizacija
11 Vidi takođe
12 Literatura
13 Vanjske veze


[uredi] Uloge
Specijalni agenti Tajne službe (u prvom planu) štite predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država 2007. godine. Danas je primarna istražna misija agencije zaštita platnog i finansijskog sistema Sjedinjenih Država. To uključuje zločine koji uključuju prijevaru s finansijskim institucijama, prijevare s računarom i telekomunikacijama, lažne identifikacijske dokumente, prijevare s pristupnim uređajima, prijevaru unaprijed, elektroničke transfere sredstava i pranje novca u vezi s ključnim kršenjima agencije. Nakon ubistva predsjednika Williama McKinleya 1901. godine, Kongres je također uputio Tajnu službu da zaštiti predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država. Zaštita ostaje druga ključna misija Tajne službe Sjedinjenih Država.

Danas je Tajna služba zakonom ovlaštena da štiti: [6]

Predsjednik, potpredsjednik (ili drugi službenik po redoslijedu nasljeđivanja Ureda predsjednika, ako je potpredsjedništvo upražnjeno), izabrani predsjednik i izabrani potpredsjednik
Uže porodice gore navedenih pojedinaca
Bivši predsjednici i njihovi supružnici za cijeli život, osim kada se supružnik razvede ili se ponovo oženi. 1997. godine stupio je na snagu zakon kojim se ograničava zaštita Tajne službe na bivše predsjednike i njihove supružnike na period od najviše 10 godina od datuma napuštanja bivšeg predsjednika, čime su Bill i Hillary Clinton posljednji dobili doživotnu zaštitu
Udovica ili udovac bivšeg predsjednika koji umire na dužnosti ili umire u roku od godinu dana nakon što je napustio dužnost u periodu od godinu dana nakon predsjednikove smrti (sekretar za unutrašnju sigurnost može produžiti vrijeme zaštite)
Djeca bivših predsjednika do 16 ili 10 godina nakon predsjedanja.
Bivši potpredsjednici, njihovi supružnici i njihova djeca mlađa od 16 godina u periodu od najviše 6 mjeseci od datuma napuštanja bivšeg potpredsjednika (sekretar za unutrašnju sigurnost može produžiti vrijeme zaštite)
Posjećujući šefove država ili vlada i njihove supružnike koji putuju s njima, druge ugledne strane posjetitelje Sjedinjenih Država i službene predstavnike Sjedinjenih Država koji obavljaju posebne misije u inozemstvu za koje predsjednik smatra da su dovoljno važni za zaštitu izvan Diplomatske službe sigurnosti
Glavni predsjednički i potpredsjednički kandidati
Supružnici glavnih predsjedničkih i potpredsjedničkih kandidata (u roku od 120 dana od općih predsjedničkih izbora)
Drugi pojedinci određeni prema izvršnom nalogu predsjednika
Nacionalni događaji posebne sigurnosti, kada ih kao takve odredi sekretar za unutrašnju sigurnost
Bilo koji od ovih pojedinaca može odbiti zaštitu Tajne službe, osim predsjednika, potpredsjednika (ili drugog službenika koji slijedi po redoslijedu nasljedstva u uredu predsjednika), izabranog predsjednika i izabranog potpredsjednika. [ 6]

Kada je Hillary Clinton 2009. godine postala državna tajnica, Tajna služba nastavila ju je štititi kod kuće, međutim Diplomatska služba sigurnosti štiti je dok obavlja dužnosti državnog sekretara, uključujući i sva putovanja u inostranstvo.

Tajna služba godišnje istražuje hiljade incidenata pojedinaca koji prijete predsjedniku Sjedinjenih Država.

[uredi] Uniformirano odjeljenje
Predsjednik Barack Obama obraća se oficirima Uniformirane službe Tajne službe Sjedinjenih Država prije grupne fotografije u Južnom portiku Bijele kuće, 4. aprila 2011. Uniformisana divizija Tajne službe Sjedinjenih Država (UD) pomaže u dužnostima zaštite. Osnovana 1922. godine kao Policija Bijele kuće, ova organizacija je u potpunosti integrirana u Tajnu službu 1930. S više od 1.300 službenika do 2010. godine, Uniformirano odjeljenje odgovorno je za sigurnost u kompleksu Bijele kuće, rezidencije potpredsjednika trezora (kao deo kompleksa Bele kuće) i stranih diplomatskih misija u oblasti Vašington, DC. Službenici Uniformiranog odjela izvršavaju svoje zaštitne odgovornosti putem mreže fiksnih sigurnosnih punktova, pješačkih, biciklističkih, patrola za vozila i motocikle.

Službenici su odgovorni za pružanje dodatne podrške zaštitnoj misiji Tajne službe kroz sljedeće posebne programe podrške:

Jedinica za podršku protivstručnim snajperistima (CS): Osnovana 1971. godine, svrha CS jedinice je pružanje specijalizovane zaštitne podrške za odbranu od dalekometnih prijetnji štićenicima Tajne službe. Danas je CS operativni element Predsjedničkog zaštitnog odjela. [7]

Jedinica za detekciju psećih eksploziva (K-9): Osnovana 1976., misija jedinice K-9 je pružiti vještu i specijaliziranu podršku za otkrivanje eksploziva zaštitnim naporima koji uključuju zaštitnike Tajne službe. [7]

Tim za hitne slučajeve (ERT): Formiran 1992., primarna misija ERT -a je pružanje taktičkog odgovora na nezakonite upade i druge zaštitne izazove vezane za Bijelu kuću i njenu bazu. Osoblje ERT -a dobija specijalizovanu, naprednu obuku i mora održavati visok nivo fizičkog i operativnog znanja. [7]

Jedinica za podršku magnetometra: Formirana kako bi se osiguralo da sve osobe koje ulaze u zaštićena područja koja zauzimaju zaštitnici Tajne službe budu nenaoružane, [7] Tajna služba se počela oslanjati na podršku magnetometra (detektora metala) od strane službenika Uniformirane divizije kako bi povećala svoje zaštitne napore od bijelaca House nakon pokušaja atentata na predsjednika Ronalda Reagana.

[uredi] Unified Division rang struktura Struktura naslova Insignia
Šefe
Pomoćnik načelnika
Zamjenik načelnika
Inspektor
Kapetane
Poručniče
Naredniče
Oficir

[uredi] Odjeća
Agent Tajne službe koji je čuvao predsjednika Obamu 2010. godine Specijalni agenti Tajne službe nose odjeću primjerenu okruženju. U mnogim okolnostima odjeća je konzervativno odijelo, ali odjeća može biti od smokinga do plavih traperica. Na fotografijama se često vide kako nose sunčane naočale i komunikacijsku slušalicu. Obično nose široke jakne kako bi sakrili svoj pištolj.

