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"Igra prijestolja" Georgea R.R. Martina debitirala je


1. avgusta 1996. godine, "Igra prijestolja", epski fantastični roman Georgea R.R. Knjiga je bila prva u Martinovoj seriji "Pjesma leda i vatre", o sukobljenim srednjovjekovnim plemićkim porodicama na zamišljenom kontinentu zvanom Westeros. Iako u početku nije bio bestseler, "Igra prijestolja" je stekla vjerne sljedbenike, a serija "Pjesma leda i vatre" na kraju je postala veliki hit, prodavši milijune knjiga i izbacivši blockbuster HBO seriju.

Martin, koji je rođen 1948. i odrastao je u Bayonneu, New Jersey, diplomirao je na Univerzitetu Northwestern 1970. godine i sljedeće godine magistrirao novinarstvo u školi. Nastavio je predavati novinarstvo, usmjeravati šahovske turnire i objavljivati ​​fantastične i naučno-fantastične kratke priče i romane, iako nijedan nije postigao uspjeh njegove serije "Pjesma leda i vatre". Od sredine 1980-ih do sredine 1990-ih, Martin je radio kao pisac-producent u Hollywoodu, doprinoseći takvim TV serijama kao što su “Zona sumraka” i “Ljepotica i zvijer”. Napisao je scenarije koji su se često smatrali previše kompliciranim i skupim za proizvodnju, iskustvo koje je utjecalo na to kako je razvio sagu o pjesmi leda i vatre.

Kao što je Martin rekao za New York Times: „Kad sam se 90 -ih vratio svojoj prozi, koja je bila moja prva ljubav, rekao sam da ću uraditi nešto toliko veliko koliko želim. Mogu imati sve specijalne efekte koje želim. Mogu imati niz znakova koji se broje stotinama. Mogu imati ogromne scene bitke. Sve što ne možete učiniti na televiziji i filmu, naravno da možete učiniti u prozi jer ste sve tamo. Vi ste direktor, vi ste koordinator za posebne efekte, vi ste odjel za kostime i ne morate brinuti o budžetu. ”

Martin je prvobitno namjeravao "Igru prijestolja" kao prvi naslov u trilogiji; međutim, njegov se plan proširio u seriju koja je do sada uključivala i „A Clash of Kings“ (1999, u SAD -u), „Oluju mačeva“ (2000), „Gozbu za vrane“ (2005) i „A Dance sa zmajevima ”(2011). Predstoje još dvije knjige. Romani su poznati po svojim razrađenim zapletima i velikim ulogama moralno složenih likova. HBO serija trajala je od 2011. do 2019. godine.


Igra prijestolja zasniva se na historiji - zastarjela istorija

Knjiga dr. Finna,#8217, Navijački fenomeni: Igra prijestolja, dostupna joj jee!

Kao srednjovjekovnik i rani modernist, lako se uvući u zečju rupu pronalaženja paralela između univerzuma Igra prijestolja (i serija knjiga na kojima se temelji, Pesma leda i vatre by George R.R. Martin) i naše. Martin je rekao da je inspiriran Ratovima ruža, Stogodišnjim ratom i Križarskim ratovima. Ali, takođe je upozorio čitaoce da ne gledaju previše u očigledne paralele između njegovog i našeg sveta. U intervjuu s Roz Kaveney iz 2005 The Independent, objasnio je da je u povijesti koristio "pristup miks-i-meč" i da će "svi koji misle da će identifikacijom mog izvornog materijala moći predvidjeti moju zavjeru biti ozbiljno zavedeni".

To nikoga nije spriječilo, naravno, uključujući mene. Mnogo virtualne (i doslovne) tinte prosuto je na tu temu, ali moje zanimanje za ASOIAF i GoT ima više veze sa svjetovima Westerosa i Essosa kao prelamanja srednjovjekovne i rane moderne Evrope, a ne refleksije. Refleksije nude zrcalnu sliku, pogled u srednji vijek, poput refrakcija, i obrnuto, zahtijevaju da izgledamo krivo - da se poslužimo Shakespeareovim izrazom iz Richard II- i ne vidjeti ono što se zapravo dogodilo, već vlastitu iskrivljenu perspektivu koja nam pokazuje ono što želimo vidjeti. Ako nam je cilj gledati srednjovjekovno doba kao mračno doba, sigurno skriveno iza vjekova napretka, refrakcija je način na koji tamo dolazimo.

Bitka kod Barneta, vođena 1471. za vrijeme Ratova ruža. Prilikom izrade ove slike nije oštećen nijedan zmaj. Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent, Belgija, MS 263.

Možda je to zato što sam do knjiga došao zaobilaznim putem. Davne 2002. godine započeo sam razgovor na zabavi koja se nekako pretvorila u moju dugogodišnju opsesiju Ratovima ruža - građanskim ratovima koji su pustošili Englesku veći dio petnaestog stoljeća. Pitao me je da li sam pročitao knjigu nekog tipa po imenu George R.R. Martin koja je bila „u osnovi Ratovi ruža sa zmajevima“. Ostalo je, moglo bi se reći, istorija.

Uvek sam imao čudan odnos sa navodnom istoričnošću priče. Martinov pristup miješanja i podudaranja s povijesnim nadahnućem vjerojatno se oslanja na sekundarni materijal, a ne na primarni, što znači da ne koristi izvore zapisane u srednjem vijeku, već se koristi modernim tumačenjima tih izvora. Nema ništa loše u tome. Ali to znači da postoji nekoliko stepena razdvojenosti između autora (Martina) i srednjovjekovnih tekstova.

Nedavno izdanje Les Rois Maudits autora Mauricea Druona koji koristi citat Georgea R.R. Martina koji tvrdi da je to izvorni izvornik Igra prijestolja“.

Osim istorijskih knjiga i biografija, Martin je spomenuo i istorijske fantastične romane, posebno francuske serije Les rois maudits (Prokleti kraljevi) od Maurice Druon. Ova serija se događa između 1314. i 1420. godine, a pokriva veći dio Stogodišnjeg rata. Ali napisana je 1950 -ih i stoga odražava kulturne i društvene norme te decenije. Ona također odražava tadašnje stanje stipendije ili, budući da je akademskom znanju poznato da su potrebne decenije da se proširi u popularna shvaćanja, čak i starije stipendije.

Možda čak i više nego publicistika, fikcija pokušava premostiti jaz između srednjovjekovne kulture i savremene kulture. Kao rezultat toga, povijesna fantastika govori nam više o autoru i njihovoj publici nego o razdoblju u kojem je priča smještena. Druon vrti fantastičnu priču i nudi iznenađujuće simpatičan prikaz engleskog kralja Edwarda II - iznenađujuće za to vrijeme jer je Edward bio biseksualac ili homoseksualac. No, njegovi ženski likovi često zapadaju u mizoginske stereotipe, a seksualni napad je česta radnja.

Dakle, „istorija“ iza Pesma leda i vatre destilacija je popularne istorije s kraja 20. stoljeća i Martinov vlastiti cilj da ponovo osmisli i ponovo zamisli tolkiensku fantaziju. To znači da mnogi problemi koje imam s knjigama (npr. Upitna rodna dinamika, orijentalizam) imaju korijene u onome što je popularna historija radila dok je Martin pisao prve knjige devedesetih. Ovo je još uvijek bilo vrlo bijelo polje, kojim dominiraju muškarci, i to su bili glasovi koji su pojačani i u primarnim i u sekundarnim izvorima. Iako ti razgovori postaju (donekle) nijansirani i raznolikiji u akademskim krugovima, nisu se sasvim filtrirali u svijest javnosti.

Ukratko, Martinov "srednjovjekovni" svijet u Pesma leda i vatre malo liči na stvarni srednji vijek u Evropi. Kada je prva knjiga objavljena 1996., feminističke i postkolonijalne perspektive bile su relativno neuobičajene u srednjovjekovnim studijama. Većina dostupnih knjiga o tim razdobljima privilegirala je gledišta bijelaca, čak i kad su se druge perspektive mogle pronaći u primarnim izvorima. Nadalje, mnogi od ovih povjesničara bili su obučeni u dugoj tradiciji koja je ukorijenjena u kolonijalističkoj retorici. Kao što sam već napisao na drugom mestu,

Iako se od tada mnogo toga promijenilo u akademskom srednjovjekovlju, njegov popularni pandan ostaje zarobljen u pretpostavkama rođenim u devetnaestom i ranom dvadesetom stoljeću, a mi možemo vidjeti one koje se odražavaju na rasne i rodne razlike na djelu u Pesma leda i vatre i Igra prijestolja.

