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Roper DD -147 - Historija

Roper DD -147 - Historija

Roper DD-147

Roper (DD-147: dp. 1,090, 1. 314'5 ", b. 31'8", dr. 9'10 ", s. 35 k.cpl. 101, a. 4 4", 2 3 ", 12 21 "tt., El. Wickes) Roper (DD-147) postavio je 19. marta 1918. William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., Lansirao 17. avgusta 1918., pod pokroviteljstvom gospođe Jesse M. Roper, udovice poručnika Zapovjednik Roper, započet 15. veljače 1919., zapovjednik Abram Claude zapovijedao je. Nakon slijetanja iz obale Nove Engleske, Roper je otplovio na istok sredinom juna 1919., a nakon zaustavljanja na Ponta Delgadi, Gibraltaru i Malti, usidren na Bosporu 5. jula. Narednih mjesec dana podržavala je rad Mirovne komisije i Odbora za pomoć u području mora Blaek, prevozeći poštu i putnike do i iz Carigrada, Novorossisk Batuma, Samsuna i Trebizonda. 20. avgusta razarač se vratio u Sjedinjene Države, u New York, da bi ponovo otplovio 6 dana kasnije. Krajem mjeseca prešla je Panamski kanal i preselila se na sjever u San Diego. Roper je ostala na zapadnoj obali do jula 1921. Dana 23. dana napustila je San Francisco na dužnosti na stanici Asiatie. Stigavši ​​u Cavite 24. avgusta, ostala je na Filipinima do decembra. Zatim se preselila u kineske vode, a na ljeto je djelovala prvenstveno iz Hong Konga i Chefooa. 25. avgusta 1922. vratila se u Kaliforniju. Usmjerena putem Nagasakija, Midwaya i Pearl Harbora stigla je u San Francisco 13. oktobra. Dva dana kasnije preselila se u San Pedro, odakle je nastavila put u San Diego, gdje je 14. decembra 1922. bila izvan pogona i vezana sa Pacifičkom rezervnom flotom. Ponovo u rad 18. marta 1930. Roper je nastavio operacije na Pacifiku. Operativno djelujući prvenstveno na području južne Kalifornije, u aktivnim i rotirajućim rezervnim eskadrilama, narednih 7 godina raspoređena je u Panamu, na Havaje i na Karibe radi problema flote i manevara u periodu od 1931. 1933., 1935. i 1936. Tokom januara i februara posljednje godine, također se preselila na sjever radi operacija u vodama Aljaske. U veljači 1937. Roper je napustio Kaliforniju i, nakon što je prešao Panamski kanal, pridružio se Atlantskoj floti. Ostatak godine, do 1938. i do 1939., izvodila je vježbe prvenstveno uz srednjoatlantsku obalu, a tijekom dijela svake godine i na Karibima. U novembru 1939., nakon izbijanja Drugog svjetskog rata u EuroDe -i, prebacila se iz Norfolka u Key West, odakle je patrolirala kanalom Yueatan i Floridskim tjesnacima. U decembru se vratila u Norfolk. U siječnju 1940. ponovo se preselila na jug, u Charleston, a u ožujku je krenula na sjever radi dužnosti u patroli New England. Kroz prijeratni period "Patrole neutralnosti", Roper je nastavio dometati vode uz istočne obale i obale zaljeva. Iz Cape Coda 7. decembra 1941. vratila se u Norfolk radi skraćene dostupnosti sredinom mjeseca, a zatim je otputovala u Argentiu. Početkom februara 1942. završila je pratnju konvoja do Londonderrija, a zatim se u martu vratila u područje Norfolka radi patroliranja i pratnje. Mesec dana kasnije, u noći između 13. i 14. aprila, stupila je u kontakt sa nemačkom podmornicom koja se pojavila na obali Severne Karoline. Potjera koja je uslijedila završila je potonućem U-86, jedinice 7. flotile sa podmornicama. Krajem maja, Roper je započela niz pratnji uz obalu, od Key Westa do New Yorka, što ju je odvelo u 1943. godinu. U veljači te godine prešla je na rad karipsko-mediteranskog konvoja i ostala na toj dužnosti do listopada, kada je ušla u Charleston Mornaričko dvorište radi pretvaranja u transport visoke klase. Preklasificirani APD-20 20. listopada 1943., Roper je napustio Charleston krajem studenog i obučavala se u području zaljeva Chesapeake i uz obalu Floride do nove godine, 1944. 13. aprila krenula je na istok, a krajem mjeseca pridružila se 8. floti u Oranu u Alžiru. Jedinica transportne divizije 13, koja je dodijeljena za podršku ofenzivi u Italiji, Roper je 17. juna i do jula iskrcala jedinice Armije Freneh na Pianozi, letela je između Orana i Napulja i djeluje duž zapadne obale poluotoka. U augustu je preusmjerila svoju pažnju na južnu Francusku. 15. stigla je s te obale u sastavu snaga "Sitka" i iskrcala trupe na ostrvo Ievant. 5. septembra vratila se u Italiju; nastavio s vožnjom između Napulja i Orana, a početkom prosinca napustio potonju luku prema Hampton Roadsu. Došavši 21. u Norfolk, Roper je ponovno otplovio 29. siječnja 1945. Prilikom prelaska Panamskog kanala, javila se Tihookeanskoj floti i, nakon zaustavljanja u Kaliforniji i na Havajima preselili u Marijane. 11. maja je napustila Guam prema Ryukyusu. Dolaskom u Nakagusuku Wan 22. dana, istog dana je stigla do sidrišta Hagushi. Tri dana kasnije, dok je bila na kontrolnoj stanici izvan tog transportnog područja, pogodio ju je kamikaze. Naređeno joj je da se vrati u Sjedinjene Države radi dovršetka popravke, napustila je Ryukyus 6. juna i stigla u San Pedro mjesec dana kasnije. U kolovozu se preselila na otok Mare, ali s prestankom neprijateljstava radovi na popravci su obustavljeni. Raspisano 15. septembra 1945., Roperovo ime je 11. oktobra 1945. izbrisano s popisa mornarice, a njen komad prodan je Lerner Co., Oakland, Kalifornija. Uklonjen u junu 1946., otpisan je sljedećeg prosinca. Roper je osvojio četiri borbene zvijezde tokom Svjetskog rata Drugi rat.


USS Roper DD-147 (1919-1945)

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Sadržaj

Međuratno razdoblje [uredi | uredi izvor]

Nakon probijanja New England obala, Roper otplovio je na istok sredinom juna 1919. i nakon zaustavljanja u Ponta Delgada, Gibraltar, i Malta, usidren u Bospor 5. jula. Sledećih mesec dana je podržavala Mirovna komisija i Odbor za pomoć rad u Crno more područje, nošenje pošte i putnika do i od Carigrad, Novorossisk, Batum, Samsun, i Trebizond. 20. avgusta razarač se vratio u Sjedinjene Države, at New York City, da bi šest dana kasnije ponovo isplovio. Krajem mjeseca prešla je Panamski kanal i preselio se na sjever u San Diego, Kalifornija. [1]

Roper ostala na Zapadnoj obali do jula 1921. 23. jula je otišla San Francisco, California, na dužnosti na azijskoj stanici. Dolazak u Cavite, Filipinska ostrva, 24. avgusta, ostala je na Filipinima do decembra. Zatim se preselila u kineske vode i, u ljeto, operirala prvenstveno iz hong kong i Chefoo. 25. avgusta 1922. vratila se u California. Usmjereno putem Nagasaki, Midway, i Pearl Harbor stigla je u San Francisco 13. oktobra. Dva dana kasnije preselila se u San Pedro, Kalifornija, odatle je nastavila put do San Diega, gdje je 14. decembra 1922. bila izvan pogona i vezana sa Pacifičkom rezervnom flotom. [1]