Odjeća za oficire uniformiranih odjeljenja uključuje standardne policijske uniforme ili uniforme, te balističke/identifikacijske prsluke za članove tima protiv snajpera, tima za hitne slučajeve (ERT) i pasje službenike. Nalepnica na ramenu Uniformirane divizije sastoji se od predsjedničkog pečata u bijeloj ili crnoj boji, ovisno o odjeći na koju je pričvršćena. Iako ne postoji službena zakrpa koja označava "Tajnu službu", službenici UD -a povremeno su dizajnirali i kupovali neslužbene zakrpe za razmjenu u njihovoj opsežnoj suradnji s uniformiranim službenicima za provođenje zakona. [8]

[uredi] Povijest [uredi] Rane godine S obzirom da je tada prijavljena jedna trećina valute u opticaju bila krivotvorena, [9] predsjednik Abraham Lincoln je 14. aprila 1865. godine (pet dana nakon Leejeve predaje u Appomattoxu) osnovao Tajnu službu , i puštena u rad 5. jula 1865. godine u Washingtonu, DC kao "Odjel tajnih službi" Ministarstva finansija sa misijom suzbijanja krivotvorenja. Zakon o osnivanju agencije bio je na stolu Abrahama Lincolna one noći kada je ubijen. [10] U to vrijeme, jedine druge savezne agencije za provođenje zakona bile su policija Sjedinjenih Država, Odjel poštanskih ureda SAD -a, Ured za upute i prognoze pošte, danas poznat kao Služba poštanske inspekcije Sjedinjenih Država i Služba maršala Sjedinjenih Država. Maršali nisu imali radne snage da istraže sve zločine pod federalnom jurisdikcijom, pa je Tajna služba počela istraživati ​​sve, od ubistva do pljačke banke do ilegalnog kockanja. Nakon ubistva predsjednika Williama McKinleya 1901. godine, Kongres je nezvanično zatražio da Tajna služba obezbijedi predsjedničku zaštitu. Godinu dana kasnije, Tajna služba preuzela je s punim radnim vremenom odgovornost za predsjedničku zaštitu. 1902. William Craig postao je prvi agent Tajne službe koji je umro dok je služio, u saobraćajnoj nesreći dok se vozio u predsjedničkoj kočiji.

Tajna služba bila je prva američka domaća obavještajna i kontraobavještajna agencija. Prikupljanje domaćih obavještajnih podataka i protuobavještajne odgovornosti povjerene su Federalnom istražnom birou (FBI) nakon stvaranja FBI -a 1908. Tajna služba je pomagala u hapšenju japansko -američkih vođa i u japansko -američkoj internaciji tokom Drugog svjetskog rata. [11] Tajna služba SAD -a nije službeni dio obavještajne zajednice SAD -a. [12]

[uredi] Pokušaj Trumanovog ubistva 1950. godine predsjednik Harry S. Truman boravio je u Blair Houseu, preko puta Bijele kuće, dok je izvršna vila prolazila obnovu. Dva portorikanska nacionalista, Oscar Collazo i Griselio Torresola, prišli su Blair Houseu s namjerom da ubiju predsjednika Trumana. Collazo i Torresola otvorili su vatru na vojnika Leslie Coffelta i druge policajce Bijele kuće. Iako je smrtno ranjen u tri hica iz 9 mm Walther P38 u prsa i trbuh, vojnik Coffelt uzvratio je vatru, ubivši Torresolu jednim hicem u glavu. Od 2010. [ažuriranje], Coffelt je jedini pripadnik Tajne službe koji je ubijen štiteći predsjednika SAD -a od pokušaja atentata (Specijalni agent Tim McCarthy stupio je ispred predsjednika Ronalda Reagana tokom pokušaja atentata 30. marta 1981. i uzeo metak u trbuh, ali se potpuno oporavio). Collazo je takođe pogođen, ali je preživio povrede i odslužio 29 godina zatvora prije nego što se vratio u Portoriko 1979. godine.

[uredi] 1960-ih do 1990-ih 1968. godine, kao rezultat ubistva predsjedničkog kandidata Roberta F. Kennedyja, Kongres je odobrio zaštitu glavnih predsjedničkih i potpredsjedničkih kandidata i kandidata (Pub.L. 90-331). 1965. i 1968. godine, Kongres je također odobrio doživotnu zaštitu supružnika preminulih predsjednika, osim ako se ne udaju ponovo, i djece bivših predsjednika do 16. godine. [3]

Kongres je 1994. godine usvojio zakon u kojem se navodi da predsjednici koji stupe na dužnost nakon 1. januara 1997. godine dobijaju zaštitu Tajne službe 10 godina nakon napuštanja funkcije. Predsjednici koji su stupili na dužnost prije 1. januara 1997. nastavit će primati doživotnu zaštitu (Zakon o aproprijacijama Ministarstva finansija, 1995: Pub.L. 103-329).

[uredi] Promjena uloga
Agenti Tajne službe koji osiguravaju papu Benedikta XVI u Washingtonu, DC Odjel za zaštitu predsjednika Tajne službe štiti predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država i njegovu užu porodicu. Oni surađuju s drugim saveznim, državnim i lokalnim agencijama za provođenje zakona i vojskom kako bi zaštitili predsjednika kada putuje zračnim snagama jedan, marincem jedan i limuzinom u kolonama.

Iako je danas najvidljivija uloga Tajne službe, lična zaštita je anomalija u odgovornostima agencije fokusirane na prijevaru i krivotvorenje.

1984. Kongres SAD -a donio je Zakon o sveobuhvatnoj kontroli kriminala, kojim je Tajna služba proširila nadležnost nad prijevarama s kreditnim karticama i računalnim prijevarama.

Tajna služba je 1990. godine pokrenula operaciju Sundevil, koja je prvobitno trebala biti napad protiv zlonamjernih hakera, navodno odgovornih za ometanje telefonskih usluga u cijeloj SAD -u. Operacija, koju je kasnije opisao Bruce Sterling u svojoj knjizi The Hacker Crackdown, pogodila je veliki broj ljudi koji nisu povezani s hakiranjem i nije dovela do osuđujućih presuda. Tajna služba je, međutim, tužena i osuđena na naknadu štete.

1994./5. Vodio je tajnu operaciju pod nazivom Operacija Cybersnare. [13]

Tajna služba istražuje krivotvorenje državnih čekova, krivotvorenje valutnih ekvivalenata (kao što su putnički ili blagajnički čekovi) i određene slučajeve prijevare putem interneta (poput tzv. Nigerijske prijevare) i prijevare s kreditnim karticama. Razlog za ovu kombinaciju dužnosti je što kada je potreba za predsjedničkom zaštitom postala očigledna početkom 20. stoljeća, malo saveznih službi imalo je potrebne sposobnosti i resurse. FBI, IRS, ATF, ICE i Uprava za borbu protiv droga (DEA) još nisu postojale. Služba maršala Sjedinjenih Država bila je jedini drugi logičan izbor koji je predsjedniku u nekoliko navrata pružao zaštitu.