Očigledno, ovo nije namjera da se autor pusti s luka zbog problematičnog sadržaja. U knjigama postoji uznemirujući fokus na seksualizaciju vrlo mladih žena. Većina, ako ne i svi, ne-bijeli likovi predstavljeni su kroz egzotizirani, orijentalistički objektiv. Orijentalizam, prema kritičaru Edwardu Saidu, predstavlja ono što Zapad ne želi priznati u sebi, a koje onda istiskuje na egzotizirani Istok. Dothraki i stanovnici Slaver's Baya su, uz nekoliko izuzetaka (Sivi crv i Missandei, u manjoj mjeri Irri, Jhiqui i Doreah), nediferencirana horda koja je trebala poslužiti samo kao ukras za putovanje Daenerys Targaryen. Gotovo da nema značajnih ženskih prijateljstava, za razliku od mnogih primjera muškog prijateljstva. Bliskost između Daenerys i Missandei, na primjer, izuzetak je koji dokazuje pravilo.

Prijateljstvo između Missandei i Daenerys bilo je jedno od rijetkih ženskih prijateljstava prikazanih u cijeloj seriji. Zasluge: HBO.

Ova pitanja su složena Igra prijestolja čak ni izbor da većina glavnih likova bude nekoliko godina stariji od njihovih kolega iz knjiga ne čini žene manje seksualiziranim. A ako želimo govoriti o orijentalizmu, Dothraki u Igra prijestolja su udžbenički slučaj, sve do njihovog beznadnog naboja u "Dugoj noći". Ovo ne spominje pogubljenje Daenerysinog saveznika Missandeija, samo imenovana žena u boji u emisiji, u lancima na kraju epizode 8.04, u oštrom kontrastu s drugim ženama, poput Lyanne Mormont, koja je umrla boreći se protiv jasnog neprijatelja ili, u "Zvonima", ponovnog pojavljivanja dovoljno snaga Dothrakija i neokaljanih snaga za masakr građani Kraljevog pristaništa, dok se Jon Snow i njegovi (doslovno i figurativno) bijeli vitezovi uglavnom suzdržavaju po njegovom nalogu.

To ga čini još važnijim za publiku i čitatelje, kao i za voditelje i producente Igra prijestolja i njegove nadolazeće nadogradnje, kako bi prestali donositi pretpostavke o "točnosti" Martinovog srednjeg vijeka. Njegovi izvori bili su zasićeni zastarjelim ženomrzačkim i kolonijalističkim perspektivama, i iako to nije nužno njegova krivica - radio je s onim što je bilo dostupno - od vitalnog je značaja pojačati glasove onih koji bolje razumiju stvarnu historiju i kulturu biti pretjeran u Igra prijestolja. Možda bismo trebali više razmišljati o tome šta nam fascinacija ovim „mračnim srednjim vijekom“ govori o nama samima i našem odnosu prema vlastitoj istoriji.

Nema ništa loše u ljubavi Igra prijestolja, Pesma leda i vatre, i živopisne, sveobuhvatne svjetove koje je stvorio George R.R. Martin. Unutar samog svemira je fantastična istorija puna rupa i kontradikcija, glasina, pjesama i priča, a ja, na primjer, smatram da su ti kulturni aspekti izgradnje svijeta posebno zanimljivi. Neočekivana upotreba balade Jenny of Oldstones u emisiji - lik i pjesma predstavljeni Oluja mačeva kao tragična i romantična ličnost iz istorije Westerosija - na primjer, u "Vitezu sedam kraljevstava", bila je lijepa graciozna nota.

Ono što dobijemo je dovoljno da me boli više, i to iz različitih perspektiva. Kako bi izgledala Kejtlinina poglavlja da je imala dve-dve dame koja joj je pružala podršku i utehu tokom njenih dugih putovanja sa vojskom Roba Starka? Šta ako je Cersei imala Escadron Volant (grupa lijepih, uspješnih i šarmantnih dama na čekanju) da špijuniraju svoje neprijatelje, poput Catherine de ’Medici u Francuskoj u šesnaestom stoljeću? Jedan od aspekata potpisa Pesma leda i vatre je da Martin priča priču očima različitih likova (Tyrion, Jon, Sansa, Arya i Daenerys, između ostalih). Ali što ako imamo čak nekoliko likova gledišta među Dothrakijima ili građanima Meereena da saznamo šta oni mislili na Majku Zmajeva?

/> Sjajne, nedovoljno iskorištene žene Dornea u Igra prijestolja, sezona 5, epizoda 6. Zasluge: HBO.

Isto se može reći i za emisiju koja nudi premalo likova u boji. Zapravo, Igra prijestolja izrezati nekoliko istaknutih likova u boji koji se pojavljuju u knjigama, ponajviše u danskoj zbrci pete sezone (odbijam to nazvati zapletom). Kako bi emisija mogla izgledati vidjeti Arianne Martell i Ellaria Sand kako se svađaju oko toga treba li Dorne ići u rat s Gvozdenim prijestoljem ili ne? Gdje su scene u kojima Arianne pokušava natjerati princezu Mircelu u sukob protiv svog brata Tommena?

Nikada nećemo saznati, nažalost. Ali čak i ako ove stvari ne možemo imati u posljednjoj sezoni Igra prijestolja, možda će razne spinoff serije koje je HBO naručio ponuditi širi i raznovrsniji osjećaj za svjetove Westerosa, Essosa i šire. I više od toga, gledaoci i čitaoci mogu zahtijevati raznovrsnije, nijansirane fantazijske univerzume. Neki od njih mogu ponuditi bolji odraz srednjeg vijeka, ali čak i ako to ne učine, mogu nam dati nešto potpuno novo i fascinantno kako bi nam zaokupili pažnju poput Martinovog svemira.

Na kraju, za one čitatelje koji možda razmišljaju o pisanju vlastitih fantastičnih romana sa srednjovjekovnom postavkom, pokušajte razmišljati izvan onoga što vam pop kultura kaže za srednji vijek. Koristite svoju maštu i stvorite svjetove koji ne odražavaju naše najgore impulse, već naše bolje. Beletristika ne mora biti mračna da bi bila realna. Stvarnost je daleko zanimljivija i raznovrsnija od toga.


Igra prijestolja: George R.R. Martin otkriva Brienneovu pozadinu

George R.R. Martin otkrio je pozadinu za Brienne of Tarth (Gwendoline Christie) koja bi mogla nagovijestiti buduće događaje na Game of Thrones.

[SPOJLERI naprijed za one koji nisu uhvaćeni Igra prijestolja sezona 6.]

To je jedna od najvećih i najutjecajnijih televizijskih serija koja se trenutno emitira, to svi znaju Igra prijestolja temelji se na projekciji serije od sedam knjiga tzv Pesma leda i vatre, napisao George R.R. Martin. Ono što većina možda ne zna je to Led i vatra samo je jedan od tri niza tekstova koje je Martin napisao, a koji detaljno opisuju prethodna tri stoljeća Sedam kraljevstava Westerosove pozadine (i nagovještavaju 12.000 godina prije toga, za početak): niz novela iz prethodnika, koje se protežu čak do 150 godina prije nego što je glavna priča (to je za vrijeme građanskog rata u Targaryenu, popularno poznata kao Ples zmajeva, za sve one majstore koji se obučavaju kod kuće) općenito objavljena između svake nove ASOIAF rata, dok Svet leda i vatre je enciklopedijska knjiga koja olako prepričava svu poznatu historiju, počevši od dolaska prvih ljudi u Westeros i početka njihovog rata sa šumskom djecom (rat koji sada znamo zahvaljujući Igra prijestolja, imao bi velike posljedice hiljadama godina koje dolaze).

Ovi dodatni zadaci oduvijek su bili upravo to - dopunski. Do sada je tako.

Govoreći na Balticonu (velikoj konvenciji u Baltimoreu, Maryland) prošlog vikenda, George Martin je službeno potvrdio izravnu vezu između svoje glavne serije knjiga i Tales of Dunk and Egg, predložene serije od 12 (ili više) novela koje slijede Ser Duncan visoki, vitez živica koji pokušava zarađivati ​​za život otprilike stoljeće prije Igra prijestoljai njegov štitonoša, Aegon Targaryen (prijatelji i porodica ga zovu Jaje), koji će jednog dana postati kralj i otac Ludog kralja Aerysa (to je ludi momak koji je ubio oca lorda Eddarda Starka [Sean Bean] i starije brat, pomažući u podsticanju pobune koja će srušiti dinastiju Targaryen). Ispostavilo se da je Brienne, Maid of Tarth (Gwendoline Christie), koja se pokazala kao najbolji mačevalac u svih sedam kraljevstava (time što je Ser Jaime Lannister [Nikolaj Coster-Waldau] u borbi dao najbolji rezultat), potomak je Dunka , čovjek koji nikada nije bio vitez, ali bi ipak postao lord -zapovjednik Kraljevske straže kralja Aegona (pozicija koju je Jaime zadržao do ovogodišnjeg dijela).