Ponovno pušten u rad 18. marta 1930. Roper obnovila operacije na Pacifiku. Djeluje prvenstveno na jugu California oblasti, u aktivnim i rotirajućim rezervnim eskadrilama, narednih sedam godina rasporedila se u Panama, do Hawaii i do Karipsko more za probleme flote i manevre 1931, 1933, 1935 i 1936. Tokom 1933, Poručnik, mlađi razred Robert A. Heinlein prebačen na brod Roper. Godine 1934. unaprijeđen je u poručnika, a zatim je "poništen", trajno onemogućen tuberkuloze. Tokom januara i februara 1936. Roper preselio na sjever radi operacija u Aljaska vode. [1]

U februaru 1937. Roper otputovao California i, nakon tranzita Panamski kanalpridružio se Atlantskoj floti. Ostatak godine, do 1938., pa do 1939. godine, izvodila je vježbe prvenstveno uz sredoatlantsku obalu, a dijelom svake godine i na Karibima. U novembru 1939, nakon izbijanja Drugi svjetski rat u Europe, pomaknula se s Norfolk, Virdžinija, do Key West, Florida, odakle je patrolirala Yucatan Channel i Florida Straits. U decembru se vratila u Norfolk. U januaru 1940. ponovo se preselila na jug, u Charleston, Južna Karolina, a u ožujku je krenula na sjever na dužnost u patrolu Nove Engleske. [1]

Drugi svjetski rat [uredi | uredi izvor]

Kroz predratni period Neutrality Patrol period, Roper nastavio je širiti vode uz istočnu i zaljevsku obalu. Isključeno Cape Cod 7. decembra 1941. vratila se u Norfolk radi skraćene dostupnosti sredinom mjeseca, a zatim je na pari stigla do NS Argentia, Newfoundland. Početkom februara 1942. završila je pratnju konvoja do Londonderry Port, zatim, u martu, vratio se u područje Norfolka radi patroliranja i pratnje. Mesec dana kasnije, u noći između 13. i 14. aprila, stupila je u kontakt sa jednom površinom Podmornica kod obale Rusije Sjeverna Karolina. Potjera koja je uslijedila završila je potonućem artiljerijske vatre Nemačka podmornica U-85 | (1941), jedinica za 7. Flotilja podmornica. [1] Bivši istoričar nemačke mornarice Helmut Schmoeckel sugerisao je u knjizi iz 2002. da je neuspeh Roper da spasite U-85 | posada nakon što su napustili podmornicu i Roper 's naknadno dubinsko punjenje U-85 | predstavlja ratni zločin. [2] Prema izvještaju nakon akcije, napad se dogodio poslije ponoći po lokalnom vremenu Roper zatvoreno radi identifikacije nepoznatog kontakta (U-85 |) i zamalo ga je promaklo torpedo prije otvaranja vatre. Zapovjednik je odgodio operacije spašavanja do zore, a nakon dolaska zračne podrške iz a PBY Catalina i zračni brod zbog zabrinutosti od napada drugog podmornice. [3] Protiv posade nije podignuta optužnica Roper i 29 mornara U-85 | sahranjeni su uz vojne počasti Nacionalno groblje Hampton. [4] Zapovjednik, zapovjednik poručnik Hamilton W. Howe primio je Mornarički križ za angažovanje podmornice [5] i penzionisan 1956. u činu Kontraadmiral. [6]

Dana 29. aprila, Roper spasio četrnaest preživjelih od britanskog trgovca Empire Drum, koji je torpedovan i potonuo U-136 | pet dana ranije. Dana 1. maja spasila je još trinaest preživjelih Empire Drum. Sletjeli su u Norfolk, Virdžinija, taj dan. [7] Krajem maja, Roper započela je niz pratnji uz obalu, od Key Westa do New Yorka, što ju je odvelo u 1943. U veljači te godine prebacila se na Karipsko more-jadransko more na konvoju i ostala na toj dužnosti do oktobra kada je ušla u Mornaričko dvorište Charleston za pretvaranje u brzi transport. [1]

Konvoji u pratnji [uredi | uredi izvor]

Pomoćna usluga [uredi | uredi izvor]

Preklasificirano i dato simbol klasifikacije trupa APD-20 20. oktobra 1943. Roper napustio je Charleston krajem novembra i obučavao se u Chesapeake Bay području i izvan Florida obale u novu godinu, 1944. 13. aprila isparala je na istok, a krajem mjeseca pridružila se 8. flota at Oran, Alžir. Jedinica transportne divizije 13, određena za podršku ofanzivi u Italija, Roper iskrcane jedinice Francuska vojska uključeno Pianosa 17. juna i, u julu, saobraćao između Orana i Napulj i djelovao je duž zapadne obale poluotoka u borbi. U augustu je preusmjerila pažnju na južnu Francusku. 15. avgusta stigla je s te obale u sastavu snaga "Sitka" i iskrcala trupe Levant Island. Dana 5. rujna vratila se u Italiju, nastavila vožnju između Napulja i Orana, a početkom prosinca napustila potonju luku radi Hampton Roads. [1]

Dolaskom u Norfolk 21. decembra, Roper ponovo isplovio 29. januara 1945. Prilikom tranzita Panamski kanal, izvijestila je Pacifičku flotu, i, nakon što je svratila California i Hawaii, preselio u Marijanska ostrva. Ona je otišla 11. maja Guam za Ostrva Ryukyu. Dolazak unutra Nakagusuku Wan 22. maja zaokružila je do Hagushi sidrište istog dana. Tri dana kasnije, dok je bila na projekcijskoj stanici izvan tog transportnog područja, pogodio ju je kamikaze. [1]

Naređeno joj je da se vrati u Sjedinjene Države radi dovršenja popravki, 6. juna je napustila Ryukyus i mjesec dana kasnije stigla u San Pedro. U kolovozu je prešla na Mare Island, ali s prestankom neprijateljstava radovi na popravci su obustavljeni. Raspisano 15. septembra 1945. godine, Roper ime je nastalo iz Registar pomorskih plovila 11. oktobra 1945., a njen komad je prodan kompaniji Lerner, Oakland, California. Uklonjen u junu 1946., otpisan je sljedećeg decembra. [1]


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Međuratni period USS Roper (DD-147) _odjeljak_2

Nakon potresa kod obale Nove Engleske, Roper je sredinom juna 1919. otplovio na istok i, nakon zaustavljanja na Ponta Delgadi, Gibraltaru i Malti, usidrio se 5. jula na Bosporu. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_6

Sljedećih mjesec dana podržavala je rad Mirovne komisije i Odbora za pomoć u području Crnog mora, prevozeći poštu i putnike do i iz Carigrada, Novorossiska, Batuma, Samsuna i Trebizonda. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_7

20. avgusta razarač se vratio u Sjedinjene Američke Države, u New York City, da bi ponovo isplovio šest dana kasnije. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_8

Krajem mjeseca prešla je Panamski kanal i preselila se na sjever u San Diego. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_9

Roper je ostao na Zapadnoj obali do jula 1921. USS Roper (DD-147) _sentence_10

23. jula je napustila San Francisco, na dužnosti na azijskoj stanici. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_11

Stigavši ​​u Cavite, Filipinska ostrva, 24. avgusta, ostala je na Filipinima do decembra. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_12

Zatim se preselila u kineske vode, a na ljeto je djelovala prvenstveno iz Hong Konga i Chefooa. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_13

25. avgusta 1922. vratila se u Kaliforniju. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_14

Usmjerena putem Nagasakija, Midwaya i Pearl Harbora stigla je u San Francisco 13. oktobra. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_15

Dva dana kasnije preselila se u San Pedro, Kalifornija, odakle je nastavila put u San Diego, gdje je 14. decembra 1922. bila izvan pogona i vezana sa Pacifičkom rezervnom flotom. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_16

Ponovno pušten u rad 18. marta 1930. godine, Roper je nastavio operacije u Pacifiku. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_17

Djelujući prvenstveno na području južne Kalifornije, u aktivnim i rotirajućim rezervnim eskadrilama, narednih sedam godina rasporedila se u Panamu, na Havaje i na Karibe radi problema flote i manevara 1931, 1933, 1935 i 1936. USS Roper ( DD-147) _rečenica_18

Tokom 1933. godine, poručnik, mlađi razred Robert A. Heinlein, koji će kasnije steći slavu kao autor naučne fantastike, prešao je na brod Roper. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_19