Od 2010. godine, Služba ima preko 6.500 zaposlenih: 3.200 specijalnih agenata, 1.300 službenika uniformisanih odjeljenja i 2.000 tehničkih i administrativnih radnika. [14] Specijalni agenti služe za zaštitu detalja, posebni timovi ili ponekad istražuju određene finansijske zločine i zločine vezane za domovinsku sigurnost.

Uniformirana divizija slična je Kapitolskoj policiji Sjedinjenih Država i zadužena je za zaštitu fizičkih objekata Bijele kuće i stranih diplomatskih misija na području Washingtona. Uniformisana divizija prvobitno je bila zasebna organizacija poznata kao Policija Bele kuće, ali je prešla u Tajnu službu 1930. Godine 1970. uloga snaga, tada nazvana Izvršna zaštitna služba, je proširena. Naziv Uniformirani odjel tajne službe Sjedinjenih Država usvojen je 1977. godine.


Krstarica Uniformirane divizije Tajne službe u Washingtonu u Bijeloj kući Tajna služba ima istovremenu nadležnost s FBI -om za određena kršenja saveznih zakona o računalnom kriminalu. Oni su osnovali 24 radne grupe za elektronički kriminal (ECTF) diljem Sjedinjenih Država. Ove radne grupe su partnerstva između Službe, saveznih/državnih i lokalnih organa za provođenje zakona, privatnog sektora i akademske zajednice u cilju borbe protiv tehnoloških zločina.

1998. godine predsjednik Bill Clinton potpisao je Direktivu Predsjedničke odluke 62, kojom su uspostavljeni događaji za nacionalnu posebnu sigurnost (NSSE). Ta direktiva je učinila Tajnu službu odgovornom za sigurnost na određenim događajima.

Od 1. marta 2003. godine, Tajna služba prešla je iz trezora u novoosnovano Odjeljenje za unutrašnju sigurnost.

[uredi] Napadi na predsjednike Glavni članak: Spisak pokušaja atentata na predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država
Od 1960-ih, predsjednici John F. Kennedy (ubijeni), Gerald Ford (dva puta napadnuti, ali neozlijeđeni) i Ronald Reagan (teško povrijeđeni) bili su napadnuti dok su se pojavljivali u javnosti. [15] [16] Agenti na licu mjesta, iako nisu povrijeđeni tokom napada na predsjednika, uključuju William Greer i Roy Kellerman. Jedan od istaknutijih agenata [neutralnost se osporava] bio je Robert DeProspero, glavni agent (SAIC) Reaganovog predsjedničkog zaštitnog odjela (PPD) od siječnja 1982. do travnja 1985. DeProspero je bio zamjenik Jerryja S. Parra, SAIC -a PPD tokom pokušaja atentata na Reagana 30. marta 1981. [17] [18]

Kenedijevo ubistvo istaklo je hrabrost dva agenta Tajne službe. Prvo, agent koji je štitio gospođu Kennedy, Clint Hill, vozio se u automobilu neposredno iza predsjedničke limuzine kada je napad počeo. Dok se pucnjava nastavila, Hill je skočio s daske automobila na kojem se vozio, skočio na stražnji dio predsjednikovog automobila u pokretu i gđicu Kennedy vodio iz prtljažnika nazad na stražnje sjedalo automobila. Zatim je svojim tijelom štitio predsjednika i prvu damu sve dok automobil nije stigao u bolnicu.


Agenti Tajne službe kao odgovor na pokušaj atentata na Ronalda Reagana od strane Johna Hinckleyja mlađeg 30. marta 1981. Rufus Youngblood vozio se u potpredsjedničkom automobilu. Kada su ispaljeni hici, preskočio je prednje sjedalo i bacio tijelo preko potpredsjednika Lyndona B. Johnsona. [19] [20] Te večeri, Johnson je pozvao načelnika Tajne službe Jamesa J. Rowleyja i naveo Youngbloodovu hrabrost. [21] [22] Youngblood će se kasnije toga prisjetiti u svojim memoarima, Dvadeset godina u tajnoj službi.

Period nakon ubistva Kennedyja bio je najteži u modernoj istoriji agencije. Izvještaji štampe ukazuju na to da je moral među agentima "nizak" mjesecima nakon atentata. [23] [24] Agencija je preinačila svoje procedure nakon ubistva Kennedyja. Obuka, koja je do tada bila uglavnom ograničena na napore "na poslu", bila je sistematizirana i regulirana.

Pokušaj Reaganovog atentata također je istaknuo hrabrost nekoliko agenata Tajne službe, posebno agenta Tima McCarthyja, koji je proširio svoj stav kako bi zaštitio Reagana dok je potencijalni ubojica, John Hinckley, Jr. ispalio šest metaka. [25] McCarthy je preživio metak kalibra .22 u trbuhu. Za svoju hrabrost, McCarthy je 1982. godine dobio NCAA nagradu za hrabrost [26]. Nakon gotovo uspješnog pokušaja atentata na Ronalda Reagana, bilo je vrlo jasno da je Tajna služba morala povećati svoju efikasnost kako bi zaštitila predsjednika.

[uredi] Napadi 11. septembra 2001.Kancelarija u New Yorku nalazila se u 7 World Trade Center. Odmah nakon napada 11. septembra, specijalni agenti i drugi zaposlenici ureda u New Yorku bili su među prvima koji su odgovorili prvom pomoći. Šezdeset i sedam posebnih agenata u New Yorku, u i blizu njujorške terenske kancelarije, pomogli su u postavljanju trijažnih područja i evakuaciji tornjeva. Jedan zaposlenik Tajne službe, glavni specijalni oficir Craig Miller, [27] poginuo je tokom spasilačkih napora. Dana 20. avgusta 2002. godine, direktor Brian L. Stafford dodijelio je Nagradu direktora za hrabrost zaposlenima koji su pomagali u pokušajima spašavanja.