Priče o zakucavanju i jajetu

Zašto bi ovo trebalo biti važno televizijskoj publici? Lako: dotiče se onih divnih narativnih domena koje se zovu tema, karakterizacija i, možda samo, nagovještaj. Brienne nikada nije bila službeno vitez (niti je to mogla biti, budući da je žena i sve to), ali se uvijek iznova pokazala kao najviteškiji, najpravedniji i najiskreniji pojedinac u svim Igra prijestolja -isto takvo raspoloženje i status koji je posedovao njen pra-pra-pradeda. Ovo mora nešto reći o Martinovom svjetonazoru, a moglo bi čak i nagovijestiti ono što bi mogla biti konačna sudbina Brienne Ljepotice (koja, Led i vatra obožavatelji znaju, oboje je dobro i loše).

Kao što će vam čitatelji knjiga reći, Martin se nije štedio u pokušaju da svoje Tales of Dunk and Egg (koji su počeli izlaziti tek nakon drugog toma u glavnoj seriji) uvrsti u Pesma leda i vatreje višeslojna priča, koja je čak otkrila da je davno tajanstveni trooki gavran (Max von Sydow) zapravo Lord Brynden Rivers, glavni lik iz novela i čovjek koji je odradio mnoge važne uloge u Westerosiju istorije, uključujući ključnog generala tokom Plesa zmajeva, Kraljevu ruku dva monarha, pa čak i komandanta Noćne straže. Ova najnovija potvrda će nesumnjivo samo dodatno zainteresirati HBO za realizaciju Dunka i Jajeta na malom ekranu, kako su to on i Martin spomenuli nekoliko puta u posljednjih nekoliko godina.

Opet, s obzirom na činjenicu da Igra prijestolja nikada nisu Gavrana nazivali Brynden Rivers - i, ovim tempom, vjerojatno nikada neće - s obzirom na to da se većina drugih događaja koji se obećavaju dogoditi u budućim serijama Dunk and Egg (poput uništenja Summerhalla, Targaryensa) sezonsko prebivalište koje je jednostavno moglo biti izbrisano u zabludi pokušaja rađanja zmajeva), isto tako nikada nije ni spomenuto usput, najvjerojatnije će pomoćni tekstovi ostati samo fusnote za televizijske fanove-iako vrlo dobro napisane, vrlo -preporučene fusnote.

Igra prijestolja nastavlja sljedeće nedjelje sa “The Broken Man” u 21:00 na HBO -u.


George R.R. Martin će dati Igra prijestolja Obožava novi završetak serije

Osma sezona, šesta epizoda Igra prijestolja može ući u istoriju kao najpolarizirajuće finale serije svih vremena & mdashyes, čak i više od toga Sopranovi i Lud čovjek. Posljednja sezona HBO -ove emisije predstavljala je simboliku koja na kraju nije ništa značila, ubijanje cijelog grada koje je bilo prilično nepotrebno i roditeljstvo Jona Snowa? To ni na kraju nije značilo apsolutno ništa.

Koliko god ta posljednja sezona bila bolna za obožavatelje, čitatelji su se nadali novom završetku u posljednje dvije knjige Georgea R. R. Martina u seriji "Pjesma o ledu i vatri". Zimski vjetrovi i San o proleću su već neko vrijeme u radovima, ali autor konačno otkriva hoće li njegove knjige slijediti istu priču kao i serija.

Dok je Martin prethodno dao prilično neodređen odgovor o tome hoće li uslijediti njegove posljednje dvije knjige GoT (njegov direktni citat 2019. bio je: "Pa & hellipyes. I ne. I da. I ne. I da. I da. I ne. I da."), njegov novi intervju za njemačke novine Welt pokazuje da će fanovi zapravo dobiti potpuno novi završetak.

"Ljudi znaju kraj, ali ne znaju the kraj, rekao je Martin. "Tvorci TV emisije su me pretekli, što nisam očekivao."

Ovo je vjerovatno malo gorko slatko za fanove da čuju, jer ako GoT emisija je imala Martinovo djelo, vjerojatno ne bismo dobili onu strašnu posljednju sezonu koja je pokrenula peticiju koju su napravili navijači pod nazivom "Remake Igra prijestolja 8. sezona sa kompetentnim piscima. "

Martin je također potvrdio da neće biti Igra prijestolja film, ali odluka nije bila u njegovim rukama:


Čitaj više

Igra prijestolja i Pjesma leda i vatre: Hoće li knjige završiti drugačije od TV emisije?

Emilia Clarke priznala razočarenje u završnici Igre prijestolja

Dok je proces uzbuđenja Martinovim povoljnim zvučnim ažuriranjima nastavljen Zimski vjetrovi je za navijače postala površna vježba premještanja golova je zapravo nešto zbog čega biste trebali biti uzbuđeni na prednjem dijelu knjige - zaista, postoji! Njegovo posljednje veliko ažuriranje, od prošlog februara, otkrilo je da mu je produženo vrijeme u vrijeme pandemije omogućilo da napiše „stotine i stotine stranica“ knjige. S obzirom na to da je godinama postavljao sporadična završena poglavlja knjige na svojoj web stranici “Not a Blog” (koja je potpuno blog), vjerovatno je blizu završetka knjige. Međutim, čak i nakon što se taj monumentalni događaj konačno rasplete, proces će jednostavno započeti iznova kad Martin počne pisati književni zaključak, San o proleću. Stoga će biti zanimljivo vidjeti hoće li spomenuti san ikada započeti. Prvo će se morati odvojiti od drugih projekata, kao što je sukreatorski položaj u razvoju fantazijske video igre Elden Ring.

U međuvremenu, Igra prijestolja obožavateljima neće nedostajati sadržaja sa televizijske strane, s 300 godina dugom prequel serijom, Kuća zmaja, trenutno u produkciji i na putu za premijeru 2022. Ta će serija na kraju biti nadopunjena spinoff projektima koji će se nasloviti, a postavljeni su u različitim razdobljima povijesti Westerosa, poput Zakucavanje i jaje, Morska zmija, dorska princeza Nymeria i serija smještena u King's Landing sirotinjsku četvrt Flea Bottom.


Sadržaj

George Raymond Martin (prihvatio je potvrdno ime Richard sa 13 godina) [2] rođen je 20. septembra 1948. [7] u Bayonneu, New Jersey, [8] kao sin ribara Raymonda Collinsa Martina i Margaret Brady Martin. Porodica njegove majke nekada je bila bogata, posjedovala je uspješan građevinski posao, ali je sve izgubila u vrijeme Velike depresije, na šta se Martina svaki dan podsjećalo kada je prolazio pored nekadašnjeg pristaništa i kuće njegove porodice. Učinio mu je osjećaj da čak i ako su siromašni, dolaze iz veličine koja im je oduzeta. [9] Ima dvije mlađe sestre, Darleen i Janet. Njegova majka je bila pola irskog porijekla. [10] Također priznaje francuske, engleske, velške i njemačke korijene [11], što je potvrđeno u televizijskim serijama Finding Your Roots. Međutim, iako je vjerovao da je četvrtina Talijana, a za koga mu je rečeno da mu je djed po ocu, DNK test u emisiji potvrdio je njegovo irsko i drugo porijeklo, ali je isključio bilo koje talijansko podrijetlo, pokazujući umjesto toga da je otprilike četvrtina Aškenazi Židova. [12]

Porodica je prvo živjela u kući na Broadwayu, koja je pripadala Martinovoj prabaki. 1953. preselili su se na federalni stambeni projekat u blizini pristaništa Bayonne. [10] Tokom Martinovog djetinjstva, njegov svijet se uglavnom sastojao od "Prve ulice do Pete ulice", između osnovne škole i njegovog doma ovaj ograničeni svijet natjerao ga je da želi putovati i iskusiti druga mjesta, ali jedini način za to bio je kroz njegovu mašte i postao je proždrljiv čitač. [13] Martin je počeo pisati i prodavati čudovišne priče za novčiće drugoj djeci iz susjedstva, uključujući dramska čitanja. Napisao je i priče o mitskom kraljevstvu u kojem žive njegove kornjače, a kornjače su često ginule u dvorcu igračaka, pa je odlučio da se međusobno ubijaju u "zlokobnim spletkama". [14] Martin je imao običaj započinjati "beskrajne priče" koje nikada nije dovršio, jer nisu ispale tako dobro na papiru kako ih je zamislio. [15]