Godine 1934. unaprijeđen je u poručnika, a zatim je "poništen", trajno onesposobljen zbog tuberkuloze. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_20

Tokom januara i februara 1936, Roper se preselio na sjever radi operacija u vodama Aljaske. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_21

U veljači 1937. Roper je napustio Kaliforniju i, nakon što je prešao Panamski kanal, pridružio se Atlantskoj floti. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_22

Ostatak godine, do 1938., pa do 1939. godine, izvodila je vježbe prvenstveno uz sredoatlantsku obalu, a dijelom svake godine i na Karibima. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_23

U novembru 1939., nakon izbijanja Drugog svjetskog rata u Evropi, preselila se iz Norfolka u Virdžiniji u Key West na Floridi, odakle je patrolirala kanalom Yucatán i Floridskim tjesnacima. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_24

U decembru se vratila u Norfolk. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_25

U siječnju 1940. ponovo se preselila na jug, u Charleston, Južna Karolina, a u ožujku je krenula na sjever radi dužnosti u patroli New England Patrol. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_26

Drugi svjetski rat USS Roper (DD-147) _odjeljak_3

Kroz prijeratni period patrole neutralnosti, Roper je nastavio širiti vode uz istočnu i zaljevsku obalu. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_27

Iz Cape Coda 7. decembra 1941. vratila se u Norfolk radi skraćene dostupnosti sredinom mjeseca, a zatim je otputovala u NS Argentia, Newfoundland. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_28

Početkom februara 1942. završila je pratnju konvoja do luke Londonderry, a zatim se u martu vratila u područje Norfolka radi patroliranja i pratnje. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_29

Mesec dana kasnije, u noći između 13. i 14. aprila, stupila je u kontakt sa podmornicom koja se pojavila na obali Severne Karoline. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_30

Potjera koja je uslijedila završila je potonućem artiljerijske vatre njemačke podmornice  U-85   (1941), jedinice 7. podmorničke flotile. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_31

Tako je Roper potonuo prvu njemačku podmornicu američkih pomorskih snaga u Drugom svjetskom ratu. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_32

Prema izvještaju nakon akcije, napad se dogodio poslije ponoći po lokalnom vremenu nakon što se Roper zatvorio radi identifikacije nepoznatog kontakta (U-85), a torpedo ga je zamalo promašio prije otvaranja vatre. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_33

Zapovjednik je odgodio operacije spašavanja do svitanja i nakon dolaska zračne potpore iz PBY Catalina i zračnog broda zbog zabrinutosti zbog napada drugog podmornice. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_34

Protiv posade Ropera nisu podignute optužbe, a 29 mornara U-85 sahranjeno je uz vojne počasti na nacionalnom groblju Hampton. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_35

Roperov zapovjednik, zapovjednik poručnik Hamilton W. Howe, primio je mornarički križ za angažman podmornice i penzionisan je 1956. godine u činu kontraadmirala. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_36

Bivši zapovjednik njemačke podmornice U-802 i autor Helmut Schmoeckel predložio je u knjizi iz 2002. godine da bi trebalo istražiti neuspjeh Ropera da spasi posadu U-85 nakon što su napustili podmornicu i Roperovo dubinsko punjenje U-85. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_37

Nikada nije upotrijebio izraz ratni zločin, kako se ponekad navodi, a kao izvor se oslanjao na vrlo netočnu američku knjigu. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_38

Roper je 29. aprila spasio četrnaest preživjelih iz britanskog trgovca Empire Drum, koji je pet dana ranije torpedovao i potopio U-136. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_39

1. maja spasila je još trinaest preživjelih iz Empire Druma. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_40

Tog dana su sleteli u Norfolk u Virdžiniji. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_41

Krajem maja, Roper je započela seriju pratnji uz obalu, od Key West-a do New Yorka, što ju je odvelo u 1943. USS Roper (DD-147) _sentence_42

U veljači te godine prešla je na rad konvoja na Karibima i Mediteranu i ostala na toj dužnosti do listopada, kada je ušla u mornaričko dvorište Charleston radi prelaska na brzi transport. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_43

Konvoji su pratili USS Roper (DD-147) _odjeljak_4

USS Roper (DD-147) _table_general_1

Konvoj USS Roper (DD-147) _header_cell_1_0_0 Pratnja grupe USS Roper (DD-147) _header_cell_1_0_1 Datumi USS Roper (DD-147) _header_cell_1_0_2 Bilješke USS Roper (DD-147) _header_cell_1_0_3
ON 63 USS Roper (DD-147) _celija_1_1_0 USS Roper (DD-147) _celija_1_1_1 7–13. Februara 1942. USS Roper (DD-147) _cell_1_1_2 od Islanda do Newfoundlanda USS Roper (DD-147) _cell_1_1_3
AT 18 USS Roper (DD-147) _cell_1_2_0 USS Roper (DD-147) _celija_1_2_1 6–17. Kolovoza 1942. USS Roper (DD-147) _cell_1_2_2 vojnički brodovi od New Yorka do Firth of Clyde USS Roper (DD-147) _cell_1_2_3

Pomoćna služba USS Roper (DD-147) _odjeljak_5

Ponovno klasificiran i dodijeljen klasifikacijski simbol trupa APD-20 (transportni razarač) 20. listopada 1943., Roper je napustio Charleston krajem studenog i obučavao se u području zaljeva Chesapeake i uz obalu Floride do nove godine 1944. USS Roper (DD-147) _sentence_44

13. aprila krenula je na istok, a krajem mjeseca pridružila se 8. floti u Oranu u Alžiru. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_45

Jedinica transportne divizije 13, koja je dodijeljena za podršku ofenzivi u Italiji, Roper je 17. juna iskrcala jedinice francuske vojske na Pianozi, a do jula je letjela između Orana i Napulja i djelovala duž zapadne obale poluotoka. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_46

U augustu je preusmjerila pažnju na južnu Francusku. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_47

15. avgusta stigla je s te obale u sastavu snaga "Sitka" i iskrcala trupe na ostrvo Levant. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_48

Dana 5. septembra vratila se u Italiju, nastavila vožnju između Napulja i Orana, a početkom prosinca krenula iz potonje luke prema Hampton Roads. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_49

Stigavši ​​u Norfolk 21. decembra, Roper je ponovo otplovio 29. januara 1945. USS Roper (DD-147) _sentence_50

Prilikom prelaska Panamskog kanala prijavila se Pacifičkoj floti, a nakon zaustavljanja u Kaliforniji i na Havajima preselila se na Marijanska ostrva. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_51

Dana 11. maja otputovala je iz Guam -a na ostrva Ryukyu. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_52

Dolaskom u Nakagusuku Wan 22. maja, istog dana je zaokružila do sidrišta Hagushi. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_53

Tri dana kasnije, dok je bila na projekcijskoj stanici izvan tog transportnog područja, pogodila ju je kamikaza. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_54

Naređeno joj je da se vrati u Sjedinjene Države radi dovršenja popravki, 6. juna je napustila Ryukyus i mjesec dana kasnije stigla u San Pedro. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_55

U kolovozu se preselila na otok Mare, ali su s prekidom neprijateljstava radovi na popravci obustavljeni. USS Roper (DD-147) _rečenica_56


Company-Histories.com

Adresa:
160 Ben Burton Road
Bogart, Georgia 30622
SAD.

Statistika:

Javno preduzeće
Osnovano: 1981
Zaposlenici: 2.950 (2001)
Prodaja: 587 miliona dolara (2001)
Berze: NASDAQ
Simbol oznake: ROP
NAIC: 333911 Pumpe i oprema za pumpanje Proizvodnja 334514 Totaliziranje mjerača tekućine i uređaja za brojanje 421810 Građevinarstvo i rudarstvo (osim naftnih bušotina) Strojevi i oprema za veleprodaju 334516 Analitički laboratorijski instrumenti Proizvodnja


Perspektive kompanije:
Naš cilj je povećati vrijednost Ropera za njegove dioničare postizanjem dosljednog i održivog rasta zarade po dionici. To činimo maksimiziranjem novčanog toka i efektivnom upotrebom gotovine za finansiranje akvizicija i unutrašnjeg rasta. Snažne operativne marže i dobro upravljanje obrtnim kapitalom izvor su našeg snažnog i rastućeg novčanog toka i stoga su kamen temeljac naše strategije.


