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Azerbejdžan - istorija

Azerbejdžan - istorija

Stanovništvo sredinom 2006. godine ................................ 7,961,619

BDP po glavi stanovnika 2006. (metoda pariteta kupovine, US $) ........... 7.300
BDP 2006. (Atlas metoda, milijarde USD) ................ 14.5
Nezaposlenost ................................................. .................... 1,2%

Prosječni godišnji rast 1991-97
Stanovništvo (%) ........8
Radna snaga (%) ....... 1.6

Ukupna površina ................................................ ................... 33.346 sq. Mi.
Siromaštvo (% stanovništva ispod nacionalne granice siromaštva) ...... 68
Gradsko stanovništvo (% od ukupnog broja stanovnika) ............................... 56
Očekivano trajanje života pri rođenju (godine) ........................................... .......... 71
Smrtnost dojenčadi (na 1.000 živorođene djece) ........................................ 20
Neuhranjenost djece (% djece mlađe od 5 godina) .............................. 10
Nepismenost (% stanovništva starijeg od 15 godina) ......................................... .... 3


Republika Azerbejdžan se nalazi na istoku Transkavkazije. Sa sjevera granica Azerbejdžana ima kontakt sa Ruskom Federacijom. Na jugu se zemlja graniči s Iranom, na zapadu - s Jermenijom, na sjeverozapadu - s Gruzijom. Sa istoka zemlju operu valovi Kaspijskog mora.

Teritorija Azerbejdžana gotovo je podjednako zastupljena planinskim regijama i nizinama. Ova činjenica je imala važnu ulogu u istorijskom razvoju zemlje.


Karti predjela Azerbejdžana

Azerbejdžan (zvanično, Republika Azerbejdžan) podijeljen je na 66 oblasti (rajonlar, sing. Rajon) i 11 gradova (saharlar, sing. Sahar). Abecednim redom, oblasti su: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goycay, Goycay, Goycay Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saath, Sabirabad, Sabirabad,, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala i Zardab. Gradovi su: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi i Yevlax.

Smješten na zapadnoj obali Kaspijskog mora, Baku je glavni i najveći grad Azerbejdžana. Zbog svoje lokacije od 28 metara ispod razine mora, Baku je najveći grad na svijetu koji se nalazi ispod razine mora, a ujedno je i najniža nacionalna prijestolnica na svijetu. Baku je administrativni, kulturni i ekonomski centar Azerbejdžana.


Zastava Azerbejdžana

6. Azerbejdžan nakratko postao nezavisan između 1918. i 1920. godine međutim, sljedećih sedamdeset godina ponovo je uključen u sastav Sovjetskog Saveza.

7. Prije uspostavljanja sovjetske vlasti u Azerbejdžanu je bilo 2.000 džamija u zemlji. Međutim, većina ovih džamija zatvorena je 1930 -ih.

8. Korupcija rasprostranjena je u zemlji i jedan je od njenih velikih problema.

9. The Vlada je takođe optužena za autoritarizam jer je izmijenio ograničenje predsjedničkog mandata sa 5 godina na 7 godina 2016.

10. Država se snašla nezavisnost 30. avgusta 1991.

11. Zemlja ima većinski tursko i većinski šiitsko muslimansko stanovništvo.

12. Ljudi su nastanjivali Azerbejdžan od paleolitskog doba (koje se naziva i starije kameno doba, drevna kulturna faza ili nivo ljudskog razvoja, karakteriziran upotrebom rudimentarnog oruđa od usitnjenog kamena - definicija Encyclopedia Britannica.)

Sukob između Azerbejdžana i Armenije

13. Nagorno-Karabah (teritorij unutar Azerbejdžana, ali koji se sastoji uglavnom od etničkih Jermena) je regija bez izlaza na more, koja je postala razlog za sukob (teritorijalne i etničke) između Azerbejdžana i susjedne Armenije.

14. U toku rata koji je počeo 1991 nakon proglašenja nezavisnosti Nagorno-Karabaha (samoproglašena autonomna regija), procijenjeno je da je 30.000 ljudi ubijeno, a milion ih je napustilo svoje domove.

15. Na kraju rata, Etnička armenska milicija preuzela je kontrolu nad regijom.

16. A Prekid vatre potpisan je 1994. Međutim, napetost između Armenije i Azerbejdžana ponovo se nakratko pojačala 2014. godine.

17. Značajni ljudi: Zemlja je iznjedrila mnoge naučnike (Kerim Kerimov, Seyid Yahya Bakuvi), muzičare, mislioce, pjesnike, filozofe (Adil Asadov, Zumrud Gulu-zade), mislioce i arhitekte.

18. Azerbejdžan protiv ostatka svijeta: Azerbejdžan je na 113. mjestu na listi svjetskih zemalja po površini. Takođe, u tom području Australija je 89 puta, a Gvatemala (država Centralne Amerike) 1,25 puta veća od Azerbejdžana.

19. U populaciji: Azerbejdžan je na 92. mjestu među zemljama sa najvećim brojem stanovnika. Kina ima#8216 stanovnika 139 puta više od Azerbejdžana (statistika za 2016).

20. Provjerite i spojite se: Azerbejdžan je dom dvojice šahista svjetske klase - Garry Kasparov i Teymur Rajabov. Garry je rođen u glavnom gradu Azerbajdžana Bakuu i bio je neprikosnoveni svjetski prvak između 1985. i 1993. godine.


Azerbejdžan - istorija i kultura

Azerbejdžansko ime doslovno znači "čuvari vatre" koje je izvedeno od perzijskog "Azar", što znači "vatra" i "Baijan", "zaštitnik ili čuvar". Na bogatu i šarenu istoriju zemlje utiče njena lokacija u regionu Kavkaza, omeđena Kaspijskim morem, Gruzijom, Turskom, Jermenijom, Iranom i Daghestanom. U njemu živi nekoliko etničkih grupa iz okolnih područja, od kojih je većina poznata kao „Azerbejdžanci“. Zemlju je koloniziralo Rusko carstvo 80 godina sve dok nije uspostavljena Azerbejdžanska Demokratska Republika 1918. Sovjeti su izvršili invaziju na državu 1920. godine, a Azerbejdžan je ostao pod njegovom vlašću do 1991. godine, kada je Sovjetski Savez konačno propao.

Istorija

Postoje dokazi da je civilizacija u Azerbejdžanu započela još u kasnom kamenom dobu iz dokaza pronađenih u pećini Azykh koji dokazuju postojanje kulture Guruchay. Pećine Zar, Damcili i Tagilar također su dale dokaze o naseljima iz kasnog brončanog doba i paleolita. Skiti su navodno bili najraniji ljudi koji su živjeli u Azerbejdžanu u 9. stoljeću prije nove ere, ali su kasnije iranski Mediji dominirali teritorijom i osnovali carstvo između 900. do 700. godine prije nove ere. Na kraju su se 550. godine prije Krista spojili s Ahemenidima, šireći zoroastrizam. Nekoliko godina kasnije, teritorij je preuzeo Aleksandar Veliki i postao dio njegovog carstva. Prvobitni građani ovog područja bili su belci Albanci, koji su formirali svoje nezavisno kraljevstvo negdje u 4. stoljeću prije nove ere.

Feudalno doba započelo je kada su kavkasko albansko kraljevstvo 252. godine nove ere Sasanidi pretvorili u vazalnu državu. Do 4. stoljeća kralj Urnayr proglasio je kršćanstvo službenom religijom države. Iako su Vizantinci i Sasanidi pokrenuli nekoliko osvajanja, Albanija je ostala prepoznatljiva do 9. stoljeća. Do tada je Umajadski kalifat, islamska grupa, otjerala Bizantince i Sasanide iz regije, pretvarajući kraljevstvo u podređenog nakon kršćanskog otpora princa Javanshira, koji je zaustavljen 667. Nekoliko lokalnih dinastija formirano je kada je abasidski kalifat opao, uključujući Sajide, Sallaride, Buyids, Rawadids i Shaddadids. Teritorij su početkom 11. stoljeća postepeno preuzela turska plemena Oguzi iz srednje Azije. Gaznavidi su bili prva od dinastija osnovanih kada su stigli 1030. godine na zemlju koja je danas poznata kao Azerbejdžan. Prije tursko -azerbejdžanske ere, domoroci su govorili starom azarijskim jezikom, koji je izveden iz iranskog. Kada su došla turska plemena Oghuz, došlo je do prelaska na turski jezik, ali to je izumrlo do 16. stoljeća.