Martin je pohađao školu Mary Jane Donohoe, a kasnije i srednju školu Marist. Dok je tamo postao strastveni ljubitelj stripova, razvijajući snažno interesovanje za superjunake koje objavljuje Marvel Comics [16], a kasnije je zaslužan za Stan Leeja kao jednog od njegovih najvećih književnih uticaja "Možda je Stan Lee najveći književni uticaj na mene , čak i više od Shakespearea ili Tolkina. " [17] Pismo koje je Martin napisao uredniku časopisa Fantastična četvorka tiskan je u broju 20 (studeni 1963.), bio je prvi od mnogih poslanih, npr. Fantastična četvorka #32, #34 i drugi. Obožavatelji koji su čitali njegova pisma redom su mu pisali pisma, a kroz takve kontakte, Martin se pridružio novonastalom strip fandomu tog doba, pišući beletristiku za razne fanzine [18], kupio je prvu kartu za prvi svjetski Comic-Con, održan u New Yorku York 1964. [19] [20] Godine 1965., Martin je osvojio nagradu Alley za komični fandom za najbolju fantastiku za svoju proznu priču o superheroju "Powerman vs. Plava barijera". [21]

1970. godine Martin je diplomirao diplomirala je novinarstvo na Medill School of Journalism Univerziteta Northwestern University u Evanstonu, Illinois summa cum laude nastavio je završiti magisterij na novinarstvu 1971., takođe sa Medilla. [22] Podoban za nacrt tokom Vijetnamskog rata, na šta se protivio, Martin se prijavio i dobio status prigovarača savjesti [23] umjesto toga radio je dvije godine (1972–1974) kao alternativni vojni službenik, pridružen Zaklada za pravnu pomoć okruga Cook. [22]

Sredinom 1970-ih, Martin je upoznao profesora engleskog jezika Georgea Guthridgea iz Dubuquea, Iowa, na konvenciji naučne fantastike u Milwaukeeju. Martin je nagovorio Guthridgea (koji je kasnije rekao da je u to vrijeme prezirao naučnu fantastiku i fantaziju) ne samo da baci pogled na spekulativnu fantastiku, već i da sam napiše temu. Guthridge je od tada bio finalist Hugo nagrade i dva puta nagrade Nebula za naučnu fantastiku i fantaziju. 1998. Guthridge i Janet Berliner osvojile su nagradu Bram Stoker za vrhunska postignuća u romanu za svoj Djeca sumraka. [24]

Zauzvrat, Guthridge je pomogao Martinu u pronalaženju posla na Clarke univerzitetu (tada Clarke College). Martin "nije zarađivao dovoljno novca da bi ostao živ" od pisanja i šahovskih turnira, kaže Guthridge. [25] Od 1976. do 1978. Martin je bio instruktor engleskog jezika i novinarstva u Clarkeu, a postao je pisac u rezidenciji na fakultetu od 1978. do 1979. [26]

Dok je uživao u nastavi, iznenadna smrt prijatelja i kolege autora Toma Reamyja krajem 1977. natjerala je Martina da preispita svoj život i na kraju je odlučio pokušati postati pisac sa punim radnim vremenom. Kad je njegova supruga diplomirala na Clarkeu 1979., on je dao otkaz, a umorni od teških zima u Dubuqueu, 1979. preselili su se u Santa Fe u Novom Meksiku, u koji su se "zaljubili" nakon posjete godine prije nego što su krenuli na put prema svjetskoj svjetskoj zajednici u Phoenixu. [27] [28]

Martin je počeo profesionalno prodavati kratke priče naučne fantastike 1970. godine, u 21. godini. Njegova prva prodaja bila je "Heroj", prodan Galaxy magazinu i objavljenom u februarskom broju 1971. uskoro je uslijedila i druga prodaja. Njegova prva priča koja je nominirana za Hugo nagradu [29] i nagradu Nebula bila je "With Morning Comes Mistfall", objavljena 1973. godine u Analog časopis. 1975. njegova priča ". Za singl jučer" o postapokaliptičnom timetriperu odabrana je za uključivanje u Epoha, zbornik naučne fantastike koji su uredili Roger Elwood i Robert Silverberg. Njegov prvi roman, Umiranje od svetlosti, dovršen je 1976. neposredno prije nego što se preselio u Dubuque, a objavio 1977. Iste godine veliki uspjeh Ratovi zvijezda imao veliki utjecaj na izdavačku industriju i naučnu fantastiku, pa je prodao roman za istu količinu koju bi zaradio za tri godine poučavanja. [30]

Kratke priče koje je mogao prodati u svojim dvadesetim godinama donijele su mu određenu zaradu, ali nedovoljnu za plaćanje računa, što ga je spriječilo da postane pisac sa punim radnim vremenom kakav je želio biti. Potreba za dnevnim poslom pojavila se istovremeno sa američkim ludilom za šahom koje je uslijedilo nakon pobjede Bobbyja Fischera na svjetskom šahovskom prvenstvu 1972. godine. Martinovo šahovsko umijeće i iskustvo omogućili su mu da bude angažiran kao direktor turnira za Kontinentalnu šahovsku asocijaciju koja je vikendom vodila šahovske turnire. To mu je dalo dovoljan prihod, a budući da su se turniri održavali samo subotom i nedjeljom, omogućilo mu je da radi kao pisac pet dana u sedmici od 1973. do 1976. Kada je šahovski mjehurić kasnije pukao i više mu nije pružao prihod, imao je postao mnogo bolje etabliran kao pisac. [31] [32]

Martin je član američkih pisaca naučne fantastike i fantastike (SFWA) koji je bio regionalni direktor jugozapadne organizacije od 1977. do 1979. godine, a kao njen potpredsjednik od 1996. do 1998. [ potreban citat ] Godine 1976., za MidAmeriCon u Kansas Cityju, 34. Svjetsku konvenciju naučne fantastike (Worldcon), Martin i njegov prijatelj i kolega pisac-urednik Gardner Dozois osmislili su i organizirali prvu Hugo-ovu stranku gubitnika za dobrobit svih prošlih i sadašnjih Hugo- gubeći pisce uveče nakon ceremonije dodjele Hugo nagrada. Martin je te godine bio nominiran za dva Huga, ali je izgubio obje nagrade, za novelu ". I sedam puta nikada ne ubija čovjeka" i novelu Oluje Windhavena, zajedno sa Lisa Tuttle. [33] Iako Martin često piše fantaziju ili horor, brojna njegova ranija djela su naučnofantastične priče nastale u slabo definiranoj budućoj historiji, neformalno poznate kao "Hiljadu svjetova" ili "Manrealm".

Godine 2017., Martin se prisjetio da je počeo pisati hibride naučne fantastike i horora kasnih 1970-ih kako bi opovrgao izjavu kritičara koji tvrdi da su naučna fantastika i horor suprotnosti i stoga nespojivi. Martin je razmišljao Sandkings (1979) najpoznatiji od njih. Druga je bila novela Noćni letači (1980), čija je ekranska i televizijska prava Vista kupila 1984. godine, koja je producirala filmsku adaptaciju 1987. godine, Noćni letači, sa scenarijem koji je zajedno napisao Martin. [34] Martin nije bio zadovoljan što je morao izrezivati ​​elemente radnje kako bi se prilagodio malom budžetu filma. [35] Iako nije hit u kinima, Martin vjeruje da mu je film spasio karijeru, te da sve što je od tada napisao postoji velikim dijelom zbog toga. [36] Napisao je i barem jedan komad političko-vojne fantastike, "Noć vampira", sakupljen u antologiji Harryja Turtlesovea Najbolja vojna naučna fantastika 20. veka (2001). [37]