Ključni datumi:
1919: Geo. Osnovana korporacija D. Roper.
1957: Kompaniju je preuzela Florence Stove Company, a kombinovana nova operacija je preimenovana u Geo. D. Roper Corporation.
1958: Geo. Proizvodnja pumpi D. Roper Corporation premještena je u Gruziju i preimenovana je u Roper Pump Company.
1964: Kompanija se spaja sa New Ohio Co., podružnicom Searsa.
1968: Geo. D. Roper Corporation preimenovana je u Roper Corporation.
1981: Roper Pump Company se reorganizuje u Roper Industries.
1989: Derrick Key postaje predsjednik kompanije Roper Industries.
1990: Kompanija kupuje Amot Controls Corporation, proizvođača ventila, prekidača i senzora.
1992: Roper Industries postaje javno preduzeće.
1993: Kompanija sklapa ugovor o sistemu kontrole sa ruskim konglomeratom za prirodni gas Gazprom.
1993: Kompanija kupuje Integrati Designs Inc. (IDI), proizvođača poluprovodnika.
1994: Derrick Key je imenovan za predsjednika Roper Industries.
1995: Kompanija preuzima Metrix Instrument Company, proizvođača opreme za industriju rotirajućih mašina.
1996: Kompanija preuzima Gatan International, proizvođača elektronskih mikroskopskih kontrolnih sistema.
1997: Kompanija preuzima Petrotech, kompaniju za sisteme upravljanja po sistemu „ključ u ruke“.
1998: Kompanija preuzima Acton Research, proizvođača spektrografskih sistema i specijalne optike, i Abel Pump, proizvođača vodenih, industrijskih, pomorskih i rudarskih pumpi.
2000: Kompanija kupuje Hansen Technologies, proizvođača ventila i kontrola za rashladne sisteme.
2001: Kompanija kupuje Struers Holdings A/S, proizvođača opreme za pripremu materijala za uzorkovanje materijala.

Lider u industriji rukovanja fluidima, industrijskim kontrolama i analitičkim instrumentima, Roper Industries, Inc. proizvodi i distribuira visoko inženjerske proizvode specifične za primjenu u širokom spektru industrija, uključujući naftu i gas, hemijsku i petrohemijsku preradu, istraživanja, medicinske, poluvodičke i industrije proizvodnje energije. Početkom 2000-ih, Roper Industries je poslovao u tri poslovna segmenta: industrijske kontrole, koje su proizvodile sisteme za upravljanje turbomašinskim procesorima na bazi mikroprocesora, senzore pritiska i termostatske ventile za rukovanje uljem, koje su proizvodile rotacione pumpe, membranske pumpe sa zračnim pogonom i centrifugalne pumpe i analitička instrumentacija koja proizvodi digitalno snimanje, ispitivanje svojstava fluida, industrijsko ispitivanje curenja, analizu materijala, pripremu i rukovanje mikroskopijom i proizvode za spektroskopiju. S nešto više od polovice svoje prodaje ostvarene u inozemstvu, kompanija je zabilježila odlučan rast tijekom ranih 2000 -ih, širenjem na međunarodnoj razini kroz nekoliko ključnih akvizicija.

Peći i pumpe: rana istorija

Povijesni korijeni Roper Industries sežu do njenog osnivača, Georgea D. Ropera, i kompanije koju je započeo 1919. godine, Geo. D. Roper Corporation. Osnovan u Rockfordu, Illinois, kao proizvođač plinskih peći i zupčanih pumpi, Geo. D. Roper Corp. postala je najpoznatija po svojim proizvodnim pećima, koja se razvila u rastući koncern koji je na kraju proizveo električne i plinske kuhinjske asortimane, vrtlarske alate i mnoštvo druge robe povezane s kućom. Manji segment poslovanja kompanije, proizvodnja pumpi, koja je bila podrijetlo kompanije Roper Industries, ostala je u sjeni povezivanjem imena Roper s kuhinjskim aparatima, koje već desetljećima postoji kao jedva poznato poduzeće, dok je segment uređaja okupljao većinu Geo . Ukupna prodaja D. Roper Corp. -a, i shodno tome, gotovo sav njen publicitet.

Veći dio prve polovice 20. stoljeća dva su poduzeća-zupčaste pumpe i kuhinjske peći-djelovala zajedno u istoj korporativnoj strukturi, ali su krajem 1950-ih dva segmenta podijeljena u dvije različite kompanije koje su postojale 30 godina kasnije kao Roper Corporation, veliki proizvođač kuhinjskih aparata sa više od 700 miliona dolara godišnje prodaje i Roper Industries, proizvođač asortimana pumpi i kontrola sa godišnjim obimom prodaje otprilike 25 puta manjim od Roper Corporation.

Poslijeratne godine: Pojavljuju se dvije različite kompanije

Dva različita poslovna segmenta krenula su na svoje odvojene puteve razvoja kada je kompanija Florence Stove Company, osnovana početkom 1870-ih kao proizvođač peći na drva, postavila svoje stjecanje na Geo. D. Roper Corp. 1957. godine Florence Stove je prodala svoj proizvodni pogon u Firenci, Massachusetts, i prebacila proizvodnju u Illinois, a zatim kupila zalihe gotovih proizvoda, potraživanja i sav kapital kompanije Geo. D. Roper Corp. Cijela nova operacija dobila je naziv Geo. D. Roper Corp. 1958. U međuvremenu, Geo. Proizvodne operacije pumpi D. Roper Corp. premještene su u Georgiju, dok je novoosnovana korporacija cvjetala pod blagotvornim korporativnim kišobranom trgovačkog giganta Sears, Roebuck & amp Co.

Sears nije samo bio Geo. Najveći kupac D. Roper Corp., ali je također posjedovao gotovo polovicu proizvođača uređaja iz Illinoisa. Ovaj odnos između Searsa i Geo D. Roper Corp. -a ojačao je spajanjem Geo D. Roper Corp. sa podružnicom Searsa u potpunom vlasništvu, Newark Ohio Co., 1964. Newark Ohio, koja je proizvodila električne vatre, kosilice i druge proizvode za Sears, prodao je gotovo sve svoje proizvode svojoj matičnoj kompaniji prije spajanja, dok je Geo D. Roper Corp. prije spajanja ostvario 55 posto godišnjeg prihoda od prodaje Searsu. Nakon udruživanja, spojeni entitet oslanjao se na svoj odnos sa Searsom kako bi ostvario više od tri četvrtine ukupne prodaje, svrstavši se u Searsov najveći dobavljač plinskih i električnih asortimana, rotacionih kosilica i velikog dobavljača draperije.

Kada Geo. D. Roper i Newark Ohio spojeni, Geo. Korporativno vlasništvo korporacije D. Roper zadržano je nekoliko godina sve dok Roper Corporation nije usvojen kao novo ime kompanije u aprilu 1968. godine, do kada se posao proizvodnje plinskih peći koji je prvotno osnovao George Roper brzo približavao prodaji od 200 miliona dolara godišnje oznaka. U naredne dvije decenije, Roper Corporation je proširila svoju liniju proizvoda i rasla sa rastom Searsa, razvijajući se u kompaniju veću od 500 miliona dolara do sredine 1980-ih, kada je Roper Corp. implementirao veliki program restrukturiranja. Nebitni poslovi, poput angažmana kompanije u proizvodnji prtljage i prozorskih zavesa, izdvojeni su iz proizvodnih pogona, preseljeni su sa srednjeg zapada u Georgiju i Južnu Karolinu, a 60 posto njenih dionica otkupljeno je od Searsa, čime je Roper Corporation postala isplativija proizvođač električnih kuhinjskih asortimana od ostalih velikih proizvođača. Promjene koje su izvršene sredinom 1980-ih također su učinile Roper Corporation mnogo atraktivnijim mestom akvizicije, a 1988. je započeo rat nadmetanja između Whirlpool Corporation i General Electric Company, jer su se dva divovska proizvođača aparata borila za prava stjecanja jedne od nekoliko američkih proizvođača električnih aparata koji još postoje. Na kraju je General Electric postao pobjednik i stekao proizvodne kapacitete korporacije Roper za peći i opremu za travnjake, srž tadašnjeg poslovanja od preko 700 miliona dolara.