Atabegovi su vladali posedima Seldžučkog carstva, služeći kao vazali suldžana Seldžuka, i smatrani su de facto vladarima. Perzijska književnost je u tom periodu bila dominantna zbog pjesnika poput Khagani Shirvani i Nizami Ganjavi. Kasnije je Timur osvojio državu Jalayirids, dok su lokalni Shirvanshahs postali vazal njegovog carstva. Nakon njegove smrti formirane su dvije suparničke, ali nezavisne države: Ak Koyunlu i Kara Koyunlu. Na kraju su se Shirvanshahi vratili i postali autonomni, birajući lokalne vladare od 861 do 1539. Kada su bili progonjeni od strane Safavida, konačna dinastija je natjerala šiitski islam na sunitsko stanovništvo gdje su se borili protiv Osmanskog carstva. Iranci iz Zanda i Afhsara vladali su ovom teritorijom nakon Safavida, dok su Qajari preuzeli kratku kontrolu nad Azerbejdžanom. Kada se dinastija Zand srušila, de facto su kanati počeli pristizati na to područje i postali su evidentniji.

Gulistanskim ugovorom okončana je vladavina kanata, ali su zadržali kontrolu nad poslovima koji uključuju međunarodne trgovačke puteve prema zapadnoj i centralnoj Aziji. Konačno, 1813. godine, kanati su postali dio Ruskog carstva. Rusija je okupirala teritoriju, posebno područje sjeverno od rijeke Aras. Perzija je priznala suverenitet Rusije nad Nakhchivan, Lankaran i Erivan Khanates putem Turkmenchajskog ugovora. Rusko carstvo je propalo u Prvom svjetskom ratu, a Azerbejdžan je prebačen u dio Transkavkaske demokratske federativne republike, koja je okončana u svibnju 1918, što ih je dovelo do toga da konačno postanu nezavisna Azerbejdžanska demokratska republika.

Azerbejdžanski parlament prvi je priznao pravo glasa žena. Oni su takođe osnovali Baku State University, prvi moderni muslimanski fakultet. Nakon raspada Sovjetskog Saveza 1991. Azerbejdžan je postao republika i ponovo je mahao zastavom Azerbejdžanske Demokratske Republike. Uprkos ratovima koji su zasjenili prve godine nezavisnosti, Azerbejdžan se nastavio poboljšavati u ekonomskom smislu. Danas su jedna od najnaprednijih vlada sa vanjskom politikom zasnovanom na zajedničkom interesu i jednakosti.

Kultura

Azerbejdžanska kultura je pod jakim uticajem Evrope i islama sa ruskim, turskim i iranskim naslijeđem. Današnji Azerbejdžanci naslijedili su običaje i praksu različitih drevnih civilizacija, poput iranskog skitskog plemena, autohtonih kavkaskih Albanaca, Turaka Oguza i Alana, dok zapadni utjecaj i dalje opada.

Azerbejdžan je dom mnogih etničkih grupa, od kojih većina pripada azerbejdžanskoj grupi. Azerbejdžanci su dobro odgojeni i rezervirani ljudi koji se prema svojim starijima i ženama odnose s najvećim poštovanjem. Nije pristojno ispuhivati ​​nos ili brati zube tokom obroka, dodirivati ​​nekoga bez njihovog dopuštenja, žvakati žvaku u javnosti ili podupirati noge dok sjedite. Nepristojno je i lupiti nekoga po leđima, zagrliti medvjeda, psovati u javnosti ili vikati na javnom mjestu pa se sjetite da budete poštovani i da se ponašate kako treba.


Društvena stratifikacija

Klase i kaste. Gradska trgovačka klasa i industrijska buržoazija iz predsovjetskog doba izgubili su svoje bogatstvo pod Sovjetskim Savezom. Radnička klasa u gradovima obično je zadržavala ruralne veze. Najvažniji kriterij društvene stratifikacije je urbano naspram ruralnog porijekla, iako su obrazovne mogućnosti i principi jednakosti uvedeni u sovjetsko doba donekle promijenili ovaj obrazac. Rusi, Jevreji i Armenci uglavnom su bili gradski radnici. Za Azerbejdžane,

Simboli društvene stratifikacije. Kao i u doba socijalizma, zapadno odijevanje i urbani maniri obično imaju viši status od ruralnog stila. U sovjetsko doba na one koji su govorili ruski s azerbejdžanskim akcentom gledalo se s visoka, jer se to obično podrazumijevalo da su iz ruralnog područja ili da su išli u azerbejdžansku školu. Nasuprot tome, danas sposobnost govorenja "književnog" azerbejdžanskog jezika ima veliku vrijednost, jer ukazuje na učenu porodicu koja nije izgubila azerbejdžanski identitet.


Formiranje religija u Azerbejdžanu

Zbog strateškog položaja Azerbejdžana, na njega su kroz povijest utjecale različite zemlje i kulture, što je rezultiralo formiranjem i evolucijom različitih religija u različitim periodima u zemlji. U različito vrijeme u historiji Azerbejdžana stanovništvo je prihvaćalo paganstvo, zoroastrizam, kršćanstvo i islam kao glavne religije.

Širenje paganizma u Azerbejdžanu

Prva religija koja se proširila u Azerbejdžanu smatra se paganizam. Širenje ove religije u zemlji ima korijene u drevnoj istoriji. Idolopoklonstvo se često predstavljalo kao sinteza, odnosno vjerovanja su se međusobno malo razlikovala, bila su međusobno pod utjecajem, nadopunjavala su se i sudjelovala u formiranju sistema moralnih vrijednosti ljudi u regiji. Na području drevnog Azerbejdžana bilo je jako štovanje duhova mrtvih predaka, kamenja i drveća (bukva, hrast itd.), Raznih prirodnih pojava i nebeskih tijela. Hrastovo drvo, poznato i kao “Tanri khan ”, također se obožavalo, a konji su žrtvovani.

Tokom ovog perioda paganizma, vjera ljudi u određena vjerovanja, posebno u vatru, vodu, drveće i nebeska tijela, postala je jača. Iako su prošle tisuće godina, znakovi ovog vjerovanja utjecali su i na način na koji ljudi danas žive.

Širenje zoroastrizma u Azerbejdžanu

Istorijski se vjeruje da je zoroastrizam nastao u Azerbejdžanu i proširio se na druga područja. Obožavanje vatre općenito se smatra istim kao i zoroastrizam, ali zoroastrizam se pojavio kao neovisna religija, iako iznutra štovanja vatre. Međutim, oba su vjerovanja nastala kao neovisne sfere religije, a njihov nastanak izravno je povezan s teritorijima i narodom Azerbejdžana. Vatra je imala važnu ulogu u zoroastrizmu, pa se stoga zoroastrijanci često smatraju obožavateljima vatre. Zoroastrijanci nisu sahranjivali tijela mrtvih jer su ih smatrali nečistima, već su ih držali na posebnim mjestima u planinama za jelo ptica. Tek tada su očišćene kosti sakupljene i zakopane. Prije zoroastrizma u svijetu su postojale različite religije i vjerovanja, ali sva su bila lokalna i nisu mogla prijeći granice regije. Zoroastrizam, državna religija tri velika carstva, ne samo da je nadišao granice koncepta lokalne religije, već je po prvi put u antičkom svijetu stvorio savršen skup principa religije, svjetonazora, morala, života i duhovnosti.

Širenje judaizma u Azerbejdžanu

Jedan od naroda koji hiljadama godina živi na teritoriji Azerbejdžana su Jevreji. Istorija jevrejskih naselja u Azerbejdžanu seže prije 2600 godina. Prije nego što su Židovi došli u Azerbejdžan, postojale su različite religije i uvjerenja na ovim prostorima, ali nijedno nije dolazilo iz inozemstva i ovdje se formiralo. S ovog gledišta, judaizam se smatra prvom religijom koja je u Azerbejdžan došla iz inostranstva. Planinski Jevreji, koji se smatraju najstarijom jevrejskom zajednicom u Azerbejdžanu, potomci su drevnih jevrejskih plemena koja su pobjegla iz svoje domovine kao posljedica rušenja prvog hrama u Jerusalimu u 6. stoljeću prije nove ere. Postoje tri jevrejske zajednice u Azerbejdžanu i#8211 planinskoj, aškenaskoj i gruzijskoj jevrejskoj zajednici. Ukupan broj Jevreja u zemlji je oko 16.000. Od toga je 11.000 planinskih Jevreja, oko 6.000 živi u Bakuu, 4.000 u Gubi i 1.000 u drugim gradovima. Gorski Jevreji sada čine većinu čitave jevrejske dijaspore u zemlji.

Širenje kršćanstva u Azerbejdžanu

Hrišćanstvo je prodrlo na teritoriju Azerbejdžana u prvim vekovima nove ere kroz kavkasku Albaniju. Prva crkva koju su hrišćani izgradili u ovom periodu izgrađena je takođe u selu Kiš. Vjeruje se da je ova crkva sagrađena prije prve kršćanske crkve u Armeniji. Kada je rimski car Konstantin 313. godine ukinuo zabranu kršćanstva, albanski vladar Urnayr proglasio je kršćanstvo državnom religijom, a od tada je započela nova era kršćanstva na teritoriji Azerbejdžana. Od tada su se crkve gradile na raznim mjestima na području kavkaske Albanije. Primeri ovih crkava su stare albanske crkve koje se sada nalaze u Šekiju.