1982. Martin je objavio roman o vampirima pod naslovom Fevre Dream smešten u 19. veku na reci Misisipi. Za razliku od tradicionalnih vampirskih romana, u Fevre Dream vampiri nisu natprirodna bića, već su različite vrste povezane s ljudima nastale evolucijom sa nadljudskim moćima. Kritičar Don D'Amassa je to pohvalio Fevre Dream za snažnu atmosferu 19. stoljeća i napisao: "Ovo je bez sumnje jedan od najvećih vampirskih romana svih vremena". [38] Martin se nadovezao Fevre Dream sa još jednim horor romanom, Krpa iz Armagedona (1983). Neočekivani komercijalni neuspjeh Krpa iz Armagedona "u suštini mi je uništio tadašnju karijeru romanopisca", prisjetio se on, pa ga je natjerao da umjesto toga razmisli o nekretninama. [39]

Godine 1984., nova urednica Baen Booksa, Betsy Mitchell, pozvala je Martina da ga pita je li razmišljao o stvaranju zbirke avantura Haviland Tuf. Martin, koji je imao nekoliko omiljenih likova iz serijala poput Solomona Kanea, Elrica, Nicholasa van Rijna i Magnusa Ridolpha, pokušao je 1970. godine svojim pričama o Tufu sam stvoriti takvog lika. Bio je zainteresiran, ali bio je previše zaokupljen pisanjem svoje sljedeće knjige, nikad dovršenog romana Crno -bijelo i crveno svuda, koji mu je iste godine zauzimao većinu vremena za pisanje. Ali nakon neuspjeha Krpa iz Armagedona, svi urednici su odbili njegov nadolazeći roman i očajnički tražeći novac, prihvatio je Mitchell -ovu ponudu i napisao još nekoliko priča o Tufu koje su prikupljene u Tuf Voyaging, koji se prodavao dovoljno dobro da bi Mitchell predložio nastavak. Martin was willing and agreed to do it, but before he got started he got an offer from Hollywood, where producer Philip DeGuere Jr. wanted to adapt The Armageddon Rag into a film. The film adaptation did not happen, but they stayed in touch, and when DeGuere became the producer for the revival of The Twilight Zone, Martin was offered a job as a writer. Working for television paid a lot better than writing literature, so he decided to move to Hollywood to seek a new career. [14] [40] [41] At first he worked as staff writer for the show, and then as an executive story consultant. After the CBS series was cancelled, Martin migrated over to the already-underway satirical science fiction series Max Headroom. He worked on scripts and created the show's "Ped Xing" character. However, before his scripts could go into production, the ABC show was cancelled in the middle of its second season. Martin was hired as a writer-producer on the new dramatic fantasy series Ljepotica i zvijer in 1989, he became the show's co-supervising producer and wrote 14 of its episodes.

In 1987, Martin published a collection of short horror stories in Portraits of His Children. During this same period, Martin continued working in print media as a book-series editor, this time overseeing the development of the multi-author Wild Cards book series, which takes place in a shared universe in which a small slice of post–World War II humanity gains superpowers after the release of an alien-engineered virus new titles are published in the ongoing series from Tor Books. In Second Person, Martin "gives a personal account of the close-knit role-playing game (RPG) culture that gave rise to his Wild Cards shared-world anthologies". [42] An important element in the creation of the multiple author series was a campaign of Chaosium's role-playing game Superworld (1983) that Martin ran in Albuquerque. [43] Admitting he became completely obsessed with the game, he stopped writing literature for most of 1983, which he refers to as his "lost year", but his shrinking bank accounts made him realize he had to come up with something, and got the idea that perhaps the stories and characters created in Superworld could somehow become profitable. [44] Martin's own contributions to Wild Cards have included Thomas Tudbury, "The Great and Powerful Turtle", a powerful psychokinetic whose flying "shell" consisted of an armored VW Beetle. As of June 2011 [update] , 21 Wild Cards volumes had been published in the series earlier that same year, Martin signed the contract for the 22nd volume, Low Ball (2014), published by Tor Books. In early 2012, Martin signed another Tor contract for the 23rd Wild Cards volume, High Stakes, which was released in August 2016. [45]

In August 2016 Martin announced that Universal Cable Productions had acquired the rights to adapt the Wild Cards novels into a television series. [46]

A Song of Ice and Fire Uredi

In 1991, Martin briefly returned to writing novels. He had grown frustrated that his TV pilots and screenplays were not getting made [47] and that TV-related production limitations like budgets and episode lengths were forcing him to cut characters and trim battle scenes. [48] This pushed Martin back towards writing books, where he did not have to worry about compromising his imagination. [47] Admiring the works of J. R. R. Tolkien in his childhood, he wanted to write an epic fantasy, though he did not have any specific ideas. [49]

His epic fantasy series, A Song of Ice and Fire, was inspired by the Wars of the Roses, The Accursed Kings [50] and Ivanhoe. Though Martin originally conceptualized it as being three volumes, [51] it is currently slated to comprise seven. Prvi, A Game of Thrones, was published in 1996, followed by A Clash of Kings in 1998 and A Storm of Swords in 2000. In November 2005, A Feast for Crows, the fourth novel in this series, became The New York Times No. 1 Bestseller. [52] The fifth book, A Dance with Dragons, was published July 12, 2011, and became an international bestseller, including achieving a No. 1 spot on the New York Times Bestseller List [53] and many others it remained on the New York Times list for 88 weeks. In 2012, A Dance With Dragons made the final ballot for science fiction and fantasy's Hugo Award, [54] World Fantasy Award, [55] Locus Poll Award, and the British Fantasy Award [56] the novel went on to win the Locus Poll Award for Best Fantasy Novel. [57] Two more novels are planned in the series: The Winds of Winter and the final volume A Dream of Spring. On April 25, 2018, Martin announced the release date of his new book, Fire & Blood, dealing with the history of House Targaryen, which was released on November 20, 2018. [58] Should Martin die before finishing the A Song of Ice and Fire series, former collaborators have said that they will not conclude the series for him. [59] [60]

HBO adaptation Edit

HBO Productions purchased the television rights for the A Song of Ice and Fire series in 2007 and began airing the fantasy series on their US premium cable channel on April 17, 2011. Titled Igra prijestolja, it ran weekly for ten episodes, each approximately an hour long. [61] Although busy completing A Dance With Dragons and other projects, George R. R. Martin was heavily involved in the production of the television series adaptation of his books. Martin's involvement included the selection of a production team and participation in scriptwriting the opening credits list him as a co-executive producer of the series. The series was renewed shortly after the first episode aired.

The first season was nominated for 13 Emmy Awards, ultimately winning two: one for its opening title credits, and one for Peter Dinklage as Best Supporting Actor.

The first season was also nominated for a 2012 Hugo Award, fantasy and science fiction's oldest award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society each year at the annual Worldcon the show went on to win the 2012 Hugo for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form, at Chicon 7, the 70th World Science Fiction Convention. Martin took home one of the three Hugo Award trophies awarded in that collaborative category, the other two going to Igra prijestolja show-runners David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.

The second season, based on the second A Song of Ice and Fire novel A Clash of Kings, began airing on HBO in the US on April 1, 2012. The second season was nominated for 12 Emmy Awards, including another Supporting Actor nomination for Dinklage. It went on to win six of those Emmys in the Technical Arts categories, which were awarded the week before the regular televised 2012 awards show. The second-season episode "Blackwater", written by Martin, was nominated the following year for the 2013 Hugo Award in the Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form category that episode went on to win the Hugo Award at LoneStarCon 3, the 71st World Science Fiction Convention. In addition to Martin, show-runners Benioff and Weiss (who contributed several scenes to the final screenplay) and episode director Neil Marshal (who expanded the scope of the episode on set) received Hugo statuettes.

Seasons 5 and 6 each won a dozen Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Drama Series. [62]

By the end of 2016, all seasons up to season 6 (which premiered on April 24, 2016) had been aired on HBO and all seasons had been released on DVD and/or Blu-ray [63] for home viewing (see List of Igra prijestolja episodes). The company confirmed on July 18, 2016 that season 7 would consist of seven episodes instead of the usual ten, and would premiere later than usual, in mid-2017, because of the later filming schedule. This was necessary in order to be shooting during the winter season in Europe. [64] Season 7 was expected to air in mid 2017. The first footage from the season was revealed in a new promotional video that featured clips from its new and returning original shows for the coming year on November 28, 2016, showcasing Jon Snow, Sansa Stark and Arya Stark. [65] [66] Like the previous season, it would largely consist of original content not found in Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series, but also adapts material from the upcoming sixth and seventh novels: The Winds of Winter i A Dream of Spring. [67]

For season 8, in November 2016, President of Programming Casey Bloys indicated that he had had preliminary discussions about a prequel spinoff to the Igra prijestolja series with Martin. [68] In May 2017, HBO commissioned five screenwriters – Max Borenstein, Jane Goldman, Brian Helgeland, Carly Wray and Bryan Cogman – to develop individual spin-offs. All of the writers are to be working individually with Martin. [69] [70] According to Casey Bloys, Martin is co-writing two of the four announced scripts. [71] The first episode of season 8 was broadcast on April 14, 2019. [72] This season had a total of six episodes.