[uredi] Proširenje elektronskog kriminala nakon 11. septembra 2001. [uredi] DomaćaZaštinski zakon Sjedinjenih Država, koji je 26. oktobra 2001. godine potpisao predsjednik George W. Bush, dao je mandat američkoj tajnoj službi da uspostavi nacionalnu mrežu elektronskih uređaja Radne grupe za zločine (ECTF) za istraživanje i sprječavanje napada na financijsku i kritičnu infrastrukturu u Sjedinjenim Državama. Stoga se ovaj mandat proširio na prvi ECTF agencije-New York Task Force Electronic Crimes Task Force, formiran 1995.-koji je okupio savezne, državne i lokalne organe za provedbu zakona, tužitelje, kompanije iz privatne industrije i akademske zajednice. [28] [29]

Mreža daje prioritet istragama koje zadovoljavaju sljedeće kriterije:

Značajan ekonomski uticaj ili uticaj na zajednicu,
Učešće više okružnih ili transnacionalnih organiziranih kriminalnih grupa,
Upotreba nove tehnologije kao sredstva za počinjenje zločina.
Trenutno mreža uključuje ECTF -ove u sljedećih 28 američkih gradova:

Atlanta
Baltimore
Birmingham
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
Chicago
Cleveland
Columbia
Dallas
Houston
Kansas City [30]
Las Vegas
los angeles
Louisville
Memphis [31]
Miami
Minneapolis
New Orleans [30]
New York/New Jersey
Oklahoma City
Orlando
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
San Francisco
Seattle
St. Louis [30]
Washington, D.C.


[uredi] International 6. jula 2009. Tajna služba SAD-a proširila je svoju borbu protiv cyber-kriminala stvaranjem prve Evropske radne grupe za elektronski kriminal, zasnovane na uspješnom američkom domaćem modelu, putem memoranduma o razumijevanju s talijanskom policijom i službenicima pošte. Više od godinu dana kasnije, 9. avgusta 2010. godine, agencija je proširila svoje evropsko učešće stvaranjem svog drugog prekomorskog ECTF -a u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu. [32] [33]

Rečeno je da se obje radne grupe koncentriraju na širok raspon "kompjuterskih kriminalnih aktivnosti", uključujući:

Upadi u mrežu,
hakiranje,
Krađa identiteta,
Drugi zločini povezani s računarom koji utječu na financijsku i drugu kritičnu infrastrukturu.
Trenutno prekomorska mreža uključuje ECTF -ove u sljedećim europskim gradovima:

Rim, Italija
London, Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo
[uredi] Značajni slučajevi Uhićenje i optužnica protiv Max Raya Butlera, suosnivača kartirajuće web stranice Carders Market. Federalna velika porota u Pittsburghu u Pensilvaniji podigla je optužnicu protiv Butlera, nakon što ga je uhapsio 5. septembra 2007. godine, zbog žičane prijevare i krađe identiteta. Prema optužnici, Butler je hakovao Internet preko računara u finansijskim institucijama i centrima za obradu kreditnih kartica i prodao desetine hiljada brojeva kreditnih kartica koje je stekao u tom procesu. [34]

Operacija Vatrozid. U oktobru 2004. godine, 28 osumnjičenih-lociranih u osam američkih država i šest zemalja-uhapšeno je pod optužbom za krađu identiteta, prijevaru računara, prijevaru s kreditnim karticama i zavjeru. Gotovo 30 domaćih i stranih ureda Tajne službe SAD -a, uključujući novoosnovane nacionalne ECTF -ove, i bezbroj lokalnih agencija za provođenje iz cijelog svijeta, bilo je uključeno u ovu operaciju. Zajedno, uhapšeni osumnjičeni su prodali najmanje 1,7 miliona ukradenih kreditnih kartica, što je iznosilo 4,3 miliona dolara gubitaka finansijskim institucijama. Međutim, vlasti su procijenile da je spriječen gubitak industrije u stotinama miliona dolara. Ova višegodišnja operacija, koja je započela u julu 2003. godine, navela je istražitelje da identifikuju tri sajber-kriminalne grupe: Shadowcrew, Carderplanet i Darkprofits. [35]

Uhićenje i optužnica protiv Alberta "Segveca" Gonzaleza i drugih u slučaju upada u servisnu mrežu. 11 osoba - tri državljanina SAD -a, jedan iz Estonije, tri iz Ukrajine, dvoje iz NR Kine, jedno iz Bjelorusije i jedno poznato samo pod pseudonimom na internetu - uhapšeno je zbog krađe i prodaje više od 40 miliona brojeve kreditnih i debitnih kartica od velikih američkih trgovaca, uključujući TJX Companies, BJ's Wholesale Club, OfficeMax, Boston Market, Barnes & Noble, Sports Authority, Forever 21 i DSW. Gonzalez, glavni organizator sheme, optužen je za računalnu prijevaru, prijevaru putem žice, prijevaru pristupnih uređaja, tešku krađu identiteta i zavjeru zbog svoje vodeće uloge u zločinu. [36]

[uredi] Obuka i naoružanje Potencijalni agent mora biti državljanin SAD -a, posjedovati važeću vozačku dozvolu, imati oštrinu vida ne goru od 20/60 neispravljenu, ispravljivu na 20/20 u svakom oku i biti u dobi od 21 i 37 u vrijeme imenovanja. However, preference eligible veterans may apply after age 37. In 2009, the Office of Personnel Management issued implementation guidance on the Isabella v. Department of State court decision: OPM Letter.[37]


Secret Service agents (foreground, right) guard President George W. Bush in 2008.The agency (particularly agents under the Office of Protective Operations) receive the latest weapons, training, and technology. Training occurs at the James J. Rowley Training Center.

The Uniformed Division has three branches: the White House Branch, Foreign Missions, and the Naval Observatory Branch. Together they provide protection for the following: The President, Vice President, and their immediate families, presidential candidates, the White House Complex, the Vice President's Residence, the main Treasury Department building and its annex facility, and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.[38]

In the 1950s and 1960s, Special Agents carried the Smith & Wesson Model 36 and Colt Detective Special revolvers. Following President Kennedy's assassination, USSS Special Agents were authorized to carry the .357 Magnum. Between 1981 and 1991, the Secret Service issued the Smith & Wesson Model 66-2 .357 Magnum revolver, loaded with hollow-point rounds, agents could also carry the blued-steel version, the Smith & Wesson Model 19. By 1992, the standard issue weapon became the SIG Sauer P228 9mm pistol. In the late 1990s it was swapped for the SIG Sauer P229 for more caliber options and the different, lighter materials used in the production of the frame and slide.[citation needed]

As of 2011, Special Agents and Uniformed Division Officers carry the SIG Sauer P229 pistol chambered for the .357 SIG cartridge,[39] or the FN Five-seven pistol chambered for the 5.7x28mm cartridge.[40] Agents and Officers are also trained on close-combat weapons such as the Remington 870 shotgun, the FN P90 submachine gun, and the HK MP5.[39] They have Motorola radios and surveillance kits in order to maintain communication and are known to use Type 1 encryption algorithms to secure their transmissions.[41]