Momenti istorije Azerbejdžana vezani za kršćanstvo ne pripadaju samo predislamskom periodu, već i činjenici da su nakon što je islam postao vodeća religija u Azerbejdžanu, kršćani živjeli na ovim prostorima i blisko učestvovali u formiranju naše zajedničke kulture. Propast kršćanstva započela je padom Arapskog carstva pod kavkasku Albaniju i potpunom okupacijom ovih teritorija. Od tada se u zemlji provode razne aktivnosti na širenju islama i tjeranju ljudi da ga prihvate kao glavnu religiju.

Širenje islamske religije u Azerbejdžanu

Početak širenja islama na području Azerbejdžana smatra se 639. godine.

U to vrijeme Arapsko carstvo je već osvajalo mnoge gradove Azerbejdžana i proširilo potrebu za usvajanjem islama na predstavnike različitih naroda koji su živjeli na teritorijama koje su osvojili. Širenje islama u nekim je područjima provedeno mirno, a na nekim mjestima i silom. Na osvojenim teritorijama ljudima je ponuđeno da pređu na islam, a oni koji su to prihvatili nisu bili pogođeni, a onima koji to nisu učinili nametnut je poseban porez. Padom albanske države 705. godine i gubitkom nezavisnosti albanske crkve, širenje islama počelo se ubrzavati.

Nakon ovog razdoblja, na području Azerbejdžana formirane su različite države, a islam je prihvaćen kao glavna vjera u svim zemljama, pa su kao rezultat toga ljudi koji žive u toj zemlji prihvatili islam kao glavnu vjeru. Danas je islam i dalje glavna religija zemlje, sa oko 99% stanovništva zemlje#8217.


AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamska istorija do 1941

Pozadina. Azerbejdžan je formirao zasebnu provinciju ranog islamskog kalifata, ali su njegove precizne granice varirale u različitim periodima. Na sjeveru je rijeka Aras ili Araxes činila jasnu prirodnu granicu između Azerbejdžana i Arrana ili kavkaske Albanije, dok je nizinsko područje Mūḡān/Mūqān (Moḡān), koje leži između donjih tokova riječnog sistema Aras-Kor i zapadna obala Kaspijskog mora obično se administrativno smatrala dijelom Azerbejdžana. Na jugu je Safīd-rūd općenito činio granicu s provincijom Jebāl, sa sjeverozapadnim nastavkom lanca Alburz (Alborz) koji odvaja Azerbejdžan od Gīlana i kaspijskog primorja. Zapadna granica bila je manje određena, ali sjeverni produžetak planina Zagros koji se proteže kroz Kurdistan i modernu Tursku welāyatHakārī i Van, koji odvajaju slivove jezera Urmia i Van, općenito se smatralo granicom. Ali Azerbejdžan i pritoka, ali često u praksi uglavnom nezavisna pokrajina Armenija često su uzimani kao jedna ogromna provincija i njihova konfiguracija, kako im je dat izraz reḥāb & ldquothe planinske ravnice, platoi & rdquo emisije, koji su u osnovi slični & mdashand postavljeni pod jednog guvernera, geograf Moqaddasī, str. 373-74, uključuje pod eqlīm al-Reḥāb Azerbejdžan, Arran i Armenija, usp. A. Miquel, Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrefat al-aqālīm (La meilleure r & eacutepartition pour la connaissance des provinces), Damask, 1963., str. 318. Međutim, Azerbejdžan se ponekad može povezati i sa Jeballom ili s provincijama Mosul i Jazīra, pokazujući fluidnost administrativnih aranžmana u prva dva ili tri stoljeća islama. Nadalje, valja napomenuti da klasični arapski i perzijski geografi iz III/9. i 4./10. stoljeća često razlikuju istočnu i zapadnu administrativnu podjelu Azerbejdžana: istočnu s centrom Marānom kao središtem i zapadnu iz Ardabila , koji se generalno smatrao glavnim gradom Azerbejdžana.

Arapski geografi i povjesničari također su primijetili da se razbijena priroda terena, čije su visoravni i planine provinciji dale izrazito oštru klimu (geografi su je stavili dijelom u četvrti, a dijelom u peti klimat), ogledala u heterogenosti u jezičkom , etnička, društvena i vjerska pitanja. Ne moramo ozbiljno shvaćati tvrdnju Moqaddasīja i rsquosa (str. 375) da Azerbejdžan ima sedamdeset jezika, što je stanje koje se ispravnije primjenjuje na područje Kavkaza na sjeveru, ali je u osnovi iransko stanovništvo govorilo aberantnom, dijalektičkom formom perzijskog jezika (koju je nazvao Masʿūdī al-āḏarīya), kao i standardni perzijski, a geografi navode da je prvo bilo teško razumjeti. Sjeverno od Arasa, dugo je opstao poseban, vjerovatno iranski, Arranov govor, koji je nazvao Ebn Ḥawqal (str. 349, tr. Kramers, str. 342) al-rānīya, i u sjeveroistočnim okruzima Azerbejdžana, naravno, pronađen je armenski. Na zapadu pokrajine, oko Urmijskog jezera, Kurdi su morali biti poznati, jer se Kurdi često spominju kao etnička komponenta Azerbejdžana i tamo su trebali igrati značajnu političku ulogu od vremena Rawwadida nadalje (vidi dolje). Kako se arapsko naselje povećavalo, arapski je postao poznat, barem kao urbani govor. Ebn Ḥawqal (loc. Cit.) Navodi da je većina govornika perzijskog jezika mogla razumjeti i arapski (tvrdnja je bez sumnje vrijedila samo za stanovnike gradova) te da su trgovci i zemljoposjedničke klase odlično govorili takve društvene klase, naravno, zahtijevalo bi znanje arapskog za njihove komercijalne kontakte i za njihove političke veze s arapskom vojskom i službenim klasama. Tek je etnička turcizacija Azerbejdžana, od 5. do 11. stoljeća nadalje, učinila turski glavnim jezikom Azerbejdžana, kao što je to danas (vidi dolje).

Što se tiče vjerskog obrasca Azerbejdžana, zoroastrizam je u predislamsko doba imao istaknuti položaj, a arapski izvori često izvještavaju da je provincija rodno mjesto Zoroaster & rsquos Balāḏorī i Ebn Ḵordāḏbeh, a za to, na primjer, navode Urmiju, a Yāqūt i Qazvīnī spominje i Scaronīz. Nekada brojni vatrogasni hramovi Azerbejdžana naveli su mnoge arapske vlasti da objasne da naziv same pokrajine znači nešto poput & ldquofire temple & rdquo (npr. Yāqūt [Beirut], I, str. 128: & ldquofire čuvar & rdquo & gt & ldquofire hram & rdquo). Veliko svetište u & Scaronīzu (qv) (možda će se nalaziti u Taḵt-e Solaymānu, jugoistočno od Urmijskog jezera), bilo je lokalno duhovno središte zoroastrizma u vrijeme arapskog osvajanja i prava zoroastrijske zajednice, as ahl al-ḏemma, u tom trenutku su osigurane slobodne vjere (vidi dolje). Putnik iz 4./10. stoljeća Ebu Dolaf govori o vatrenom hramu koji je tada još postojao, s detaljima da se na vrhu njegove kupole nalazi srebrni polumjesec koji čini njegov talisman. I amori i uzurpatori željeli su ga ukloniti, ali nisu uspjeli & rdquo, ali je Minorsky vjerojatno bio u pravu sumnjajući u istinitost ovog izvještaja i sugerirajući da su do tada bile vidljive samo ruševine (Druga Resala = Abū-Dulaf Misʿar Ibn Muhalhil & rsquos Putovanja po Iranu (oko 950. godine), Kairo, 1955., tekst par. 5, tr. 31-32, kom. str. 67-68 vidi i A. Godard, & ldquoLes spomenici du feu, & rdquo Ā th ār- & eacute Īrān 3, 1938, str. 45ff., I B. M. Tirmidhi, & ldquoZoroastrijanci i njihovi vatrogasni hramovi u Iranu i susjednim zemljama, & rdquo Islamska kultura 24, 1950, str. 271-84). Ako je zoroastrizam nestao kao izrazita vjera u Azerbejdžanu, njegovim bivšim sljedbenicima i vjernicima mazdakizma (potonji je poznat kao brojni element u kasnijem sasanidskom Azerbejdžanu), vrlo je vjerojatno doprinio izrazito heterodoksnom okusu Azerbejdžana i Arana u ranim islamskim stoljećima , vidi se u snazi ​​društveno-vjerskih protestnih pokreta i revolucionarnih preokreta, prije svega u onom u Babaku i Čorramiji (vidi dolje).