Themes Edit

Martin's work has been described as having "complex story lines, fascinating characters, great dialogue, perfect pacing" by literary critic Jeff VanderMeer. [73] Dana Jennings of the New York Times described Martin's work as "fantasy for grown ups" [74] and Lev Grossman wrote that it was dark and cynical. [75] Martin's first novel, Dying of the Light, set the tone for some of his future work it unfolds on a mostly abandoned planet that is slowly becoming uninhabitable as it moves away from its sun. This story has a strong sense of melancholy. His characters are often unhappy or, at least, unsatisfied, in many cases holding on to idealisms in spite of an otherwise chaotic and ruthless world, and often troubled by their own self-seeking or violent actions, even as they undertake them. Many have elements of tragic heroes or antiheroes in them reviewer T. M. Wagner writes: "Let it never be said Martin doesn't share Shakespeare's fondness for the senselessly tragic." [76]

The overall gloominess of A Song of Ice and Fire can be an obstacle for some readers the Inchoatus Group writes that, "If this absence of joy is going to trouble you, or you're looking for something more affirming, then you should probably seek elsewhere." [77] However, for many fans, it is precisely this level of "realness" and "completeness"–including many characters' imperfections, moral and ethical ambiguity, and (often sudden) consequential plot twists that is endearing about Martin's work. Many find that this is what makes the series' story arcs compelling enough to keep following despite its sheer brutality and intricately messy and interwoven plotlines as TM Wagner points out:

There's great tragedy here, but there's also excitement, humor, heroism even in weaklings, nobility even in villains, and, now and then, a taste of justice after all. It's a rare gift when a writer can invest his story with that much humanity. [76]

Martin's characters are multifaceted, each with intricate pasts, aspirations, and ambitions. Publishers Weekly writes of his ongoing epic fantasy A Song of Ice and Fire: "The complexity of characters such as Daenerys, Arya and the Kingslayer will keep readers turning even the vast number of pages contained in this volume, for the author, like Tolkien or Jordan, makes us care about their fates." [78] Misfortune, injury, and death (including false death and reanimation) often befall major or minor characters, no matter how attached the reader has become. Martin has described his penchant for killing off important characters as being necessary for the story's depth: "when my characters are in danger, I want you to be afraid to turn the page, (so) you need to show right from the beginning that you're playing for keeps". [79]

In distinguishing his work from others, Martin makes a point of emphasizing realism and plausible social dynamics above an over-reliance on magic and a simplistic "good versus evil" dichotomy, for which contemporary fantasy writing is often criticized. Notably, Martin's work makes a sharp departure from the prevalent "heroic knights and chivalry" schema that has become a mainstay in fantasy as derived from J. R. R. Tolkien's Gospodar prstenova. He specifically critiques the oversimplification of Tolkien's themes and devices by imitators in ways that he has humorously described as "Disneyland Middle Ages", [80] which gloss over or ignore major differences between medieval and modern societies, particularly social structures, ways of living, and political arrangements. Martin has been described as "the American Tolkien" by literary critics. [81] While Martin finds inspiration in Tolkien's legacy, [82] he aims to go beyond what he sees as Tolkien's "medieval philosophy" of "if the king was a good man, the land would prosper" to delve into the complexities, ambiguities, and vagaries of real-life power: "We look at real history and it's not that simple . Just having good intentions doesn't make you a wise king." [83] Per this fact Martin has been credited with the rise of grimdark fantasy, a modern form of an "anti-Tolkien" approach to fantasy writing which, [84] according to British science fiction and fantasy novelist Adam Roberts, is characterized by its reaction to Tolkien's idealism even though it owes a lot to Tolkien's work. [85] [86] The Canadian fantasy writer R. Scott Bakker "says he wouldn't have been able to publish his fantasy novels without the success George R. R. Martin achieved first". [87] Similarly, Mark Lawrence, author of Prince of Thorns, was inspired by Martin and impressed by his Red Wedding scene. [88]

The author makes a point of grounding his work on a foundation of historical fiction, which he channels to evoke important social and political elements of primarily the European medieval era that differ markedly from elements of modern times, including the multigenerational, rigid, and often brutally consequential nature of the hierarchical class system of feudal societies [89] that is in many cases overlooked in fantasy writing. Even as A Song of Ice and Fire is a fantasy series that employs magic and the surreal as central to the genre, Martin is keen to ensure that magic is merely one element of many that moves his work forward, [90] not a generic deus ex machina that is itself the focus of his stories, which is something he has been very conscious about since reading Tolkien "If you look at Gospodar prstenova, what strikes you, it certainly struck me, is that although the world is infused with this great sense of magic, there is very little onstage magic. So you have a sense of magic, but it's kept under very tight control, and I really took that to heart when I was starting my own series." [91] Martin's ultimate aim is an exploration of the internal conflicts that define the human condition, which, in deriving inspiration from William Faulkner, [92] he ultimately describes as the only reason to read any literature, regardless of genre. [93]

In 2018, Martin called Gospodar prstenova, Veliki Gatsby, Otislo sa vjetrom, Velika očekivanja, Lonesome Dove, Catch-22, i Charlotte's Web "favorites all, towering masterpieces, books that changed my life". [94]

In 2017, Martin confirmed he would serve as an executive producer of the HBO television series adaptation of the 2010 science fantasy novel Who Fears Death by Nnedi Okorafor. [95] Martin also contributed to an upcoming 2022 video game titled Elden Ring, writing the worldbuilding aspects for it. [96] [97] In February 2021, it was reported that Martin and Kalinda Vazquez were developing a TV adaptation of Roadmarks by Roger Zelazny, which Martin pitched to HBO in 2020. Martin will be an executive producer, Vazquez the showrunner, writer and executive producer. [98] [99] More recently, he signed an overall deal with HBO. [100] Martin will serve as an executive producer of the Peacock TV adaptation in development of his Wild Cards book series, together with Melinda M. Snodgrass and Vince Gerardis, Martin’s manager. [101]


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On Wednesday morning, HBO’s official Igra prijestolja Twitter account cryptically tweeted, “Winter is coming.” And as soon as they saw it, countless A Song of Ice and Fire fans, burned by years of false rumors and misleading potential teasers for The Winds of Winter, thought, “No, it’s not.”

This Saturday will mark the 10th anniversary of the airing of the first episode of Igra prijestolja. This past Tuesday, another milestone passed mostly unobserved: the 10th anniversary of the publication of an interview in which author George R.R. Martin, fresh off the announcement of the release date for A Dance With Dragons (the fifth book in his beloved fantasy series), said, “Hopefully, the last two books will go a little bit quicker than this one has, but that doesn’t mean they’re going to be quick. Realistically, it’s going to take me three years to finish the next one at a good pace. I hope it doesn’t take me six years like this last one has.”

If only it had. A decade later—and roughly 11 years after Martin mentioned the first chapters ticketed for the penultimate installment of his series—Winds is still vaporware, aside from a smattering of sample chapters released long ago. At this late date, it’s almost amusing (if you’re into dark comedy) that Martin’s readers, spoiled by the two-year gaps between A Game of Thrones i A Clash of Kings i Clash i A Storm of Swords, were up in arms about the five- and six-year halts, respectively, between books 4 and 5. To paraphrase Old Nan, “Oh, my sweet summer children. What do you know of long waits?”

For the ‘Game of Thrones’ Pilot, Chaos Turned Out to Be a Ladder

As Martin’s tomes tell us, words are wind. But when will words be Winds?? Martin and most of his readers are well past the point of predicting when Winds will be out. Even the matter of whether Winds will blow has been raised so often, and remains so uncertain, that asking the question seems passé. My colleague Miles Surrey once recounted every instance of Martin promising or supposedly prioritizing the completion of Winds and then breezing (pun partially intended) by whatever target he’d set. Miles made a long list, and that was almost three years ago. At this point, it’s probably best to abandon all hope and be pleasantly surprised if Martin ever does deliver the book.