[edit] Directors1. William P. Wood (1865�)
2. Herman C. Whitley (1869�)
3. Elmer Washburn (1874�)
4. James Brooks (1876�)
5. John S. Bell (1888�)
6. A.L. Drumond (1891�)
7. William P. Hazen (1894�)
8. John E. Wilkie (1898�)
9. William J. Flynn (1912�)
10. William H. Moran (1917�)
11. Frank J. Wilson (1937�)
12. James J. Maloney (1946�)
13. U.E. Baughman (1948�)
14. James J. Rowley (1961�)
15. H. Stuart Knight (1973�)
16. John R. Simpson (1981�)
17. John Magaw (1992�)
18. Eljay B. Bowron (1993�)
19. Lewis C. Merletti (1997�)
20. Brian L. Stafford (1999�)
21. W. Ralph Basham (2003�)
22. Mark J. Sullivan (2006 – present)


[edit] Field officesMain article: List of United States Secret Service Field Offices
The Secret Service has agents assigned to 136 field offices and the headquarters in Washington, D.C. while the field offices are located in cities throughout the United States and in Brazil (Brasilia), Bulgaria (Sofia), Canada (Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver), Colombia (Bogota), China (Hong Kong), France (Paris), INTERPOL (Lyon), Germany (Frankfurt), Italy (Rome), Mexico (Mexico City), EUROPOL (Netherlands/The Hague), Romania (Bucharest), Russia (Moscow), South Africa (Pretoria), Spain (Madrid), Thailand (Bangkok), and the United Kingdom (London).

[edit] In popular culture This "In popular culture" section may contain minor or trivial references. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances, and remove trivial references. (April 2011)


8 “Secrets” You Didn’t Know About the Secret Service

Dark sunglasses, unsmiling mugs, a head on a swivel, the surreptitious earpiece, black suit, maybe the hint of a bulge under the jacket. Everybody knows a Secret Service agent when they see one, right?

Ah, but the United States Secret Service is way more than no-nonsense automatons packing heat and putting their lives on the line to protect presidents and other political bigwigs. When the United States Secret Service — the USSS, for all you government acronym-iacs — came into being at the end of the Civil War, protecting people wasn’t even in its DNA.

Here are some tidbits you might not know about one of the most undercover of undercover outfits in the federal government:

1. It’s Not Quite Like What You See on the Big Screen

Only about 3,600 of the 7,000-plus USSS employees are the stern-looking bodyguards (known as special agents) that protect the president and other select government officials.

Some 1,650 Secret Service employees are Uniformed Division officers whose duty is to securely lock down the venues, wherever they might be, where the president and other officials appear. The Uniformed Division is responsible for security at the White House, too, the Naval Observatory (the residence of the vice president), the Treasury Department, and other places like foreign embassies in Washington, D.C.

Yet another 2,300 or so provide technical law enforcement and other behind-the-scenes support things like figuring out the safest routes for motorcades, the best and most secure way to outfit “The Beast” (a recent name for the president’s main limousine), how to avoid chemical attacks … and the more mundane governmental work of filing expense reports and answering questions from officers or agents who have trouble signing onto their laptops.

Most USSS personnel are not hanging out with the president. It’s hardly the stuff of “Olympus Has Fallen” or “White House Down.”

2. Safeguarding Money Is a Big Part of the Secret Service’s Duty

When the USSS was formed in 1865, it was a bureau of the Treasury Department. Its mission was to battle widespread counterfeiting at the end of the Civil War, nearly a third of all currency in circulation in the United States was fake. The Secret Service was there to help stabilize the financial system by ridding the country of counterfeiters.

Still, it’s important stuff, and a key pillar in the Secret Service’s dual mission, which is protection of the government’s top dogs and investigation of crimes regarding the financial system at home and abroad. The people of the agency take both missions very seriously.

How important can guarding money really be?

According to a USSS spokesperson — this is straight from an email — “Over the past decade, the Secret Service has made approximately 50,000 arrests for counterfeiting, cyber and financial crimes and seized $1.8B in counterfeit currency. The Secret Service has also prevented potential loss of approximately $53B.”

The B, as you may have figured, means “billions.” So … yeah. Important.

So does the Secret Service still report to Treasury? No. On March 1, 2003, the USSS was transferred to the newly formed Department of Homeland Security, which now seems a better fit. But the Secret Service is still all over protecting the financial infrastructure of the nation.


How McKinley’s Assassination Spurred Secret Service Presidential Protection - HISTORY

A s President, Bill Clinton deals with many major issues that affect all of us -- crime, drugs, and the environment, just to name a few. However, when our 16th President, Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865), was in office, times were very different. President Lincoln is well known for his leadership during the Civil War and for signing the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed the slaves. However, did you know that he also established the United States Secret Service?

W hen the United States Secret Service (USSS) was established, its main duty was to prevent the illegal production, or counterfeiting, of money. In the 1800s, America's monetary system was very disorganized. Bills and coins were issued by each state through individual banks, which generated many types of legal currency. With so many different kinds of bills in circulation, it was easy for people to counterfeit money. During President Lincoln's Administration, more than a third of the nation's money was counterfeit. On the advice of Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch, President Lincoln established a commission to stop this rapidly growing problem that was destroying the nation's economy, and on April 14, 1865, he created the United States Secret Service to carry out the commission's recommendations.

T he Secret Service officially went to work on July 5, 1865. Its first chief was William Wood. Chief Wood, widely known for his heroism during the Civil War, was very successful in his first year, closing more than 200 counterfeiting plants. This success helped prove the value of the Secret Service, and in 1866 the National Headquarters was established in the Department of the Treasury building in Washington, D.C.

D uring the evening of the same day President Lincoln established the Secret Service, he was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., by John Wilkes Booth. The country mourned as news spread that the President had been shot. It was the first time in our nation's history that a President had been assassinated. As cries from citizens rang out, Congress began to think about adding Presidential protection to the list of duties performed by the Secret Service. However, it would take another 36 years and the assassination of two more Presidents -- James A. Garfield (March 4, 1881-September 10, 1881) and William McKinley (1897-1901) -- before the Congress added protection of the President to the list of duties performed by the Secret Service.


President Theodore Roosevelt's son Archie salutes as his brother Quentin stands at ease during a roll call of the White House Police. The White House Police eventually came to be known as the Uniformed Division of the Secret Service. Photo Courtesy of the Library of Congress

S ince 1901, every President from Theodore Roosevelt on has been protected by the Secret Service. In 1917, threats against the President became a felony (a serious crime in the eyes of the law), and Secret Service protection was broadened to include all members of the First Family. In 1951, protection of the Vice President and the President-elect was added. After the assassination of Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy in 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) authorized the Secret Service to protect all Presidential candidates.