1980 -te i dalje: Novo vodstvo i proširenje u Roper Industries

Kako je Roper Corporation polako nestajala iz središta pažnje poslovne štampe, postojala u relativnoj anonimnosti duboko u raznim organizacijskim slojevima koji su činili ogromni General Electric, druga polovica bivšeg Geoa. D. Roper Corporation-pogoni za proizvodnju pumpi koji su preseljeni u Georgiju kasnih 1950-ih-počeli su da urezuju novi identitet imena Roper kao Roper Industries Inc. Tokom uspona Roper Corporation kao glavnog dobavljača za Sears, Georgia radovi na bazi pumpi-Roper Pump Company-djelovali su kao javno preduzeće do 1981. godine, kada je otkupom uz finansijsku polugu vlasništvo nad preduzećem prešlo u privatne ruke. The following year, the person chiefly responsible for Roper Industries' growing stature during the 1980s and 1990s arrived, marking the beginning of a new era in the company's history that would punctuate its decades of quiet existence with resolute, international growth.

This pivotal figure in the company's ascension was British-born Derrick N. Key, who was named vice president of Roper Industries in June 1982. A former consultant for Johnson & Johnson, Key put his experience in marketing consumer products to work at Roper Industries, and introduced a management system that had achieved considerable success at numerous consumer products companies, but rarely had been used at manufacturing companies like Roper Industries. Key's importation of the product manager system, which was adopted by Roper Industries following Key's arrival, pushed the decision-making process down the company's management ladder, ceding substantial control to company managers. Within Roper Industries, each major product was assigned its own manager, who was then put in charge of overseeing the full development of the product, wielding control over production, sales, and advertising.

As the success engendered by the implementation of the product manager system grew, Key moved up Roper Industries' corporate ladder, becoming president of Roper Industries' primary revenue-generating engine, Roper Pump Company, in November 1985. Less than four years later, in February 1989, Key was named president of Roper Industries, assuming the company's presidential post at a time when annual sales hovered around $35 million and earnings stood at $2 million. Under Key's direction, these modest financial totals would rise strongly, propelled by an aggressive acquisition and expansion program orchestrated by Key that would position Roper Industries as a considerably larger international competitor in the specialty controls industry. In the first five years of Key's leadership, annual sales more than quadrupled, while earnings recorded a more prodigious gain, increasing tenfold, as Roper Industries began to attract the attention long-accorded to Roper Corporation's appliance business.

The first pivotal move in Roper Industries bid to become a larger, more globally oriented competitor was executed a year after Key's promotion to president, when the company acquired Amot Controls Corporation and its U.K. and Switzerland subsidiaries in July 1990 for approximately $28 million. Amot Controls, which manufactured valves, switches, and sensors for the oil and gas, power generation, and transportation industries, represented an important addition to Roper Industries, giving the company one of the primary pillars supporting its existence during the 1990s. After its first full year as a Roper Industries' company, Amot Controls helped push companywide annual sales to $75 million, or more than twice as much as Roper Industries generated two years earlier, setting the tone for the rapid growth to follow during the early 1990s.

Another important acquisition, one that would play a leading role in Roper Industries' most publicized event in its history, was completed two years after the purchase of Amot Controls. In September 1992, Roper Industries acquired Compressor Controls Corporation, the world's leading turbocompressor control manufacturer, for an estimated $35 million. Together, Amot Controls and Compressor Controls composed Roper Industries' industrial controls business segment, the smaller of the company's two business segments in 1992, but the segment that would provide the bulk of the company's growth between 1992 and the mid-1990s.

After an 11-year hiatus, Roper Industries once again became a publicly owned company in 1992, giving it the necessary capital to continue its acquisition and expansion campaign, which became increasingly international in focus following the purchase of Compressor Controls. Relying on the global connections it had realized through its two international acquisitions, Roper Industries made the headlines in the business press the year after its public offering by striking a deal with the massive Russian natural gas conglomerate, Gazprom, to supply computerized control systems for Russia's enormous pipeline system. The agreement between Compressor Controls and Gazprom led to a seven-year contract worth $350 million, the announcement of which drew enough praise from certain sectors of the financial community to push Roper Industries' stock from a low of $5.75 a share to $78 a share before splitting two-for-one.

Although Roper Industries' Russian deal represented a potential boon to the company's business, it also represented a possible tinderbox, given the economic and political instability pervading Russia during the early and mid-1990s and the confounding vagaries of Russian bureaucracy. When shipments to Gazprom began in April 1993, however, expectations were high and largely substantiated by the year's end. By the end of 1993, in an abbreviated year as far as the company's contract with Gazprom was concerned, Roper Industries shipped $42 million worth of high-technology, high-speed controls to Gazprom, but in 1994, the difficulties inherent in doing business in Russia led to lackluster financial results. Installation delays and problems with financing in Russia hindered Roper Industries' Gazprom-related activities during the year, reducing the amount of the company's shipments to $35 million for the year.

The Gazprom deal continued to cause the company problems into the late 1990s. Starting in 1993, Roper worked with the U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im) to secure financing for shipments to Gazprom. In 1996, however, the company was forced to stop shipments because of congressional threats to block the financing. Senator Alfonse D'Amato of New York led the fight to suspend Ex-Im's dealings with Gazprom, citing Gazprom's dealings with Iran and the United States' increased sanctions on that country. As a result, Roper canceled a $12 million shipment to Gazprom in October 1997. That year, difficulties with the Russian gas conglomerate caused Roper's stock to fall by 24 percent. By December 1997, president Derrick Key announced that Gazprom would need to secure substantial funds by the middle of 1998, otherwise Roper would reduce its business or abandon the deal altogether. Gazprom then began efforts to arrange European bank financing to support the balance of its deal with Roper.

In January 1998, Roper announced a $12.3 million shipment to Gazprom (financed by Gazprom's general credit facilities). In May 1998, Gazprom had secured financing through a wholly owned European bank for its future business. This financing arrangement was expected to be available over the next five years for $128 million of additional turbomachinery controls purchases. By the time the company's 1998 annual report was released, Derrick Key was confident enough to pronounce that Roper had "finally achieve[d] the consistency of the Gazprom business that we have long striven for." In 2000, Gazprom extended its deal with Roper, committing to an additional $150 million of purchases over and above the original agreement and extended the term through the end of 2007.

Into a New Century: Growth in the 1990s and Beyond

Elsewhere in the family of Roper Industries companies, more consistently positive results were being achieved during the 1990s. In September 1993, Roper Industries acquired Integrated Designs Inc. (IDI) for $12 million, adding IDI's semiconductor-manufacturing equipment capabilities and its high profitability to the company's fluid handling business segment. The following year, as the company contended with the difficulties associated with Gazprom, it continued to focus on building other facets of its business by looking for industrial equipment companies to acquire, seeking to strengthen its involvement in the production of highly engineered, high-margin products. Roper Industries found such a company in August 1994 when it acquired Instrumentation Scientifique de Laboratoire, S.A. (ISL) for approximately $10.5 million. Headquartered in Verson, France with sales and service offices in the United States, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and Russia, ISL was one of the leading competitors in the world for oil refinery laboratory testing equipment. This acquisition bolstered Roper Industries' position in an industry--oil and refined petroleum products--it already served and it increased the company's international presence.

By the end of 1994, Roper Industries was deriving more than half its annual sales from outside the United States, largely through the foreign business developed by Key, who had been named chief executive officer in 1991, then finally chairman of Roper Industries in December 1994. Annual sales, which had reached $75 million in 1991, had climbed to $147 million by the end of 1994, thanks primarily to the development of the company's industrial controls segment, made up entirely of companies acquired since 1990. ISL, Compressor Controls Corporation, and Amot Controls Corporation composed Roper Industries' industrial controls segment, with Richmond, California-based Amot U.S. and Bury St. Edmunds, England-based Amot U.K. functioning as the two operating companies of Amot Controls Corporation. Combined, these companies generated $91 million of Roper Industries' 1994 total sales, with the company's fluid handling business segment, comprising Roger Pump Company, Cornell Pump Company and IDI, accounting for the balance.