Martin’s failure to finish Winds (let alone its anticipated sequel, A Dream of Spring) isn’t really a rich text on its own. There’s only so much to say about the ongoing absence of something. Most of the latter-day discourse surrounding Winds stems from such fresh affronts as Martin commenting about the book—admittedly, often at the public’s prompting—or devoting his time to other tasks. “Work on Winds of Winter continues, and remains my top priority,” Martin blogged in June 2018. “It is ridiculous to think otherwise.” Rightly or wrongly, though, it’s actually easy to think otherwise, because Martin has been busy writing or consulting on so many projects other than the one he says is foremost on his mind.

If the author’s output had simply ceased, then we could consign the last two volumes of A Song of Ice and Fire to the fantasy scrap heap. Martin would be far from the first artist whose creative tap turned off. Alternatively, if Martin had decided that he didn’t intend to finish Winds—you know, because the David Benioff and D.B. Weiss ending to the saga was so satisfying that it would be impossible to top—then his readers could mourn and move on. Billy Joel (just to name another once-prolific, 70-something, tri-state area icon) hasn’t released an album of original songs since 1993, and he’s made it clear that he doesn’t want to. When he shows up to play the hits, nobody boos him because they haven’t forgiven him for deciding to stop recording after River of Dreams.

Martin doesn’t fit into either the involuntarily tapped-out or the voluntarily checked-out categories. His imagination is at once a wasteland (if judged solely by finishing Winds) and a fecund domain (if judged by his whole output). More than four years ago, I estimated how much writing Martin had published via his blog and various other projects in the five-plus years since the debut of A Dance of Dragons. Answer: more than half a million words’ worth—and that was prije the 2018 release of the 700-plus-page Targaryen history Fire & Blood.

Writing encompasses a small portion of the projects whirling through Martin’s mind, only some of which are Westeros-related. “I cannot seem to keep out of the news these days,” he noted in March. Weeks after making that remark, Martin signed a five-year overall deal with HBO, which is frantically trying to populate a Thrones small-screen universe. Martin is executive producing and working with the writers of five prequel projects set in the world he conceived, in addition to the House of the Dragon series that is set to premiere next year (not to mention the late, lamented prequel not named The Long Night that never made it past the pilot stage). Martin is also developing and writing the story for an international, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child–esque “live stage spectacular” set during the Great Tourney at Harrenhal and featuring famous characters from A Song of Ice and Fire.

Then there are the other HBO projects he’s executive producing: TV adaptations of Nnedi Okorafor’s 2010 novel Who Fears Death and Roger Zelazny’s 1979 novel Roadmarks. There’s the Peacock adaptation of Martin’s Wild Cards shared universe, which was originally envisioned as “several interlocking series.” (The 30th entry in the written Wild Cards series—many and more extensions of which are on the way—is due out in July, and as Martin wrote last week, “do not believe the assholes out there who are saying I no longer edit these books.”) There’s the feature film adaptation of Martin’s 1982 short story “In the Lost Lands,” the other feature film adaptation of his 1979 novelette Sandkings, and the animated film adaptation of his 1980 book The Ice Dragon. Ima Friends Forever, the first of four shorts Martin hopes to film (pandemic permitting). Ima Elden Ring, the video game crossover between Martin and the developers of Dark Souls. Martin also serves as “Chief World Builder” for Meow Wolf, the Santa Fe–based arts and entertainment collective that operates multiple immersive rides and exhibits. He owns and helps operate a bookstore and a theater. And although his plans to build a small medieval castle on his property were thwarted last year by a local review board, Martin did manage to purchase a piece of a fricking railroad. I guess that’s going well?

Small wonder, then, that Martin’s listed moods at the bottom of his blog posts of late have often been “busy” or “tired.” Considering all of the projects competing for his attention—and the personal losses he’s suffered recently—it’s a minor miracle that, according to a February blog post, Martin managed to write “hundreds and hundreds of pages” of Winds in 2020 (though he tempered that update with the observation that he had “hundreds of more pages to write”). Martin doesn’t owe his readers the rest of A Song of Ice and Fire, but based on his many musings on the subject, he seems to feel like he owes it to himself. And so the mystery remains: If Martin really wants to finish Winds, why does he do so much work that doesn’t help him finish Winds—and, in fact, appears to prevent him from doing so? Let’s consider several possible explanations.

Maybe he has trouble saying no.

Let’s accept Martin’s statement that Winds is no. 1 on his work call sheet. Why is the list below it so long? As Martin wrote in February, “My plate is full to overflowing. Every time I wrap up one thing, three more things land on me. Monkeys on my back, aye, aye, I’ve sung that song before. So many monkeys. And Kong.” (“Kong” being Martin’s nickname for Winds, not a reference to yet another attraction on HBO Max.) For good reason, Martin regularly returns to the topic of being absolutely buried by work just this week, he wrote, “I am hugely behind right now, and the prospect of trying to catch up is feeling increasingly oppressive.”

Martin’s level of involvement in the above books, movies, TV shows, and other business ventures varies, but conservatively speaking, we’re talking 20 other projects that are taking some of Martin’s time and attention. He hasn’t had to attend the Emmys in a while, and even pre-pandemic he’d cut back on conventions, but being sequestered in a cabin hasn’t stopped suits and storytellers the world over from beating a digital path to Martin’s door in search of the next priceless piece of IP. In many cases, he hasn’t turned them away. Maybe Martin just wants to be helpful. Maybe he likes being the belle of the ball in a way that he wasn’t before his breakout. Maybe he values variety. (“I like to do many different things at once,” he said last year.) Maybe the money is too good to turn down. Whatever his reasons, the result, thus far, is that Winds still isn’t out, which leaves Martin’s signature series (and his long-term legacy as its author) in the same development hell that consumed many of his early TV projects—and, as Martin is well aware, at risk of joining the pantheon of infamously unfinished works.

To address this dilemma, I’m offering my services to Martin as Ser Lindbergh, Lord Commander of the Knights Who Say “No!” You know those apps that cut off access to social media, theoretically allowing users to focus on whatever work they’re trying to do? (Until they stop pretending that they want to go cold turkey, return to TikTok and Twitter, and delete the apps from their phones.) That would be me with Martin, except instead of restricting access to social media, I would block any attempts to enlist his services as a consultant, producer, or editor until he’s finished with Winds. All opportunities would be routed through me, and whenever one came in, I would swiftly send his regrets. He could, of course, take time off from work whenever he wanted. But when he bio working, he’d be working on Winds.

Granted, Martin doesn’t seem to have any interest in appointing me (or anyone else) to this position. He has the power to clear his plate and remove all or most of those monkeys from his back, and he hasn’t done so. Plus, saying no to a series of development deals would cost him millions. But perhaps he’d thank me later, when the manuscript was submitted.

Maybe he’s awful at estimating how much work he has left.

Most of us know people (and some of us su people) who are habitually late. Most habitually late people don’t intend to be late. Right up until they’re actually late—and sometimes even after that, if they have trouble with clock management—they believe they’ll be on time. A lengthy track record of tardiness isn’t enough to convince them that they won’t be punctual sljedeći vrijeme. That’s Martin’s way with Winds. Time after time, he’s expressed his hope that Winds would come out—not just someday, but soon. (As in, within the next few months, as long ago as 2015.) Knowing what we know now—that it’s 2021 and Winds still isn’t done or, as far as anyone knows, very close to coming out—it’s hard to discern how he could have considered finishing by fall of 2015 plausible during the summer of 2015. He must have some capacity for self-deception when his workload is concerned, which might even be an adaptive trait when juggling dozens of commitments and trying to resolve a series that’s thousands of pages long and could otherwise look like an insurmountable undertaking.

Like many novelists, Martin is to some extent spinning this yarn as he goes along, but he’s said for years that he knows how the story ends, and he spilled his secrets about the broad strokes to Benioff and Weiss in 2013 (unless, like Littlefinger, he was scheming and making things up to throw them off the scent, sabotage Season 8, and burnish his own reputation—in which case, well done). Maybe Martin takes on so much non-Winds work because he believes, despite all evidence to the contrary, that he’s almost finished. If he’s stuck in a permanent state of thinking that he’s months away from the finish line, despite all evidence to the contrary, then why ne take on another lucrative, time-sensitive project or two?

Možda Winds isn’t actually his top priority.

Martin has proved categorically incapable of hitting a deadline for his next novel, but he hasn’t deviated from identifying the book as his number one boy. (“Winds remains my priority,” he reiterated in October 2019.) What this hypothesis presupposes is: What if it isn’t his top priority? I don’t mean Martin is lying. The statement was certainly true at one time, and after saying it for so long (whether to restore his sense of purpose or to appease impatient fans), he probably believes it. But maybe, after more than a quarter century of working on this series—and after being beaten to its climax by Benioff and Weiss—his heart isn’t in it the way it once was. The new and novel must be enticing compared to the same old millstone, and HBO made Martin a household name. He might even entertain a bigger audience via multiple prequels than he would with Winds sam.