T oday's Secret Service is made up of two primary divisions -- the Uniformed Division and the Special Agent Division. The primary role of the Uniformed Division is protection of the White House and its immediate surroundings, as well as the residence of the Vice President, and over 170 foreign embassies located in Washington, D.C. Originally named the White House Police, the Uniformed Division was established by an Act of Congress on July 1, 1922, during President Warren G. Harding's Administration (1921-1923).

T he Special Agent Division is charged with two missions: protection and investigation. During the course of their careers, special agents carry out assignments in both of these areas. Their many investigative responsibilities include counterfeiting, forgery, and financial crimes. In addition to protecting the President, the Vice President, and their immediate families, agents also provide protection for foreign heads of state and heads of government visiting the United States.
The Secret Service protects President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) and his motorcade. Photo Courtesy of the National Archives


History of the Secret Service

When Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April of 1865, there was no Secret Service of government agency protecting the presidents. However, on July 5, 1865, as part of the Department of the United Sates Treasury, the Secret Service Division je formirano. The Secret Service is one of the oldest federal law enforcement agencies in the country.

Originally, the Secret Service was formed to stop the spread of counterfeit money, but in 1901, it was asked to begin its protective mission following the assassination of another president, William McKinley. Before it began protecting the president, they also investigated fraud against the government, the Ku Klux Klan (secret society that focuses on white supremacy), smugglers, mail robbers, land frauds, and other infractions against federal laws.

At one time, the headquarters for the Secret Service was in New York City for four years between 1870 and 1874, but then returned to Washington, D.C. Though they began officially in 1901, the Secret Service informally began protecting President Grover Cleveland in 1894. In its first protection detail of Theodore Roosevelt, just two men were assigned to the job. By 1908, the agency began to protect newly elected Presidents prior to them taking office as well.

In 1915, the Secret Service began to investigate foreign espionage (spies) in the United States, and two years later the agency began to protect members of a president's immediate family. The Secret Service also became involved and investigated situations when the president was threatened in any way, by mail or in a speech. It was not until 1851 when the Vice-President of the U.S. began receiving protection.

Following the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, Congress authorized the protection of the widows of Presidents, minor children, and then later, all ex-Presidents and their minor children. In 1968, a presidential candidate, Senator Robert Kennedy was assassinated, which then led to all major presidential and vice-presidential candidates to be protected by the Secret Service agents.

It was not until 1970 when the first female officer was hired by the agency, Phyllis Shantz, who later became a full-fledged agent along with four other women on December 15, 1971.

In 2003, the Secret Service was transferred from the Department of Treasury to the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which was established following the World Trade Center attacks in New York City in 2001.

As of 2008, after five years under the DHS, the Secret Service made about 29,000 arrests for counterfeiting, cyber investigations, and other financial crimes. In 2010, the creation of a second Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTF), which was dedicated to fighting high-tech, computer-based crimes. In 2013, the first female director of the agency is named, Julia A. Pierson.

In summary, today the Secret Service does much more than protect the President, it also offers protection for major candidates, families of presidents and ex-presidents, and visiting dignitaries from other countries. In addition, they investigate counterfeiting crimes, financial fraud, cybercrime, and much more.


Our nation's history with presidential inability and succession

In 1787, the Constitution’s framers inserted a clause into Article Two of the Constitution providing for presidential death, resignation, removal and inability.

The clause has since been scrutinized, invoked and eventually expanded on by statutes and constitutional amendments — at times in response to situations where the president’s capacity has been questioned. With the nation currently in another one of those questioning moments, the history of presidential succession and inability is instructive.

Not long after the founding, presidential illness first confronted the nation. In 1790, President George Washington nearly lost his life to pneumonia so severe that it impaired his hearing and vision. Two decades later, President James Madison suffered an illness that left him unable to conduct the affairs of state.

In possibly the first presidential assassination attempt, a gunman fired twice on President Andrew Jackson in 1835. But both guns misfired, allowing Jackson to beat the attacker with his cane. The nation did not have such luck much longer. Only a month after President William Henry Harrison’s 1841 inauguration, pneumonia took his life. His successor, Vice President John Tyler, had a brush with death when the cannon of a ship he was on exploded, killing the secretaries of state and Navy and five others.

In 1850, President Zachary Taylor died from illness. Three years later, President Franklin Pierce suffered a different kind of illness, becoming severely depressed over his son’s death. In the following decade, a Confederate traitor infamously killed President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, but it is less well-known that Lincoln narrowly avoided assassination a year before when a sniper’s bullet passed through his hat. In 1881, a gunman left President James Garfield incapacitated for 80 days before his death. In that time, ambiguity in the Constitution’s Succession Clause prevented the vice president from taking over. In 1893, President Grover Cleveland concealed his inability by having cancer surgery on a yacht. Another president fell to assassination when William McKinley was shot in 1901.

President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke in 1919 and mostly disappeared from public life for the final 18 months of his term. The secretary of state convened the Cabinet to discuss whether the vice president should assume the duties of the presidency, but they were stymied by the succession clause’s treatment of “inability” — and Wilson’s firing of the secretary of state for raising the prospect of his ouster.

Warren Harding, in 1923, succumbed to a cerebral hemorrhage. His successor, Calvin Coolidge, was struck by a nearly paralyzing depression after his son died.

During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died, leading to Harry Truman’s succession. Five years later, terrorists targeting Truman at the White House complex killed a Secret Service agent.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower experienced a string of health crises, including a heart attack and a stroke. The young and seemingly healthy President John F. Kennedy secretly suffered from Addison’s disease, and took painkillers and amphetamines to cope. Before the public learned of Kennedy’s ailments, he was assassinated.

The Kennedy assassination spurred Congress to address the gaps in the presidential succession framework. The 25th Amendment clarified that the vice president becomes president upon a presidential death, resignation or removal. It also created procedures for filling vacancies in the vice presidency and declaring presidential inabilities, both with and without the president’s participation. During a presidential inability, the vice president serves as acting president.

The 25th Amendment provided protection to the nation during the Watergate scandal. It allowed President Richard Nixon to appoint a replacement vice president (Gerald Ford) after Spiro Agnew’s resignation. If the position had stayed vacant with the Democratic speaker of the House next in the line of succession, Nixon may not have resigned. Nixon had become emotionally distraught as a result of the scandal, making his departure critical to national stability and security. Ford succeeded and nominated Nelson Rockefeller to be vice president.

The 25th Amendment should have been invoked following the 1981 assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan. But that failure led the Reagan White House and many following administrations to take planning for the amendment’s use seriously. That is why Reagan and President George W. Bush both used the amendment to temporarily transfer power for medical procedures.