Iako je zoroastrizam jasno opao, kršćanstvo je dugo bilo vitalno i cvjetalo, o čemu svjedoči često spominjanje azerbejdžanskih biskupa u sirijskim izvorima i očito prisustvo monaških institucija i pustinjaka, ʿAhd & ldquodogovor & rdquo između dolazećih Arapa i naroda Azerbejdžana (vidi dolje) spominje isključenje iz plaćanja jezya ili porez na glasanje, između ostalog, & ldquotpobožnog bhakte i anchorita, koji nema imovine & rdquo (Ṭabarī, I, str. 2662). Kad je jakobitski mafrijanac ili poglavar crkve u perzijskim zemljama, proslavljeni Barhebraeus, umro u Marini 1286. godine, lokalni nestorijanci, melkiti i armenci pridružili su se jakobitima oplakujući ga. Zaista, u mongolsko doba, kršćanske zajednice su u početku uživale u uporednoj florescenciji i toleranciji u vrijeme Velikog Khana G & uumly & uumlka (r.1246-49), utjecaj unutar mongolske horde sirijskog monaha Simeona Rabban Ate osigurao je izgradnja crkava u snažno muslimanskim gradovima poput Tabrīza i Nakhchevana (Naḵjavān), sve dok prijelaz na islam u zāzānu (r. 694-703/1295-1304) nije doveo do poništenja ove usluge (vidi Spuler, Mongolen, str. 203 i dalje.). Nakon toga, kršćanstvo u Azerbejdžanu je opalo do istrebljenja, s izuzetkom tragičnih nestorijanskih ili asirskih kršćanskih neo-sirijskih govornih zajednica u regiji Urmijskog jezera koje su preživjele do danas. Što se tiče Židova, oni se u prvim stoljećima gotovo i ne spominju, iako su možda činili dio urbanih zajednica.

Od arapskog osvajanja do Saljuka. Arapsko osvajanje Azerbejdžana dogodilo se u kalifatu marOmar & rsquos na datum različito naveden između 18/639 i 22/643, nakon što su bitke poput Nehāvanda i Jalūlā -e otvorile mogućnost napada na Džebāl iz Iraka, a u osnovi su to poduzele trupe od novoosnovanog meṣr Kufe u centralnom Iraku. Armenski povjesničar Sebeos navodi da je Espahbaḏ iz Azerbejdžanskog Atrpatakana u posljednjim godinama Sasanijske monarhije bio Farroḵ-Hormezd (umro 630), čiji su sinovi Rostam i Farroḵzād ili Ḵorrazād tada pružili otpor Arapima (vidi Markwart, Ērān & scaronahr, str. 112-14). Od arapskih izvora imamo najpotpunije izvještaje iz Balāḏorīja, citirajući šejhove glavnog grada Ardabīla i Madāʾenīja (Fotūḥ [Kairo], str. 321-26) i iz Ṭabarīja, citirajući Sayfa b. ʿOmar (I, str. 2647-50, 2660-62). Čini se da su Arapi pridavali značajnu važnost upravljanju Azerbejdžanom. Izreka koja se pripisuje dehqān Hormozan, konsultovan sa halifom Omarom, opisuje Azerbejdžan kao, sa Farsom, jedno od dva krila sa svake strane ključne tačke, glavu Isfahana, pri čemu su sva tri međusobno povezana (Masʿūdī, Morūj IV, str. 230, ed. Pellat, par. 1563). Nakon što je baza Hamadāna osigurana za vrijeme namjesništva u Kūfi u Moḡīri b. & Scaronoʿba, čitava sjeverna Perzija bila je otvorena za napad. Balāḏorī & rsquos račun čini Ḥoḏayfa b. Yamān, prvi zapovjednik ekspedicije u Azerbejdžan. Ḥoḏayfa su se protivili marzbān Azerbejdžana u Ardabīlu, podržani od ljudi iz Bājarvāna, Mīmaḏa, Sarāta ili Sarāba, & Scaronīza, Mayānaja itd., ali je vojno trijumfirao i sklopio mirovni sporazum na osnovu godišnjeg danaka od 800.000 derhama u zamjenu za očuvanje ljudi ne žive bez robovanja poštujući svetost vatrogasnih hramova (naročito, stanovnici & Scaronīza su trebali nastaviti slobodno održavati svoje festivale) i zaštitu stanovništva od grabežljivih Kurda iz Balāsajāna, Sabalāna i & Scaronātrūḏāna (Balāḏorī, Fotūḥ, str. 321). Ḥoḏayfa je kasnije zamijenjen ʿOtba b. Farqad Solamī, koji je morao pokoriti selo Azerbejdžana, dok je novi guverner postavio halifa ʿOṯmān, njegov rođak Walīd b. ʿOtba b. Abī Moʿayṭ, morao je dalje ugušiti pobunu 25/645-46 i ponovo nametnuti ʿAhd od Ḥoḏayfa. Zapis Ṭabarī & rsquos opisuje preliminarne faze osvajanja, napravljene usprkos snažnom protivljenju brata Espahbaḏ Rostam & rsquos Esfandīāra, a zatim i Bahrāma b. Farroḵzād, naporima arapskih generala poput Bokayra b. ʿAbdallāh prije ʿOtbe b. Farqad je stigao, a nakon što je Bokayr poslan na sjever protiv Arrana i Bāb al-Abwāba ili Darbanda. Tekst ʿAhd dokument koji je sačinjen kada je uspostavljen opći mir u Azerbejdžanu, Šabarī je doslovno dao za plaćanje jezya u zamjenu za čovjek, tj. sloboda vlasništva, zakoni i vjera (Ṭabarī, I, str. 2661-62).

Od vladavine ʿOṯmāna & rsquosa nadalje, arapski ratnici počeli su se naseljavati u gradove Azerbejdžana, s Ardabilom kao administrativnim centrom. Doseljenici iz Kufe i Baṣre te iz Sirije kupili su zemljište od autohtonog stanovništva i dobrovoljno podnijeli mnoga sela u zamjenu za zaštitu (ḥemāya, taljeʾa). Mora da je sada počela i islamizacija pokrajine. Balāḏorī daje neke detalje o obrascu arapskog naseljavanja u gradovima tokom prva dva stoljeća arapske dominacije. Arapski kolonisti naseljeni su u Ardabīlu, gdje je sagradio džamiju poglavar Kende, A & scaronʿaṯ b. Qays, guverner Azerbejdžana za halifu ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb (Balāḏorī, Fotūḥ, str. 329). Warṯān na rijeci Aras razvio je omajadski princ Marwān b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Malek (na kraju posljednji omajadski halifa, Marwān al-Ḥemār, 127-32/744-50), koji je također držao posjed u Marāni, njegova imanja Warṯāna prešla su nakon ʿAbbasidske revolucije, na kraju halifi al-Mahdī & rsquos kćeri Omm Jaʿfar Zobayda, supruga Hārūn al-Ra & scaronīda (Yāqūt, IV, str. 919-20). Marand je naselila, vjerovatno u rano doba Abasida, arapska kolonija pod djedom Mohammeda b. Baʿīṯ Rabīʿī pod ovim posljednjim, spominje se pobuna ovog grada protiv vlasti halife al-Motawakkel & rsquos (Balāḏorī, Fotūḥ325-26). Urmiju je pokorio Ṣadaqa b. ʿAli, a mawlā iz plemena Azd. Hamdānovi saplemenici nastanjeni su u Mayānaju i Ḵalbāṯāi rano za vrijeme vladavine al-Manṣūra & rsquosa od strane guvernera Azerbejdžana Yazīda b. Ḥātem Mohallabī. Ljudi iz Kende iz A & scaronʿaṯ b. Qays je preuzeo Sarāt ili Sarāb. Tabrīz je u to vrijeme bio mjesto od male važnosti, koje je u velikoj mjeri uništeno u armensko-perzijskim ratovima u četvrtom stoljeću (vidi V. Minorsky, & ldquoTabrīz, & rdquo u EI 1 IV). Njegov preporod djelo je drugog Azdija, Rawwāda b. Moṯannā i njegov sin Wajnāʾ, koje je Yazīd b. Temātem zemlje koja se proteže od Tabriza do Baḏḏa i koja je obnovila kaštel, gradske zidine itd. Tabriza (Balāḏorī, Fotūḥ, str. 326 Yaʿqūbī, II, str. 13).

Tokom perioda Omajada, Azerbejdžan su tek rijetko naselili Arapi i on je u velikoj mjeri bio pogranična zona. In particular, it formed a base for the Arab governors to mount their operations against the Caucasian peoples and into the Cis-Caucasian steppe lands, the lure here being above all the hope of tapping the plentiful reservoirs of slaves in the Caucasus region and the Khazar steppes. Although Darband had early been reached (see above), for more than two centuries the Arabs&rsquo way was blocked by the indigenous mountaineers of the Caucasus, such as the Alans, and beyond, them, by the Turkish Khazars of south Russia. The swaying fortunes of war in these regions meant that Armenia, Arrān, and Azerbaijan at times suffered invasion and devastation by these more northerly peoples. There were Khazar raids in the caliphates of Yazīd I (60-64/680-83) and ʿAbd-al-malek (65-86/685-705), and particularly violent incursion took place in 112/730 when the Khazars poured down through the Alan Gate, overran Armenia and Azerbaijan, killed He&scaronām&rsquos governor Jarrāḥ b. ʿAbdallāh Ḥakamī Maḏḥejī at Ardabīl, and penetrated as far as Dīārbakr and Jazīra (D. M. Dunlop, History of the Jewish Khazars, New York, 1967, pp. 69-73, 76).