Ultimately, we are what we do. And what Martin does is continue to take on new projects without finishing the one he insists takes precedence.

Maybe he’s hopelessly stuck.

Unless Martin’s penchant for crafting fiction extends to his progress reports about the book, and the whole yearslong Winds of Winter affair is some sort of mummer’s farce, he has pages—plenty of pages, in fact. But Martin has struggled to finish stories since his childhood, and perhaps he still doesn’t know how to set this dragon down. As TV viewers learned, this behemoth isn’t easy to end. In which case, distracting himself with other scripts and screenplays may be his way of working it out—or, at least, moving forward in some way instead of standing still. “This is just part of his process,” we would say with some understanding, if another part of his process were finishing Winds within, say, five (or six, or seven) years.

When most writers are blocked or progressing more slowly than planned, they procrastinate. Martin makes other stuff. In that sense, he’s a victim of his own restless creativity from afar, it seems as if his other work is delaying Winds, but maybe that constellation of non-priority projects is a symptom of his hardship, not a cause. It’s easy to say that if he’d written the same number of words for Winds i Proljeće that he has on his blog and in his other post–Dance With Dragons books, he’d be finished with A Song of Ice and Fire do sada. But the man has a muse, and maybe which words were coming wasn’t entirely up to him. As Martin admitted last July, “This writing stuff is hard.” Or, as he put it last January, “When I write novels, I immerse myself completely in a fictional world. It takes up all my imagination, I have to live through it. Editing a draft text, working on films as a producer or simply being a cinema owner is easier compared to writing a novel.” Unless someone is saying no (again, I’m available), the temptation to take the path of less resistance and have something to show for it in a matter of days, weeks, or months would be difficult to turn down.

Maybe he’s responding rationally (or at least understandably) to economic incentives.

Martin stands to make a vast sum of money for finishing Winds, but people are already paying him handsomely ne to. It may be tough to pass up the prospect of making more money, even though he’s sitting on a sizable fortune already. Martin makes bank now—his new HBO deal alone is reportedly worth “mid-eight figures”—but he wasn’t always wealthy. He had a humble upbringing, and it took years for him to start supporting himself as a full-time writer. It took many more years after that for him to become a big success. Martin’s HBO deal sure seems like a setback for Winds, ali you try turning down mid-eight figures in favor of finishing something that’s already taken 10 years. Even so, Martin must know that you can’t put a price on writing “The End.”


Inside George R. R. Martin's Earnings Through The Years

GEORGE R.R. MARTIN has spent a half-decade writing the hotly anticipated sixth installment of A Song of Ice and Fire, the series that spawned HBO's Game of Thrones, whose sixth season concludes this month. "The book is not done," he wrote to fans on his blog this January, citing a missed deadline. "I tried, I promise you. I failed." But he hasn't failed to reel in millions annually since book five, thanks to backlist sales and TV residuals.

Martin debuts on FORBES' highest-paid authors list at No. 12. Game of Thrones premiered on HBO in April 2011 fans snapped up more than 8 million copies of his books that year.

Healthy e-book sales--some 1.7 million digital GoT titles sold--help boost Martin's haul.

GoT mass-market paperbacks sell well season four of the show premieres to 4.4 million viewers. Published in 1996, A Game of Thrones, the first book in the series, sells 1 million copies in 2013.

Print sales of Martin's books wane, but he hits his now customary $12 million thanks to the largest viewership yet of HBO's Sunday-night staple: 20.2 million tune in weekly across all platforms.

All earnings are for fiscal year June through May, before taxes and other fees.

Gallery: The World's Top-Earning Authors 2015

I'm an associate editor at Forbes covering media and entertainment, with a focus on the movie business. For the magazine, I've written cover stories on Kim Kardashian's…


A Look at George R. R. Martin's Game of Thrones Through the Lens of History

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Just in time for the premiere this Sunday.

The author of this article is Dr. Kelly DeVries, a fantastic history professor I was lucky enough to have when I attended Loyola University (then College) in Maryland during my undergraduate years. He's a medievalist, among many things, and has recently published this great piece over at Foreign Affairs on the historical aspects of Game of Thrones. (On a somewhat personal note, I love that almost ten years after graduation I can keep up with Dr. DeVries through Facebook and simultaneously discover that we have a mutual affection for Martin's work.)

For the history geeks among us, this is a must read. DeVries gives a great overview on what is and what isn't historical, and why keeping to the history books can actually be a good thing. From the article:

Just how realistic is A Song of Ice and Fire?

The short answer is "not very." Before hordes of angry fans launch their trebuchets in my direction, however, let me hasten to add that this is a good thing, not a bad one. As a historian of the period, I can assure you that the real Middle Ages were very boring – and if Martin's epic were truly historically accurate, it would be very boring too. I'm glad Martin takes all the liberties he does, because I prefer my literature exciting. Medieval people did also, which is why their own most popular literary creations were nearly as fantastic as Martin's.


George R.R. Martin

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George R.R. Martin, u cijelosti George Raymond Richard Martin, originalni naziv George Raymond Martin, (born September 20, 1948, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.), American writer of fantasy, best known for his Song of Ice and Fire series (1996– ), a bloody saga about various factions vying for control of a fictional kingdom.

Martin attended Northwestern University and graduated with bachelor’s (1970) and master’s (1971) degrees in journalism. He had been an aficionado of science fiction and fantasy literature since childhood, and he sold his first short story in 1971. Having received conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War, Martin fulfilled his alternative military service by volunteering for a legal assistance organization in Chicago while earning his living as an organizer of chess tournaments and writing short fiction. He also frequently attended science-fiction and fantasy conventions. He won a Hugo Award in 1974 for his sci-fi novella “A Song for Lya.” In 1976 he accepted a position teaching journalism at Clarke College in Dubuque, Iowa.

In 1977 Martin released his first work of full-length fiction, Dying of the Light, about a festival on a planet nearing apocalypse, and two years later he moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, to write full time. He received both the Hugo and the Nebula Award for his novelette Sandkings (1981). That year he also released Windhaven (cowritten with Lisa Tuttle), about a girl who gains the ability to fly, and he followed with two full-length efforts, the vampire novel Fevre Dream (1982) and the rock-and-roll horror tale The Armageddon Rag (1983). Though the latter sold poorly, a producer optioned the film rights. The film was never made but the producer suggested Martin as a writer for a remake of The Twilight Zone series in 1985. He wrote several screenplays for the show before accepting a position as a writer for the TV series Ljepotica i zvijer (1987–90) he eventually became a producer for the modernized fairy tale. Martin returned to long-form fiction in 1991, having had no luck selling his television pilots and screenplays.

One of Martin’s efforts evolved into A Game of Thrones (1996), the first in what was initially intended to be a trilogy set largely in the imagined Seven Kingdoms of the land of Westeros. The series, while explicitly fantasy, pointedly avoided some of the genre’s more saccharine conceits in favour of a bleak realism. Major characters—even sympathetic ones—frequently met grisly ends, and the plots were dominated by the political intriguing and battlefield savagery of those questing for the titular throne. Further installments included A Clash of Kings (1999), A Storm of Swords (2000), A Feast for Crows (2005), and A Dance with Dragons (2011). The series was adapted as an HBO show that aired in 2011–19. Martin contributed scripts for several episodes. The episode “Blackwater,” which he wrote, snagged a 2013 Hugo Award for best short-form dramatic presentation. In addition, he served as one of the show’s co-executive producers, and, in that capacity, he won three Emmy Awards (2015, 2016, and 2018) when Igra prijestolja was named best outstanding drama series.

Martin edited numerous sci-fi and fantasy anthologies. One such volume, Dangerous Women (2013), included his novella “The Princess and the Queen or, The Blacks and the Greens.” It was framed as a chronicle of events in Westeros preceding those detailed in the Song of Ice and Fire series. Martin wrote other prequel novellas, several of which were collected in A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms (2014). In addition, he published Fire & Blood (2018), the first volume in a projected two-part series that tells the history of the Targaryens, one of the powerful families of Westeros. Martin’s short stories were compiled in GRRM: A RRetrospective (2003). The Ice Dragon (1980 rev. ed. 2006), a short novel for younger readers originally published in an anthology, told the story of a young girl’s quest to tame the mythical beast of the title. The fantasy universe in which it was set was similar to Westeros.


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