From the nation’s earliest years, its presidents have been attacked by assassins and ailments. Those tragedies have never spiraled into further catastrophes, sometimes only thanks to luck. The 25th Amendment makes the nation less reliant on good fortune. But it only works if leaders place the national interest above all else.

John D. Feerick is a dean emeritus and Norris professor of law at Fordham University School of Law.


Sadržaj

The Secret Service is mandated by Congress with two distinct and critical national security missions: protecting the nation's leaders and safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States.

Protective mission Edit

The Secret Service ensures the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, the president's and vice president's immediate families, former presidents, their spouses and their minor children under the age of 16, major presidential and vice-presidential candidates and their spouses, and visiting foreign heads of state. The Secret Service also provides physical security for the White House Complex, the neighboring Treasury Department building, the vice president's residence, and all foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, D.C. The protective mission includes protective operations to coordinate manpower and logistics with state and local law enforcement, protective advances to conduct site and venue assessments for protectees, and protective intelligence to investigate all manners of threats made against protectees. The Secret Service is the lead agency in charge of the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations for events designated as National Special Security Events (NSSE). As part of the Service's mission of preventing an incident before it occurs, the agency relies on meticulous advance work and threat assessments developed by its Intelligence Division to identify potential risks to protectees. [5]

Investigative mission Edit

The Secret Service safeguards the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and cyber-based crimes. Financial investigations include counterfeit U.S. currency, bank and financial institution fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, illicit financing operations, and major conspiracies. Cyber investigations include cybercrime, network intrusions, identity theft, access device fraud, credit card fraud, and intellectual property crimes. The Secret Service is also a member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) which investigates and combats terrorism on a national and international scale. Also, the Secret Service investigates missing and exploited children and is a partner of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC). [6]

The Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate the counterfeiting of U.S. currency, which was rampant following the American Civil War. The agency then evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were later taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), and IRS Criminal Investigation Division (IRS-CI).

The Secret Service combines the two responsibilities into a unique dual objective. The two core missions of protection and investigation synergize with the other, providing crucial benefits to special agents during the course of their careers. Skills developed during the course of investigations which are also used in an agent's protective duties include but are not limited to:

  • Partnerships that are created between field offices and local law enforcement during the course of investigations being used to gather both protective intelligence and in coordinating protection events.
  • Tactical operation (e.g. surveillance, arrests, and search warrants) and law enforcement writing (e.g. affidavits, after action reports, and operations plans) skills being applied to both investigative and protective duties.
  • Proficiency in analyzing handwriting and forgery techniques being applied in protective investigations of handwritten letters and suspicious package threats.
  • Expertise in investigating electronic and financial crimes being applied in protective investigations of threats made against the nation's leaders on the Internet.

Protection of the nation's highest elected leaders and other government officials is one of the primary missions of the Secret Service. After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress also directed the Secret Service to protect the president of the United States. The Secret Service investigates thousands of incidents each year of individuals threatening the president of the United States.

The Secret Service is authorized by 18 U.S.C. § 3056(a) to protect: [7]

  • The president, vice president (or the next individual in the order of succession, should the vice presidency be vacant), president-elect and vice president-elect
  • The immediate families of the above individuals
  • Former presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, except if the spouse remarries
  • Children of former presidents under the age of 16
  • Visiting heads of state or government and their spouses traveling with them
  • Other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad, when the president directs protection be provided
  • Major presidential and vice presidential candidates and, within 120 days of a general presidential election, their spouses
  • Former vice presidents, their spouses, and their children under 16 years of age, for up to 6 months from the date the former vice president leaves office (the Secretary of Homeland Security can authorize temporary protection of these individuals at any time after that period)

In addition to the above, the Secret Service can also protect other individuals by executive order of the president. [8] Under Presidential Policy Directive 22, "National Special Security Events", the Secret Service is the lead agency for the design and implementation of operational security plans for events designated a NSSE by the secretary of homeland security.

There have been changes to the protection of former presidents over time. Under the original Former Presidents Act, former presidents and their spouses were entitled to lifetime protection, subject to limited exceptions. In 1994, this was amended to reduce the protection period to 10 years after a former president left office, starting with presidents assuming the role after January 1, 1997. On January 10, 2013, President Barack Obama signed legislation reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection to all former presidents. [9] This change impacted Presidents Obama and G.W. Bush, as well as all future presidents. [10]

Protection of government officials is not solely the responsibility of the Secret Service, with many other agencies, such as the United States Capitol Police, Supreme Court Police and Diplomatic Security Service, providing personal protective services to domestic and foreign officials. However, while these agencies are nominally responsible for services to other officers of the United States and senior dignitaries, the Secret Service provides protective services at the highest-level – i.e. for heads of state and heads of government.

The Secret Service's other primary mission is investigative to protect the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes including counterfeit U.S. currency, bank & financial institution fraud, illicit financing operations, cybercrime, identity theft, intellectual property crimes, and any other violations that may affect the United States economy and financial systems. The agency's key focus is on large, high-dollar economic impact cases involving organized criminal groups. Financial criminals include embezzling bank employees, armed robbers at automatic teller machines, heroin traffickers, and criminal organizations that commit bank fraud on a global scale.

The USSS plays a leading role in facilitating relationships between other law enforcement entities, the private sector, and academia. The Service maintains the Electronic Crimes Task Forces, which focus on identifying and locating international cyber criminals connected to cyber intrusions, bank fraud, data breaches, and other computer-related crimes. Additionally, the Secret Service runs the National Computer Forensics Institute (NCFI), which provides law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and judges with cyber training and information to combat cybercrime.

In the face of budget pressure, hiring challenges and some high-profile lapses in its protective service role in 2014, the Brookings Institution and some members of Congress are asking whether the agency's focus should shift more to the protective mission, leaving more of its original mission to other agencies. [11] [12]

Prve godine Edit

With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit at the time, [13] Abraham Lincoln established a commission to make recommendations to remedy the problem. On April 14, 1865, the day he was assassinated, Lincoln signed legislation that created the Secret Service. The Secret Service was later established on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. It was commissioned in Washington, D.C. as the "Secret Service Division" of the Department of the Treasury with the mission of suppressing counterfeiting. The signed legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincoln's desk the night he was assassinated. [14] At the time, the only other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Customs Service, the United States Park Police, the U.S. Post Office Department's Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations (now known as the United States Postal Inspection Service), and the United States Marshals Service. The Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal jurisdiction, so the Secret Service began investigating a wide range of crimes from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling.

After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service provide presidential protection. A year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for presidential protection. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to die while on duty, in a road accident while riding in the presidential carriage. [15]

The Secret Service was the first U.S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were later vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) upon the FBI's creation in 1908.