Under the early ʿAbbasids, northern Azerbaijan was the epicentre of the prolonged and dangerous rebellion against the caliphate led by Bābak Ḵorramī, which affected much of northwestern Persia and which lasted over twenty years, from ca. 201/816-17 till the sack of his capital Baḏḏ, just to the south of the Aras and in the modern Qarāja-dāḡ, in 222/837. The rebellion certainly had a religious basis (see below), but there may also have been social and economic factors at work, such as local discontent at the prospecting and mining activities in these highland districts by Arabs from Jazīra under Ṣadaqa b. ʿAlī Azdī and his son Zorayq, in the suggestion of H. Kennedy, The Early Abbasid Caliphate, a Political History, London, 1981, pp. 170-74, citing Azdī&rsquos Taʾrīḵ Mawṣel. Bābak&rsquos uprising was favored at the outset by the rebelliousness of the local Arab governor, Ḥātem b. Harṯama b. Aʿyan (d. 203/818-19), and in 217/832 Bābak had the active support of the governor ʿAlī b. He&scaronām, but he was clearly also able to utilize a great deal of Iranian, anti-Arab feeling in Azerbaijan. Strongly anti-Islamic elements in the Ḵorramīya, perhaps going back to Mazdakism, demonstrate that Islam had by no means completely overlaid the older faiths of northwestern Iran, and for a long time after the suppression of Bābak&rsquos movement by Moʿtaṣem&rsquos generals, and certainly until the 5th/11th century, remnants of the Ḵorramīya who venerated the memory of Bābak and who expected his return as a promised Mahdī, survived there (see Gh. H. Sadighi, Les mouvements religieux iraniens au II e et au III e siècle de l&rsquohégire, Paris, 1938, pp. 229-80 B. S. Amoretti, in Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 503-09).

An episode like Bābak&rsquos uprising showed the continuing strength in Azerbaijan of ancestral Iranian local feelings. There was also internal dissent in the Muslim community there, seen for instance in a rising at Ardabīl in 251/865 in favor of a Talebid claimant from the Caspian region, ʿAlī b. ʿAbdallāh Maṛʿa&scaronī (cf. Ṭabarī, III, p. 1584), and in Kharejite activity spilling over from Jazīra at times. There were the ambitions of Arab governors and of Arab tribal groups settled in the towns of Azerbaijan, and an upsurge in the attempts of neighboring Kurdish and Daylami chiefs to extend their authority over the fringes of the province. All these factors combined to abstract Azerbaijan from direct caliphal control once the personal power of the Baghdad rulers started to decline, as it did in the later 3rd/9th century. The province was still a frontier zone, liable to attack from the Caucasus direction and to harassment by the independent-minded, though nominal vassals of the Muslims, Bagratid princes of Armenia. In ca. 279/892 the caliph Moʿtażed appointed one of his generals, Moḥammad b. Abi&rsquol-Sāj, an Iranian from Central Asia, as governor of Azerbaijan and Armenia, and the family of the Sajids (q.v.) took their place as one of the virtually autonomous lines of provincial governors, headed by the earlier Taherid governors in Khorasan, who rose to prominence during the period of the decline of the central power in Baghdad. For nearly forty years, until the killing of Fatḥ b. Moḥammad b. Abi&rsquol-Sāj in 317/929, members of the family ruled Azerbaijan and Armenia first from Marāḡa and Barḏaʿa and then from Ardabīl. They reduced refractory Armenian princes to submission, but themselves sporadically withheld allegiance to Baghdad and suspended the payment of tribute after the end of the Sajids, direct caliphal control was never restored in northwestern Iran (see W. Madelung, in Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 228-32).

For the next century or so, until the coming of the Saljuq Turks, the history of Azerbaijan is a component of the so-called &ldquoDaylami interlude&rdquo of Iranian history, when hitherto submerged peoples like the Daylamis, the Kurds, the Baluch, etc., rose momentarily to the surface and often assumed political control in different parts of Iran.

In the years immediately after the end of the Sajids, a Kurdish chief, Daysam b. Ebrāhīm b. &Scaronāḏlūya, mentioned as having Kharejite sympathies, tried to establish his authority in Azerbaijan, but had to yield in 330/941-42 to the Mosaferid or Sallarid ruler of Ṭārom in the mountains of Daylam, Marzobān b. Moḥammad b. Mosāfer. Marzobān extended his military power as far as Dvin in Armenia, finally capturing and jailing Daysam just before his own death in 346/957, and he fought off attempts by the Arab Hamdanids of Mosul to invade Azerbaijan. It was during Marzobān&rsquos reign that the Rūs (mixed Scandinavian and Slav adventurers?), who had already harried the coasts of Ṭabarestān and Gīlān from the Caspian Sea, appeared in Arrān and Azerbaijan (332/943-44). They sailed up the Kor, defeated Marzobān&rsquos forces, and sacked and occupied Barḏaʿa it is unclear whether Ardabīl also suffered, although this seems probable (Meskawayh, Tajāreb II, pp. 62-67, tr. V, pp. 67-74, the most detailed source Masʿūdī, Morūj II, pp. 20-21, ed. Pellat, par. 459 Ebn al-Aṯīr (repr.), VIII, pp. 412-15 D. S. Margoliouth, &ldquoThe Russian seizure of Bardhaʿah in 943 A.D.,&rdquo BSOAS 3, 1918, pp. 82-95). Marzobān&rsquos brother and successor Vahsūdān had to struggle against the ambitions for power of his nephews Jostān and Ebrāhīm b. Marzobān in the course of these disputes, much of Azerbaijan was devastated, and by Vahsūdān&rsquos death in 373/983, Mosaferid control over Azerbaijan was clearly weakening (see Madelung, op. cit., pp. 232-36 and on the Mosaferids in general, Cl. Huart, &ldquoLes Mosâfirides de l&rsquoAdherbaïdjân,&rdquo in ʿAjab-náma, a Volume of Oriental Studies Presented to E. G. Browne . . . , Cambridge, 1922, pp. 228-56 S. A. Kasrawī, &Scaronahrīārān-e gomnām 2 , Tehran, 1335 &Scaron./1956, I, pp. 52-120 Bosworth, The Islamic Dynasties, pp. 86-87).

After then, authority in the province passed largely to the rival power of the Rawwadids of Tabrīz, descendants of the Azdī Arabs who had been allotted Tabrīz in early ʿAbbasid times (see above), but by now apparently largely Kurdicized, doubtless through the process of intermarriage. Abu&rsquol-Hayjāʾ Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad (d. 378/988-89) and his son Mamlān or Moḥammad (d. 393/1001) and their descendants pushed the Mosaferids back into their original homeland of Daylam, and ruled the whole of Azerbaijan from Tabrīz, thus bringing that town into prominence for the first time in Islam. Much of their time was spent combatting the resurgent forces of the Christian rulers of Armenia and Georgia, until in the reign of Abū Manṣūr Vahsūdān b. Mamlān (416-51/1025-59) a new element appeared in the politics of Azerbaijan which was to mark a decisive change in the ethnic complexion of the province, namely the Oḡuz or Ḡuzz Turks (see Madelung, op. cit., pp. 236-37 Kasrawī, op. cit., pp. 130-45 V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian History, London, 1953, pp. 114-16 Bosworth, op. cit., pp. 88-89).

The Arabic geographers give useful accounts of Azerbaijan and its towns during the 4th/10th century. The position of the province on the trade routes running north from Hamdān and Zanjān to Arrān and the Caucasus, and running westwards to Mosul and Āmed, gave it a commercial importance. The transit traffic in slaves (Greek, Armenian, Pecheneg, Khazar, and Ṣaqlābī, i.e., Slav and Ugrian ones, according to the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, par. 35, tr. Minorsky, p. 142) was naturally significant, as was the trade in carpets and textiles (especially silks dyed with the crimson tincture of the qermez insect) and the production of salted fish (&scaronūr-māhī) from the rivers and lakes. Ardabīl is described as the largest town of the province, in Moqaddasī&rsquos phrase, &ldquothe qaṣaba of Azerbaijan and the meṣr of the region,&rdquo although this same author is scathing about the avarice, fecklessness and treachery of its people, the paucity of scholars there, and the filthiness of the whole place (&ldquoone of the latrines of the world,&rdquo pp. 377-78). Moreover, Ebn Ḥawqal, writing a generation before Moqaddasī, states that Ardabīl&rsquos prosperity had been shattered by the warfare of Daysam and Marzobān, when the town&rsquos walls had been destroyed, so that &ldquoit is at this time like a sick person in comparison with its former prosperity&rdquo (p. 334, tr. Kramers, pp. 326-27 cf. also Le Strange, Lands, pp. 59-71, 184 Schwarz, Iran, pp. 959-1388).