As Roper Industries entered the mid-1990s, the company began mapping plans for the future, which included the strengthening of its U.S. businesses to offset any further problems with its contract to supply compressor controls to Russia. Toward this objective, the company announced the completion of its acquisition of Houston, Texas-based Metrix Instrument Company in October 1995. A manufacturer of vibration detection and analysis equipment for the rotating machinery industry, Metrix Instrument was incorporated into Roper Industries' burgeoning industrial controls segment. Roper continued to grow the segment through the 1990s with such acquisitions in 1997 as Petrotech, a turnkey control systems company, and in 2000 Hansen Technologies, a manufacturer of valves and controls for refrigeration systems. In 2001, Roper's industrial controls segment netted sales of $197 million.

In 1997 the company began expanding into the area of analytical instrumentation by making a series of acquisitions through the late 1990s and into the early 21th century. These acquisitions included Gatan International (a manufacturer of electron microscopy control systems) in 1996, Acton Research (a maker of high-end spectrographic systems and specialty optics) in 1998, and Struers Holdings A/S (a producer of materialographic sample preparation equipment) in 2001. In the first quarter of 2002, Roper's analytical instrumentation segment had grown to net sales of $82 million.

The company carried over its strategy of acquiring small companies into its fluid handling segment, adding such companies as Abel Pump (a manufacturer of water, industrial, marine, and mining pumps) in 1998. In 2001, sales in the fluid handling segment netted the company $125 million.

The company was not immune from the economic downturn of the early 2000s, but Roper entered the early years of the 21th century optimistically and reported a strong start to the year 2002. The first quarter of that year saw a 9 percent increase in sales and a 240 basis point improvement in gross margins, and Roper remained confident in its ability to continue growing. "Roper is making good progress on the objectives we outlined for 2002," said president and CEO Brian Jellison in the company's first quarter report. "Despite the challenging first quarter economic environment, we are confident that our disciplined financial and operational processes will assure another record year for Roper Industries in 2002."

Principal Subsidiaries: ABEL Pump Acton Research Amot Controls Corp. Antek Instruments Compressor Controls Corp. Cornell Pump Co. Dynamco Flow Technology Fluid Metering, Inc. Gatan Hansen Technologies Integrated Designs Inc. Media Cybernetics Metrix Instrument Co. Petroleum Analyzer Company Petrotech Redlake/MASD Roper Pump Co. Roper Scientific.

Principal Operating Units: Analytical Instrumentation Fluid Handling Industrial Controls.

Agilent Technologies Halliburton SPX.

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  • "Roper Industries, Inc. Announces the Signing of a Definitive Purchase Agreement for the Acquisition of Photometrics, Ltd.," PR Newswire , March 30, 1998, http://www.elibrary.com.
  • "Roper Industries, Inc. Announces the Signing of a Letter of Intent for Its Largest Acquisition to Date," PR Newswire , July 28, 1998, http://www.elibrary.com.
  • "Roper Industries, Inc. Announces Third Quarter Financial Results," PR Newswire , August 17, 1998, http://www.elibrary.com.
  • "Roper Shares Decline as Company Tells of Acquisition, Warns of Profit Shortfall," The Atlanta Constitution , July 31, 2001, p. D5.
  • "Roper: Turncoat in a Takeover War," Business Week , April 11, 1988, p. 68.
  • "Sears' Unit and Roper Agree on Merger Plan," Wall Street Journal , April 20, 1994, p. 32.
  • Solomon, Goody L., "Nation of Magic Chefs?," Barron's , March 8, 1965, p. 11.
  • Stephens, Flo P., "Varlen Instruments, Inc.," Hydrocarbon Processing , November 1999, p. F116.
  • Walker, Tom, "How Georgia Stocks Fared: Roper's Prediction for Earnings Boosts Stock: Equipment Maker Expects to Beat Analysts' Estimates," The Atlanta Journal and Constitution , January 31, 1998, p. E04.
  • "Whirlpool Moves into the Kitchen," Business Week , March 14, 1988, p. 44.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 50. St. James Press, 2003.


The Old Navy: Under the Cloak of Night

With few new destroyers to combat the German Navy in World War II, the U. S. Navy recalled to duty the aging World War I four-stack destroyers, which it had mothballed after the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921-22. That's how the USS Roper (DD-147)happened to be steaming south from Norfolk, Virginia, to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on 13 April 1942, engaged in routine submarine detection.

At midnight, a new watch crew took over. The spring night was clear and starlit. The sea was almost calm, and glints of phosphorus brightened the Roper's wake. To starboard, sailors on duty could make out Wimble Shoal Light off North Carolina's coast.

At six minutes past midnight, the Roper's radar picked up an object bearing 1900 true at a distance of 2,700 yards. Lieutenant Commander Hamilton Howe, the commanding officer, decided to investigate. The Roper's underwater detectors soon detected propeller sounds. Howe increased speed to 20 knots, and bow lookouts began to see the wake of a small vessel, evidently trying to run away at high speed.


See what it was like to fight in a WWII Sherman tank

Posted On May 08, 2021 18:40:00

The Sherman tank of World War II is both legendary and infamous. It was selected for World War II by Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. himself, America’s first tank officer and a pioneer of armored strategy.

The traits for which Patton loved the Sherman, its speed and agility, ease of transport, and decent gas mileage, made it a general’s tanks. The tanks could reliably be manufactured in large numbers and easily be deployed into transport.

American M4 Sherman tanks advance during fighting in the European Theater of World War II. (Photo: Public Domain)

But the tradeoffs that made those traits possible came at a cost of what crews wanted in tanks. Their speed and gas mileage came from — relative to most of their German counterparts — light guns and armor. The Sherman’s engine was designed for aviation use and was light and powerful but used a more flammable fuel than other tanks of the era.

So, while the Sherman could support friendly infantry and annihilate enemy infantry, they were vulnerable to attack from enemy armor.

The war in Europe was therefore a nightmare for the tank crews who fought their way east from Normandy. They fought in cramped quarters, had to desperately vie for close shots on the flanks and rears of German tanks, and often had to reinforce their own armor with items stolen off the battlefield.

Get a look at what the crews in World War II Shermans had to live with in the video below:

MIGHTY HISTORY

U-85 Lifejacket

On April 13, 1942 the destroyer USS Roper (DD-147) spotted the Type VIIB U-boat, U-85, sitting in shallow water off the coast of North Carolina.

After receiving heavy fire from Roper, the captain of U-85 scuttled the U-boat and the crew abandoned ship. Roper dropped eleven depth charges after U-85 was abandoned, believing that other U-boats were nearby, killing the entire of crew of U-85.

27 bodies were recovered and buried with military honors at Hampton National Cemetery on April 15th. Prisoners from Fort Monroe prepared and filled the graves. The ceremony took place at night in order to keep it a secret, but I did hear from somewhere that word got out anyway and people came to sneak a peak at the funeral.

Funeral procession for fallen German sailors of U-85 at Hampton National Cemetery, taken from Wikipedia

The reason I tell this story is that recently we pulled a life jacket from storage to display at a lecture and it came from one of the deceased sailors of U-85. it was taken off when the bodies were recovered and donated to us in 1949.

Photographed by Brock Switzer

Originally when I looked at the life jacket I did not think much of it, but then as I began to research and learn more about it, it took on a whole new life and peaked my interest. To think of the sailors who lost their lives that day, even if they were the enemy at the time, and to know that one of them was wearing this is very sobering. It is the stories behind artifacts that give them so much life and meaning. Being able to pull those stories out and give the artifacts a voice is what I love about my job.


Mother Gives Birth During U-Boat Attack

The American South African Lines 452-foot-long passenger-freighter, City of New York. Photo: National Archives

Coastal Review Online is featuring the research, findings and commentary of author Kevin Duffus.