20th century Edit

Taft Mexican Summit (1909) Edit

In 1909, President William H. Taft agreed to meet with Mexican president Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, the first meeting between a U.S. and a Mexican president and also the first time an American president visited Mexico. [16] But the historic summit resulted in serious assassination threats and other security concerns for the then small Secret Service, so the Texas Rangers, 4,000 U.S. and Mexican troops, BOI agents, U.S. Marshals, and an additional 250-man private security detail led by Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, were all called in by Chief John Wilkie to provide added security. [17] [18] On October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route. [19] The man was captured and disarmed only a few feet from Díaz and Taft. [20]

1940 -te Edit

The Secret Service assisted in arresting Japanese American leaders and in the Japanese American internment during World War II. [21]

1950 -te Edit

In 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in Blair House while the White House, across the street, was undergoing renovations. On November 1, 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman. Collazo and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm German Luger to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, killing Torresola with a single shot to his head. Collazo was also shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in late 1979. [ potreban citat ] Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service killed while protecting a US president against an assassination attempt (Special Agent Tim McCarthy stepped in front of President Ronald Reagan during the assassination attempt of March 30, 1981, and took a bullet to the chest but made a full recovery [22] ).

1960 -te Edit

In 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees. [23] In 1965 and 1968, Congress also authorized lifetime protection of the spouses of deceased presidents unless they remarry and of the children of former presidents until age 16. [24]

1980 -te Edit

In 1984, the US Congress passed the Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which extended the Secret Service's jurisdiction over credit card fraud and computer fraud. [25]

1990s Edit

In 1990, the Secret Service initiated Operation Sundevil, which they originally intended as a sting against malicious hackers, allegedly responsible for disrupting telephone services across the entire United States. The operation, which was later described by Bruce Sterling in his book The Hacker Crackdown, affected a great number of people unrelated to hacking, and led to no convictions. The Secret Service, however, was sued and required to pay damages. [ potreban citat ] On March 1, 1990, the Secret Service served a search warrant on Steve Jackson Games, a small company in Austin, Texas, seizing three computers and over 300 floppy disks. In the subsequent lawsuit, the judge reprimanded the Secret Service, calling their warrant preparation "sloppy." [26]

In 1994 and 1995, it ran an undercover sting called Operation Cybersnare. [27] The Secret Service has concurrent jurisdiction with the FBI over certain violations of federal computer crime laws. They have created 24 Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) across the United States. These task forces are partnerships between the Service, federal/state and local law enforcement, the private sector and academia aimed at combating technology-based crimes. [ potreban citat ]

In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive 62, which established National Special Security Events (NSSE). That directive made the Secret Service responsible for security at designated events. In 1999, the United States Secret Service Memorial Building was dedicated in DC, granting the agency its first headquarters. Prior to this, the agency's different departments were based in office space around the DC area. [28]

21. vijek Edit

2000s Edit

September 11 attacks Edit

The New York City Field office was located at 6 World Trade Center. Immediately after the World Trade Center was attacked as part of the September 11 attacks, Special Agents and other New York Field office employees were among the first to respond with first aid. Sixty-seven Special Agents in New York City, at and near the New York Field Office, helped to set up triage areas and evacuate the towers. One Secret Service employee, Master Special Officer Craig Miller, [29] died during the rescue efforts. On August 20, 2002, Director Brian L. Stafford awarded the Director's Valor Award to employees who assisted in the rescue attempts. [30]


Friday, August 24, 2012

Assassination of President William McKinley: great online resources

United States Secret Service Agent Killed While Protecting President Theodore Roosevelt To Be Honored In October

United States Secret Service Agent Killed While Protecting President Theodore Roosevelt To Be Honored In October


By Theodore Roosevelt Association

Theodore Roosevelt Association

Last modified: 2012-08-23T08:13:11Z

Published: Thursday, Aug. 23, 2012 - 1:12 am

Copyright 2012 . Sva prava zadržana. Ovaj materijal se ne smije objavljivati, emitirati, prepisivati ​​ili dalje distribuirati.

CHICAGO, Aug. 23, 2012 -- William J. Craig, First Operative to Die in the Line of Duty, to Be Recognized during Theodore Roosevelt Association's 93rd Annual Meeting

CHICAGO, Aug. 23, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Theodore Roosevelt Association (TRA) will pay tribute to Chicago native William J. Craig, the first Secret Service agent to die in the line of duty while protecting America's top elected leader, during the TRA's 93rd annual meeting. The four-day conference will be held October 25-28 at the Union League Club of Chicago.

The program recognizing Craig will include a short video on his life, his service to President Theodore Roosevelt, and details of his untimely death while protecting the President. Expected to attend the event on Saturday, October 27 is current United States Secret Service director Mark L. Sullivan.

A native of Glasgow, Scotland and a former bodyguard to Queen Victoria, Craig joined the Secret Service in Chicago in 1900. He was assigned to the White House in 1901, just as the Secret Service assumed responsibility for protecting the president.

On September 3, 1902, Craig was killed in a collision between a trolley car and a carriage in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The accident occurred while he was riding with President Roosevelt on a speaking trip. A speeding trolley car crashed into the carriage and the impact killed agent Craig, whose last words as he tried to shield the President were "Look Out, Hold Fast". President Roosevelt, who was thrown from the carriage, narrowly escaped death and was seriously injured, spending many weeks in a wheelchair. Roosevelt later said of Craig, "The man who was killed was one of whom I was fond of and whom I greatly prized for his loyalty and faithfulness."

Tweed Roosevelt, president of the Theodore Roosevelt Association and great-grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, stated, "We are pleased to honor and recognize agent Craig for his service to Theodore Roosevelt. Without the heroic actions of agent Craig, my great-grandfather might have perished that fateful day."

The theme for the 93rd annual meeting is "The Centennial Celebration of the 1912 Progressive Party Convention in Chicago." The conference will feature prominent historians and authors speaking on Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 presidential campaign.

Details of the meeting and registration information are available at www.traannualmeeting2012.org.

Founded in 1919 and chartered by Congress in 1920, the Theodore Roosevelt Association is a national historical society and public service organization that has perpetuated the memory and legacy of the nation's 26th president through an array of historical and cultural activities. Its members come from every state and have diverse backgrounds, but they all share a keen interest in history and in furthering the legacy of one of America's first modern presidents.


The Secret Service today

One could argue that with the many threats the agency must defend against, having only one President die under its protection is a testament to the hard work these people have done for the last twelve decades. Their responsibilities have only increased since then.

The Secret Service is now responsible for not only the life of the President and his family, but the lives of former presidents and their families, major presidential candidates, and visiting heads of state. As was seen in the attack on the Capitol, they’re tasked with protecting the Vice President as well. And true to their original purpose, the Secret Service is still tasked with fighting against counterfeiting and cyber financial fraud.


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