Under the Saljuqs. It was during the Rawwadid Vahsūdān&rsquos reign that there arrived in Azerbaijan the first waves of the Oḡuz Turkmen, the so-called &ldquoʿErāqī ones (from ʿErāq ʿAjamī, i.e., western Persia), formerly the followers of Arslān Esrāʾīl b. Saljūq, expelled from Khorasan in 419/1028 by the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmūd. The first group appeared in 420/1029, and the Turkman mounted archers were taken into Vahsūdān&rsquos service as auxiliaries for use against the Christians of Armenia and Georgia and against the rival Muslim family of the Kurdish Shaddadids of Ganja in Arrān and of Dvin. But their indiscipline made them uncontrollable, and the depredations of their flocks disturbed the agrarian system of Azerbaijan, so that shortly after the Oḡuz had sacked Marāḡa in 429/1038, Vahsūdān allied with Abu&rsquol-Hayjāʾ b. Rabīb-al-dawla of the Haḏbānī Kurds and slew many of them. Some of these &ldquoʿErāqī&rdquo Turkmen eventually moved on to Mosul and Jazīra, but increasing waves of new arrivals meant that independent bands of marauders were gradually becoming established in Azerbaijan. In 446/1054 Vahsūdān and then in 454/1062 his son and successor Mamlān II were forced to acknowledge the suzerainty of Ṭoḡrel Beg when the Saljuq leader arrived to assert his authority in Azerbaijan and Arrān. On his return from the Anatolian campaign and the Mantzikert victory, Alp Arslān deposed Mamlān (463/1071), but a later member of the family, Aḥmadīl b. Ebrāhīm b. Vahsūdān, held Marāḡa as a fief of the Saljuqs, and his name was perpetuated after his death in 510/1116 by the Aḥmadīlī atabegs there (Madelung, op. cit., pp. 237-39 Bosworth, in Camb. Hist. Iran V, pp. 32-34). Alp Arslān&rsquos assertion of authority at this time in northwestern Iran also proved fatal to the senior line of the Shaddadids in Arrān (although a junior branch was to survive as Saljuq vassal in Ānī), for in 460/1068 and then in 468/1075 under Malek&scaronāh, the slave commander Savtigin penetrated to Arrān and on the second occasion incorporated the territories there of the Shaddadid Fażlūn III into the Saljuq empire (Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian History I: New Light on the Shaddadids of Ganja (A.D. 951-1075), pp. 1-77).

The personal concern of the Great Saljuq sultans was in the main to secure the rich Iranian heartlands of Khorasan, Jebāl, and Fārs, and then to extend their power into Iraq. Azerbaijan and the lands towards the Caucasus tended to be left to their slave commanders or to bands of Turkman adventurers who could carry on raids against the Christians of Anatolia and Transcaucasia. Much of Azerbaijan was parceled out as eqṭāʿs among the Saljuq military commanders, and in the later 6th/12th century, was generally controlled by Turkish atabegs, the guardians of youthful Saljuq princes. The period of Great Saljuq decline, with internecine warfare between various contenders for the throne, meant that Azerbaijan and its resources were frequently controlled by Saljuq claimants at odds with the supreme sultans in Baghdad or Hamadān. Thus under Maḥmūd b. Moḥammad (511-25/1118-31), Maḥmūd&rsquos brother Ṭoḡrel held Qazvīn, Daylam, Gīlān, and Arrān, whilst another brother, Masʿūd (subsequently sultan 529-47/1134-52), was malek of Azerbaijan, Mosul, and Jazīra. Also, after Maḥmūd&rsquos death in 525/1131, his young son Dāwūd was proclaimed sultan at Hamadān, but was able to establish his power in Azerbaijan only against the superior might of his uncle Masʿūd, sultan in Iraq and Jebāl from this base, however, Dāwūd secured the support there of the deposed ʿAbbasid caliph Rā&scaroned in 530/1136, and maintained himself in Azerbaijan for the rest of his life, i.e., until 538/1143-44. Thenceforth, the substance of power in Azerbaijan until the advent of the Ḵᵛārazm&scaronāhs was shared by the two atabeg lines of the Aḥmadīlīs of Marāḡa, the family of Aq Sonqor, atabeg to the Rawwadid Aḥmadīl b. Ebrāhīm of Tabrīz, and, more importantly, that of the Ildegozids (Eldigüzids or Ildenizids q.v.), who controlled most of Azerbaijan, Arrān, and Jebāl. &Scaronams-al-dīn Eldigüz was originally atabeg for the Saljuq prince Arslān b. Ṭoḡrel (r. 556-71/1161-76). In the Saljuq family disputes, the Aḥmadīlīs generally supported the claims of Malek Moḥammad b. Maḥmūd b. Moḥammad, but in 605/1208-09 almost all their lands fell to the Ildegozid Noṣrat-al-dīn Abū Bakr b. Pahlavān the Aḥmadīlī atabeg ʿAlāʾ-al-dīn Qara Sonqor is nevertheless significant as a patron of the poet Neẓāmī. The Ildegozids reached a position of great influence in northwestern Iran as defenders of the Muslim cause against the expanding Georgian monarchy, and at one point, Moẓaffar-al-dīn Qezel Arslān (581-87/1186-91) laid claim to the whole sultanate of Persia and Iraq for himself against the last Saljuq sultan Ṭoḡrel III b. Arslān b. Ṭoḡrel II. Various members of the line were patrons of great poets like Ḵāqānī and Neẓāmī, and the petty courts of Azerbaijan were thus at this time considerable centers of culture and focuses of intellectual activity (see Bosworth, op. cit., pp. 176ff.).

Under the Mongols. All the local rulers of Azerbaijan and adjacent lands were engulfed when first the Ḵᵛārazm&scaronāhs and then the Mongols swept into northwestern Iran. It was the Ildegozid Qotloḡ Inaṇč who, involved in an internal dynastic dispute, summoned in the Ḵᵛārazm&scaronāh Teke&scaron, and it was eventually Sultan Jalāl-al-dīn who gave the coup de grace to the dynasty by capturing Tabrīz in 622/1225 and deposing Moẓaffar-al-dīn Özbeg. After 617/1220-21 the Mongols turned northwards from Hamadān and in 618/1222 sacked Marāḡa, slaughtering the males and enslaving the women, and there was a further siege in 628/1231. The Ildegozid Özbeg bought off the Mongols from Tabrīz in 617/1220-21. Jalāl-al-dīn then defended it, but after his departure for Anatolia in 628/1231, the whole of Azerbaijan passed under the control of the Great Khan Ögedey (1227-41), and from the time of Güyük onwards (1246-49), Azerbaijan and Arrān were governed by Malek Ṣadr-al-dīn, according to Jovaynī (tr. Boyle, II, p. 518).

After the conquest of Baghdad in 656/1258, Hülegü made Marāḡa the capital of the Il-Khanid dominions in Persia and Iraq. He built a fortress for his accumulated treasures and spoils on the nearby island of &Scaronāhī in Lake Urmia, where he was in fact to be buried (the Gūr Qaḷʿa), and ordered the construction of the famous observatory of Marāḡa to the plans of the philosopher and scientist Ḵᵛāja Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī (q.v.). The fertility of the Marāḡa district and its eminence now as a place of learning doubtless explain why, in the 8th/14th century, the traveler Ebn Baṭṭūṭa (I, p. 171, tr. Gibb, I, p. 108) was to describe it as the &ldquoLittle Damascus&rdquo of ʿErāq ʿAjamī. Then under Hülegü&rsquos successor Abaqā (663-80/1265-82), the capital was moved to Tabrīz. Tabrīz suffered a severe earthquake in 671/1273 (see C. Melville, &ldquoHistorical Monuments and Earthquakes in Tabriz,&rdquo Iran 19, 1981, pp. 162-63), but thereafter the khans set about beautifying the town and erecting splendid buildings, such as the mosques and madrasas and the mausoleum built by Ḡāzān for himself. In this period of the religiously tolerant early Mongols, Christianity enjoyed a period of revival and florescence in Azerbaijan, and the khan Arḡūn had his son baptized in the church at Marāḡa. But under the Muslim convert Ḡāzān, disfavor fell upon all non-Muslim groups in 705/1306 Öljeytü permanently re-imposed the jezya na ḏemmīs, and from this time, there begins the decline and eventual near-disappearance of Christianity from Azerbaijan. It was likewise Öljeytü (703-17/1304-17) who began construction of a new summer capital called Solṭānīya at a spot lying between Zanjān and Abhar, in a region of rich pasture, and this was completed in 713/1313 with many fine buildings, including the khan&rsquos own tomb. Solṭānīya was still the capital under his successor Abū Saʿīd, but thereafter, Tabrīz re-asserted itself as the natural capital of the region. Thus it was at Tabrīz that the Turkman chief Ḥasan Bozorg Jalāyer in 736/1336 established his candidate for the Il-khanid throne, Moḥammad, and there that Ḥasan Kūček Čūpānī in 740/1340 placed in power his own candidate Solaymān. We now have numerous descriptions of Tabrīz by both European and Islamic travelers and writers the Spaniard Clavijo states that in 1403 it had 200,000 households or families, i.e., approaching one million inhabitants, but this must be a great exaggeration.