In 1942, more than 65 German U-boats waged a withering campaign along the nation’s eastern seaboard against Allied merchant vessels and their military defenders to disrupt or entirely sever transatlantic supply lines fueling the war effort in Europe.

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John Runkle and Nancy Dole

Shining a light on two of our most dedicated supporters: Thank you to John and Nancy and all our CRO Press Club members for their support that makes our reporting possible.

In just half a year, 397 ships were sunk. Nearly 5,000 people, including many civilians, were burned to death, crushed, drowned or vanished into the sea. But in a remarkable twist of fate that helped in a small way to alter the course of the war, a child was born in a lifeboat east of Cape Hatteras.

On Palm Sunday, March 29, 1942, a blond, blue-eyed Yugoslavian woman traveling from South Africa had been counting down the days until she would reunite with her husband, a diplomat in exile at New York — only one day to go. Months earlier, the family escaped from their homeland amid the chaos unleashed by Hitler’s invading army but they became separated along the way.

She was 28 and had her 2-year-old daughter by her side. She was also eight-and-a-half months pregnant. And she suddenly began to go into labor.

If the world was not challenging enough for Desanka Mohorovicic, she was also surrounded by 19 strangers in a lifeboat in near total darkness in the middle of the night, 40 miles east of Cape Hatteras, pitching and plunging in 15-foot seas, soaking wet and chilled to the bone by 25-knot winds and 50-degree temperatures. Sharks patiently circled their lifeboat. And they were in the Gulf Stream, helplessly being swept out into the lonely abyss of the deep Atlantic.

One thing buoyed her spirits, that she would somehow survive her ordeal: her faith in God.

Twelve hours earlier, Desanka had been warm and dry aboard the 452-foot-long passenger-freighter, the City of New York, inbound to the United States from Cape Town via Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.

They had traveled 7,600 nautical miles since Cape Town and had 330 miles to go — just 24 hours. But the ship had yet to run the U-boat gauntlet off Cape Hatteras, a heavily traveled ocean passage described by the U.S. Navy in the spring of 1942 as “the most dangerous place for merchant shipping in the world.”

Capt. George T. Sullivan nervously paced the bridge wings as the City of New York knifed her way through choppy seas and a chilly Force 6 wind out of the northwest. His mind was filled with worry for the well-being of his ship’s 47 civilian passengers, 88 crewmembers and nine sailors of the U.S. Navy Armed Guard. He knew that they were entering a deadly war zone of the Second World War.

Approaching North Carolina waters, the ship’s shortwave radio crackled constantly with plaintive Morse code distress calls: “di-di-dit, dah-dah-dah, di-di-dit (SOS)” or, “di-di-dit, di-di-dit, di-di-dit, di-di-dit” (SSSS—attacked by submarine).

During the preceding two weeks in March, such signals were broadcast two to three times a day or more along the approaches to Cape Fear, Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras, as Allied ships were being sunk by German U-boats. Off the North Carolina coast, 31 ships and 683 people perished in just 16 days.

The period was the darkest, most desperate and most heart-rending for the U.S. government — Washington military and political leaders faced a dire lack of anti-submarine patrol vessels and vast disagreements as to how merchant sailors should best be protected.

None of that mattered to Desanka Mohorovicic. She just wanted to be in her husband’s embrace.

As the City of New York approached Cape Hatteras at midday March 29, Desanka and her daughter attended Palm Sunday services on the foredeck of the ship. Not far away, Capt. Sullivan whispered something in the ear of the ship’s physician while pointing at the pregnant woman. The doctor nodded.

Meanwhile, passengers returned to their cabins while others strolled about the main deck awaiting the clanging of the lunch bell. A few children played a game of chase as their parents enjoyed the warmth of the sun. High above, a crewman in the crow’s nest on the forward mast vigilantly scanned the horizon. On the aft deck, two sleep-deprived sailors of the U.S. Navy Armed Guard stood near the ship’s 4-inch gun.

At 12:45 p.m., the lookout in the crow’s nest screamed, “Torpedo! Port side!”

One second later, the waterborne missile tore into the No. 3 hold directly beneath the bridge, blasting a gaping hole below the waterline. All electronic communications aboard the ship were disrupted, and the captain was unable to receive damage reports or to dispatch emergency orders.

Instinctively, and as a result of weeks of training, the helmsman rounded the ship into the northwest wind, the engineer shut down the engines, and crew members raced to their lifeboat stations. The telegraphist in the radio room frantically tapped out SSSS, SSSS, SSSS.

Within a frightfully fast 10 minutes, the entire ship, bow first, slipped beneath the waves and sank to the bottom of the ocean 6,000 feet below.

Lowering a lifeboat was typically a dangerous and delicate operation in the best of conditions but doing so from a steeply listing ship in strong winds and choppy seas was an enormous test of skill and composure.

A lifeboat is lowered during World War II. Photo: American Merchant Marine at War

As American passenger Sarah King’s lifeboat, descended on the falls, a second torpedo slammed into the ship just 20 feet away. The lifeboat fell rapidly downward as a 30-foot “great geyser of water” rained down upon King and the other occupants of the lifeboat.

“We braced ourselves as it came,” King said. “We were driven down into the water. As I went down, I wondered if this was really the end.”

Desanka and her daughter grabbed some woolen blankets from their cabin and were climbing the companionway leading to the upper deck when the second torpedo struck. Mohorovicic slipped and tumbled down the stairs. She got up off the deck and pulled herself up the stairway, her legs badly scraped and bruised.

Soon after emerging onto the lifeboat deck, she was greeted by the ship’s doctor, Leonard Conly, who previously had been asked by the captain to be sure to locate and stay with the pregnant woman if they would have to abandon ship. Sullivan had clearly planned ahead and expected the worst.

Conly rushed Mohorovicic and her daughter to lifeboat No. 4, which they boarded along with 19 others. By now, as the ship was slipping ever faster to her watery grave, composure gave way to disorder and chaos.

As Conly hurried to board the descending lifeboat swaying wildly alongside the stricken ship, he slipped and fell, breaking two of his ribs. Now it was the doctor who needed medical attention, but aboard the lifeboat there was only a basic emergency first-aid kit: some bandages, gauze and disinfectant, but no instruments and no anesthesia.

Charles Van Gorden had been a junior officer aboard his ship now he commanded his own vessel, Lifeboat No. 4. Aboard his boat were a Jewish couple who months earlier abandoned their German home for the safety of America. They were now probably thinking that escaping the Nazis was becoming exceedingly difficult.

Near them sat 14 others from various nations, including the expectant mother. Not all were fluent in English. Desanka spoke Serbian and some French but little English. Most of the survivors were too stunned or scared to say anything anyway.

Van Gorden organized the merchant crewmen aboard the lifeboat, and pairs began taking turns pulling on the oars. Their first objective was to get themselves away from the sinking ship and its dangerous debris field.

Van Gorden also hoped to reach those survivors not in lifeboats and soon encountered an overcrowded raft containing Sarah King. She had, so far, survived the calamity. King, and a father with his 8-year-old daughter were transferred to the lifeboat.

When the ship disappeared into the depths, bobbing on the surface amidst wreckage and oil were four crowded lifeboats and a half dozen or so rafts,126 people in all. Eighteen souls went down with the ship.

Due to the variability of the wind and waves and the eddies of the Gulf Stream, the City of New York’s lifeboats and life rafts soon drifted apart and went their separate ways.

Most everyone clung to the hope that they would soon be rescued. After all, the telegraphist had broadcast the ship’s coordinates at the moment it had been torpedoed. Hours later, however, the survivors were scattered across a wide swath of ocean many miles to the northeast. Back at the site of the attack, not a single vestige of the disaster remained for would-be rescuers to find.

Aboard Lifeboat No. 4, the barefoot Desanka and her daughter Vesna huddled together on a portside bench near the middle of the little boat, shivering in the cold. The City of New York’s crew members glanced at one another and silently communicated their concern about the young mother.

Then, the unimaginable happened. Desanka felt her first contractions. Quietly, she whispered prayers in Serbian for her baby to wait but it seemed determined to be born. She did her best to hide her discomfort.