During this later medieval period, the gradual Turkicization of Azerbaijan was favored by the Il-khanids&rsquo policy of allotting to their leading commanders land grants (eqṭāʿs, soyurḡāls) (cf. I. P. Petrushevsky, in Camb. Hist. Iran V, pp. 518ff.) by the presence of the khans themselves and their entourages in these favored regions of upland pasture, and then of their Turkman epigoni, beginning with the Jalayerids and finally, by the incoming of fresh waves of Central Asian nomads accompanying Tīmūr on his campaigns to the west. The Jalayerids seem to have achieved among the population of Azerbaijan a measure of support there was, for instance, public rejoicing when in 809/1406-07 Aḥmad Jalāyer regained power in Tabrīz, for Azerbaijan had suffered considerably from such events as the invasion through the Caucasus of Tīmūr&rsquos rival, the Golden Horde khan Toqtami&scaron, in 787/1385 and the unbridled excesses of Tīmūr&rsquos debauched son Mīrān&scaronāh when he was governor in Tabrīz (among other things, he exhumed the corpse of the great vizier of the Il-khanids Ra&scaronīd-al-dīn). But after four years, Aḥmad was defeated in battle and executed by the Qara Qoyunlū leader Qara Yūsof, and Tabrīz now became the capital of the Black Sheep Turkmen under Jahān&scaronāh b. Qara Yūsof (841-72/1438-67), Tabrīz became the capital of a kingdom stretching from Anatolia to Herat, and was enriched by such splendid buildings as the Blue Mosque. Then after 873/1468 Azerbaijan passed to the rival Āq Qoyunlū leader Uzun Ḥasan and his successors, for whose reigns we possess important accounts of the beauties of Tabrīz from Venetian envoys anxious to forge an alliance with the White Sheep Turkmen against the Ottomans.

Under the Safavids. Azerbaijan was necessarily of importance in the early Safavid period which now followed, for Shaikh Ṣafī-al-din Esḥāq, founder of the Ṣafawīya Sufi order, was a native of Ardabīl, and his shrine there was subsequently to be developed under the Safavid shahs into a superb complex of richly-endowed religious and charitable buildings, as the accounts of Western travelers attest (see Ardabīl). The Safavid Esmāʿīl I successfully overthrew the &Scaronervān&scaronāhs and then marched on Tabrīz in 906/1501, after routing in battle the Āq Qoyunlū Alvand Mīrzā there he was proclaimed shah in 907/1501-02 (see R. M. Savory, &ldquoThe Struggle for Supremacy in Persia after the Death of Tīmūr,&rdquo Der Islam 40, 1964, pp. 63-64). Jaʿfarī Shiʿism was forcibly imposed on the inhabitants of Tabrīz, and Tabrīz became the Safavid capital until its exposure to attack from the Safavids&rsquo enemies the Ottomans (it was temporarily occupied by Sultan Selīm&rsquos forces after the Ottoman victory at Čālderān in northwestern Azerbaijan in 920/1514) led Shah Ṭahmāsp I to transfer the capital to Qazvīn in 962/1555, after a further Ottoman occupation of Tabrīz.

In the 10th/116th century, Azerbaijan was ruled by a governor (beglarbegī) who normally combined control of this strategically-vital province with the highest military rank of sepahsālār. Both Azerbaijan and the province of Qarabāḡ, i.e., the region between the Aras and the Kor, medieval Arrān, to the north (this last province later found as a separate governorate, with its capital at Ganja, see Tadhkirat al-Mulūk, a Manual of Ṣafavid Administration, tr. Minorsky, London, 1943, p. 44, comm. pp. 166-67) were still further settled by Turkman elements belonging to such tribes as the Af&scaronār, the Īnāllū, and &Scaronāmlū, etc., making up the Safavids&rsquo early backing of the Qezelbā&scaron (q.v.). Financial administration in Azerbaijan was regulated by a vizier, who was in the 10th/16th century responsible for all the northwestern provinces thus in 966/1559 Mīrzā ʿAṭāʾallāh Ḵūzānī Eṣfahānī had the oversight of Azerbaijan, Georgia, &Scaronervān, and &Scaronakkī (see K. M. Röhrborn, Provinzen und Zentralgewalt Persiens im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1966, p. 104).

During the two centuries or more of Safavid rule, Azerbaijan was on several occasions plundered by invading Ottoman forces, and during the years 993-1012/1585-1603 Tabrīz and the western half of Azerbaijan was permanently occupied by them, becoming a province (īālat) of the Ottoman empire during those years (cf. A. Birken, Die Provinzen des osmanischen Reiches, Wiesbaden, 1976, p. 172) only the eastern part remained in Persian hands, being ruled from Ardabīl. According to the Ottoman-Persian agreement of the Year of the Hare 1000/1591-92, Shah ʿAbbās I had to cede to the Ottomans their conquests in Transcaucasia, Qarabāḡ and western Azerbaijan, the frontier being fixed at the village of Are&scarontanāb twelve farsakhs to the southeast of Tabrīz (Röhrborn, op. cit., pp. 6-9 on this place see Razmārā, Farhang IV, str. 15). Tabrīz and western Azerbaijan were returned to Shah ʿAbbās by the treaty of 1022/1613, but further Ottoman incursions took place all through the century. In the reign of Shah Ṣafī I, Sultan Morād IV occupied and devastated Tabrīz (1045/1635-36), although it was extensively rebuilt later in the century, as the accounts of Western diplomatic envoys and travelers confirm. There were nevertheless periods of peace, and the province developed commercially as a result of its position on the Trebizond-Tabrīz-central Persia communications and trade route.

The confusion within Persia caused in the early 12th/18th century by the loss of control by the Safavids and the consequent invasions of the Afghans gave the Ottomans fresh opportunities (cf. L. Lockhart, The Fall of the Ṣafavī Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia, Cambridge, 1958, pp. 212ff.). In 1135-36/1723-24 the desperate Ṭahmāsp II was compelled, in return for promised Turkish and Russian support in enforcing his claims to the throne, to cede &Scaronervān and the eastern Caucasian provinces to Peter the Great the Ottomans occupied Qarabāḡ and western Azerbaijan yet again, with ʿAbdallāh Köprülü Pasha taking Tabrīz. By an agreement of 1140/1727-28 with the Afghan chief A&scaronraf, the Ottomans were awarded northwestern Persia as far as Solṭānīya and Abhar, and by 1142/1730 they had occupied Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Persian Kurdistan, and ʿErāq-e ʿAjamī, and had divided &Scaronervān and Dāḡestān with Russia. Azerbaijan was regained by Persia when Nāder Shah Af&scaronār vanquished the Afghans and in 1146/1734 regained the province from the Ottomans (Lockhart, Nadir Shah, a Critical Study, London, 1938, pp. 80ff.) Nāder then entrusted Azerbaijan to his brother Moḥammad Ebrāhīm Khan (ibid., pp. 169ff.).

Under the Qajars. The history of Azerbaijan in the ensuing Zand period is obscure, with Zand control there disputed by Afghan and Qajar Turkman chiefs and by local potentates such as the Domboli Kurdish chiefs of Ḵoy. In 1205/1790-91 Āḡā Moḥammad Khan, founder of the Qajar dynasty, asserted his power there, but during his reign and the early part of that of his nephew Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, this power was disputed by the Dombolis, who on several occasions held Tabrīz itself. There now began the practice, adopted in view of the province&rsquos strategic importance vis-à-vis the Ottomans and Russians, of entrusting the governorship of Azerbaijan to the heir-apparent to the throne, e.g., in 1213/1799 to Fatḥ-ʿAlī&rsquos son ʿAbbās Mīrzā, and in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, to Moḥammad Shah&rsquos son Nāṣer-al-dīn.

In the early nineteenth century, intense pressure&mdashmilitary, diplomatic, and economic&mdashbegan to be exerted on Azerbaijan by Russia. The frontier there with Russia was finally fixed by the Treaty of Torkamāṇčāy (q.v.) of 1828, confirming the arrangements of the Golestān Treaty of 1813, so that Persia was forced reluctantly to abandon her eastern Caucasian provinces for ever. Russia also exacted under the terms of the treaty fiscal and commercial privileges on a &ldquomost favored nation&rdquo basis, so that Russian economic penetration of northern Persia via Azerbaijan now had free rein. The reports of the Russian commercial adviser in Tabrīz for the years 1833-47 show how disastrous for Persia was her balance of trade with Russia: Russian imports were estimated at 250 million paper roubles during these fifteen years, with Persian exports only at 90 million (see Minorsky, BSO(A)S II, 1946, pp. 878-80). Also, ʿAbbās Mīrzā, the local governor, was willy-nilly susceptible to Russian pressure whilst ever the war indemnity stipulated in the treaty as payable to Russia remained not fully paid, as was generally the case. Until the accession of Moḥammad Shah in 1250/1834, Tabrīz was the normal seat of the Russian and British diplomatic missions to Persia, and their transfer to Tehran thereafter marked the latter city&rsquos definite assumption of the status of political capital. Nevertheless, Tabrīz remained the commercial center and entrepôt for Persia, especially as southern Persia had not yet fully recovered from the devastations of the Zand and early Qajar periods and was comparatively neglected by the northern-based Qajar government.

It further remained the second city of Persia as the seat of the walīʿahd or heir to the throne, with his own court circle, and was always more open than other centers to European and outside influences and ideas. Hence it is not surprising that Tabrīz played a leading role in the period of storm and stress inaugurated by the constitutional movement of 1906 when Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah was compelled to grant a constitution. It was a focus too for Persian national feeling and resentment against outside pressures, fanned by the settlement in Azerbaijan of many mohājerīn, Muslims who had emigrated in the course of the nineteenth century from the Russian-occupied Caucasus and Caspian provinces (cf. P. Avery, Modern Iran, London, 1967, pp. 135-37). Hence when Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah and his Cossack Brigade, encouraged by Russian support, closed the Majles in 1908, rebellion broke out in Tabrīz, leading to the Russian military occupation of 1909. From then onwards, and despite the &ldquosecond constitutional period&rdquo of 1909-11, during which the Russians continued to support the intrigues of the deposed despot Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah, Russian influence was paramount in Azerbaijan, with nationalist and democratic leaders arrested and executed in Tabrīz (for the constitutional period and the ensuing years in Azerbaijan, see Kasravī, Āḏarbāyjān, Tehran, 1318-19 &Scaron./1939-40).

Only the entry of Ottoman Turkey into World War I on the side of the Central Powers in November, 1914, compelled the withdrawal of Russian forces from Azerbaijan at the end of 1914 under the threat of invasion by Ottoman-backed Kurdish irregular troops, although they returned early in 1915. The outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a withdrawal of Russian troops at the opening of 1918, and the Bolsheviks proclaimed that the new Russia no longer had any political or territorial ambitions in Persia. The Russian military departure enabled the Ottoman army to advance into Azerbaijan and to occupy Tabrīz in summer 1918. Meanwhile, a democratic party under Shaikh Moḥammad Ḵīābānī (q.v.) had arisen in Tabrīz, and after the end of the war, disputed control of Azerbaijan with the central government of Woṯūq-al-dawla in Tehran. Early in 1920 Ḵīābānī proclaimed Azerbaijan to be Āzādīstān &ldquoLand of the free&rdquo, but his movement was suppressed militarily in September, 1920, and the control of Tehran re-asserted there, only momentarily to be challenged in February, 1922, by the brief revolt of the gendarmerie officer Abu&rsquol-Qāsem Lāhūtī against the commander in chief Reżā Khan (later Reżā Shah), suppressed by the latter.

Shortly before the abdication under Allied pressure of Reżā Shah Pahlavī in September, 1941, during World War II, British and Russian forces, later joined by American ones, occupied Persia, with Russia controlling the northern provinces, including Azerbaijan. Already, earlier in the century, there had been signs of a stirring of Azerbaijani self-consciousness and feelings of distinctness. The Ottomans in 1918 had encouraged pan-Turkish cultural and linguistic feelings there, and there was a feeling in Azerbaijan to kinship with the Turkish and Muslim peoples of the eastern Caucasus, which in some cases entailed political sympathies with the communist regime now dominant there. Under the sixteen years&rsquo rule of Reżā Shah, Azerbaijan felt comparatively neglected, and use of the local language, Azeri Turkish, was forbidden for official purposes in favor of Persian. Now, with the Russians controlling northern Persia, the old feelings which has broken out after World War I in the shape of the Gīlān and Azerbaijan movements re-emerged. Under the veteran Persian communist leader Jaʿfar Pī&scaronavarī (q.v.), who had been an old ʿAdālat Party member in Baku in 1918 and commissar for internal affairs in the Bolshevik republic of Gīlān 1920-21, a coup by the pro-Soviet Democrat Party of Azerbaijan (Ferqa-ye Demokrāt-e Āḏarbāyjān), to which the local Tūda Party speedily affiliated itself, took place in Ābān, 1324 &Scaron./November, 1945, against the central government in Tehran (see Azerbaijan v). The Russians prevented the Persian government troops from advancing beyond Qazvīn, and in the next month, a Russian-protected autonomous republic of Azerbaijan was proclaimed. Simultaneously, an autonomous Kurdish republic was proclaimed at Mahābād in southwestern Azerbaijan under Qāżī Moḥammad, and in April, 1946, it concluded a treaty of alliance and support with the Tabrīz régime.

Under a 1942 agreement of the Allies, all foreign troops were to be withdrawn from Iranian soil by six months after the end of the War. In fact, by March, 1946, the troops of the Western Allies were withdrawn, but the Russian ones did not leave till May. By November-December, 1946, the central government army was able to move into Azerbaijan the Provincial Assembly abandoned resistance, and Pī&scaronavarī fled to the USSR, where he later allegedly died in an accident. The Mahābād Kurdish régime collapsed early in 1947 (G. Lenczowski Russia and the West in Iran 1918-1948, pp. 286ff. R. Rossow, &ldquoThe Battle of Azerbaijan, 1946,&rdquo Middle East Journal 10, 1956, pp. 17-32). The authority of the central government in Tehran was reestablished, and in the ensuing years, signs of recrudescent Azerbaijani secessionist feeling were closely watched and the use of Azeri was once more discouraged.


Slavni rođendani

    Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general, born in Kazakhli, Russian Empire (d. 1943) Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Soviet composer who composed the anthem used by Azerbaijan during the Soviet period, born in Agjabadi, Russian Empire (d. 1948) Muslim Magomayev, Azerbaijani-Soviet composer, born in Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia (d. 1937) Haro Levoni Step'anian, Armenian composer, born in Ganja, Azerbaijan (d. 1966) Gara Garayev [Kara Karayev], Soviet-Azerbaijani composer (Seven Beauties), born in Baku (d. 1982) Soltan Hajibeyov, Azerbaijani composer and People's Artist of the USSR, born in Shusha, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (d. 1974) Fikret Amirov, Azerbaijani-Soviet composer (Azerbaijan Capriccio, Shur), born in Ganja, Azerbaijan (d. 1984) Heydar Aliyev, Ex-President and Leader of Azerbaijan Republic (d. 2003) Mstislav Rostropovich, Soviet-Russian cellist and conductor, born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR (d. 2007) Bella Davidovich, Jewish Soviet-American pianist (Chopin, Beethoven, Ravel), born in Baku, Azerbaijan Tahir Salahov, Azerbaijani painter Murad Kazhlayev, Soviet and Dagestani composer, born in Baku, Azerbaijan Roman Balayan, Ukrainian-Armenian director (Filer, Biryuk), born in Nerkin Horatagh, Nagorno-Karabakh AO, Azerbaijan Rəsul Quliyev, Azerbaijani politician, born in Qazanci, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan Serzh Sargsyan, Armenian politician, President of Armenia (2008-18), born in Stepanakert, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan Republic, born in Baku, Azerbaijan

Garry Kasparov

1963-04-13 Gary Kasparov, Russian chess player (world champion 1985-93), born in Baku, Azerbaijan


Azerbaijan History

The country's economic troubles are expected to be transformed through Western investment in Azerbaijan's oil resources, an untapped reserve whose estimated worth is trillions of dollars. Since 1994, the Azerbaijan state oil company (SOCAR) has signed several billion-dollar agreements with international oil companies. Azerbaijan's pro-Western stance and its careful economic management have made it the most attractive of the oil-rich Caspian countries for foreign investment. In the years since its independence, the country has undergone rapid privatization, and the IMF gave it high marks as one of the most successful economic overhauls ever. In Sept. 2002, construction of the 1,100-mile Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline (a route through Georgia and Turkey) began. Major investors are Britain's BP (33%), Azerbaijan's SOCAR (25%), the U.S.'s Unocal (8.9%), and Norway's Statoil (8.7%). In July 2006, the pipeline opened.

In 2003, President Heydar Aliyev, who was seriously ill, chose his son as the new prime minister, paving the way for his eventual succession. The opposition protested strenuously. In October elections, the president's son, Ilham Aliyev, was elected president. Heydar Aliyev died in December.

In Nov. 2005 parliamentary elections, Aliyev's New Azerbaijan Party won the largest number of seats. International election monitors declared the election fraudulent, and opposition candidates staged protests.

On Oct. 15, 2008, in presidential elections, Ilham Aliyev won a second term with 89% of the vote. Turnout was about 75% of the population.

On Jan. 1, 2012, Azerbaijan began a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The country's standard of living and economy continues to grow, including a construction boom in Baku, the capital.


Pogledajte video: TRADİTİONAL AZERBAİJANİ BREAKFAST. ASMR FOOD (Novembar 2021).

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