By 8 p.m., as the wind strengthened and the spindrift of breaking waves whipped through the air, it was no longer possible for her to hide that fact that she was having her baby. It came as little surprise to Dr. Conly, who fully expected the violent motion of the lifeboat to induce the woman’s labor.

A crewman helped Conly arrange a section of canvas sail to help provide a little privacy for the shy young mother as she was about to give birth in the presence of 19 strangers in close quarters.

“The sea was rough,” the crewman later said. “By the time her labor pains began, the boat was practically full of water. The woman had no shoes. She did not complain and did everything she could to make it as easy as possible for the doctor and those who attended.”

Neither did Conly complain, although he winced in pain on almost every lurch of the lifeboat. The physician wished he had more to work with aboard his waterlogged maternity ward than what was in the basic emergency lifeboat kit: hemostats, scissors, gauze, iodine, aspirin, all drenched in salt water.

The delivery would have been no easier if conducted on a roller coaster on a rainy dark night. On his knees, it was impossible for the doctor to see beneath the canvas sail he could hardly keep from being tossed out of the lifeboat. The best he could hope for was to be ready to receive the newborn at the moment of delivery, which happened at about 2:30 a.m. on Monday when Desanka Mohorovicic gave birth to a healthy, 8-pound baby boy.

Now there were 22 souls in the lifeboat. They were 40 miles from Hatteras Island and getting farther from land by the hour. Many times in the war zone off the Outer Banks survivors in lifeboats or rafts from torpedoed ships were never seen again.

Meanwhile, the World War I-era Wickes-class naval destroyer USS Jesse Roper had been patrolling the waters off the Outer Banks on anti-submarine patrol. During the preceding weeks in March, the warship had been constantly responding to distress calls but only finding oil slicks, debris and empty lifeboats. Depth charges were dropped on sonar contacts day and night depriving the destroyer’s officers and crew much needed sleep.

USS Jesse Roper, DD 147, a World War I-era Wickes-class Naval destroyer. Photo: National Archives

“We would see partial wrecks, the debris floating everywhere, the oil slicks …,” recalled Boatswain’s Mate 2nd Class radioman Rhodes Chamberlin when I interviewed him at his home in El Paso in 2001. “We were on this ‘finding a needle in a haystack’ situation, looking for submarines by ourselves, and, considering the number of square miles that are out there in the ocean, (the U-boats) really were a needle in the haystack.”

“Ping … Ping … Ping …,” bleated the destroyer’s sonar transmitter as it searched for solid underwater objects and the reflected sound that would be bounced back to the ship’s sonar receiver, much like a lonely songbird calling for companionship.

The sonar operator would suddenly hear a response: “Ping-ping, Ping-ping, Ping-ping!” The klaxon wailed, “ah-wooga, ah-wooga,” calling general quarters.

The ship’s intercom barked commands, men flew into action and a pattern of depth charges were dropped. “Boom, boom, boom.”

Nothing appeared on the surface, no oil nor debris were observed which would have indicated that the Roper had successfully sunk a U-boat. The sonar echoes fell silent. The contact was lost. The off-duty sailors climbed back in their bunks, unable to go back to sleep.

Morale aboard the destroyer was about as low as it could get.

During the early morning hours of Tuesday, March 31, the Roper was patrolling in water 11,000 feet deep, east-northeast of Cape Hatteras, near the axis of the Gulf Stream. Visibility was 20 miles, although, as was typical, a shallow, intermittent cloud of fog hovered over the warm Gulf Stream waters.

The waxing gibbous moon occasionally shone brightly above, illuminating tatters of stratus clouds streaming in from the west. Occasional flashes of lightening appeared from the direction of the mainland. It seemed an idyllic night to be at sea — unless you were in a lifeboat.

At 4:28 a.m., a brilliant light shot into the night sky, about 8 miles due north of the Roper’s position. The officer of the deck ordered the destroyer to rush to the signal flare’s source. There they found a lifeboat with 21 survivors from the City of New York, plus one additional person who had joined the others in the lifeboat, Desanka Mohorovicic’s 26-hour-old son.

A cargo net was draped over the gunwale of the Roper, and men began to leap out of the lifeboat, timing their jumps as the lifeboat was lifted on the waves.

“Send the baby up next,” someone in the lifeboat shouted. The mother, however, was not so eager to hand her newborn to strangers on a strange ship in total darkness. Making matters more worrisome, the lifeboat pitched and yawed, and the gap to the destroyer’s hull rapidly widened, then narrowed. “What if they drop him?” she must have thought. But her moment of indecision was brief.

“Then they took the baby up, it had no clothes, and I was afraid they would drop it,” said Sarah King.

Many years later, when she told her amazing story, Desanka Mohorovicic’s most vivid memory was the look on the young sailor’s face when he realized he had been handed a newborn. The baby was immediately rushed to the Roper’s sickbay. Even before he arrived there, word of his rescue began to quickly make its way through the ship.

“It was a big deal,” remembered Chamberlin. “Just talking about the fact that it was a newborn baby — everybody wanted to see it.”

Sailors who previously had been sullen and fatigued from fruitless hours of patrolling “Torpedo Junction,” from the incessant wailing of the klaxon punctuated by exploding depth charges, from days of feeling impotent and vulnerable, were suddenly inspired by the unmistakable looks of gratitude on the faces of the survivors.

“Not so bad,” says lifeboat mother. United Press article from April 2, 1942. Author’s collection

According to the New York World-Telegram, after learning of the name of the American warship that had rescued her young family, Desanka proudly announced with a few words of English that her baby would thenceforth be named Jesse Roper Mohorovicic.

At 10:55 p.m., the destroyer tied up to the south side of Pier No. 5 at Norfolk Naval Operating Base. A large crowd had been awaiting the arrival of the destroyer, and Naval officers, reservists, Red Cross nurses and military photographers cheerily greeted the disembarking passengers. Flash bulbs popped one after another. A blue-eyed nurse was photographed holding baby Jesse Roper, warmly swaddled in a blanket, his head barely visible in the photo.

The first photo of the “baby born in a lifeboat,” Jesse Roper Mohorovic. Photo: National Archives

Two weeks later, with their morale and fighting spirit bolstered by the rescue of the survivors from the City of New York and the baby named for their destroyer, the crew of the USS Jesse Roper sank the U-85 southeast of Nags Head, the first U-boat to be destroyed in U.S. waters in the war. The Roper’s victory marked the beginning of the end of what became known as “Torpedo Junction.”

In January 2001, I located and contacted Jesse Roper Mohorovic — the family dropped the “ic” at the end of their surname to make it easier to pronounce — and asked him if I could interview him for a documentary film that I was producing titled, “War Zone—World War II Off North Carolina’s Outer Banks.”

Initially, Jesse declined, saying that there wasn’t much he could say since he obviously didn’t remember his birth in the lifeboat. “Well, I had really hoped to learn a little bit more about your mother, what was she like?” I asked, just before Mohorovic was about to say goodbye. “Okay,” he said, “Come to my office in Richmond, and I’ll chat with you.”

We agreed that he would answer in the third person, as someone who knew Desanka Mohorovicic. He did not want to necessarily identify himself as her son, “the lifeboat baby,” “the son of Neptune,” or “the baby Hitler couldn’t get,” as the national press referred to him in 1942. There were more important things, other than himself, that he wished to share.

“She was a woman of very strong faith, very, very strong faith,” Mohorovic said, after describing the events leading up to the baby’s birth. “And a courageous woman, obviously. And a woman who had great trust that her daughter, her newborn son, would somehow come out of it. She really put her trust in God —maybe not so commonly heard today, but that was her view.”

Jesse Roper Mohorovic during 2001 interview with Kevin Duffus. Photo Kevin Duffus

Mohorovic took a deep breath and sighed. He seemed to want to say something more. He seemed momentarily uncomfortable telling the story in the third person, unwilling to be disassociated from the remarkable woman, Desanka Mohorovicic. Then, he looked directly into the lens of the TV camera and said, “Well, Mrs. Mohorovicic was my mother. And she passed on in 1993, and I loved her like every son loves their mother.”

Kevin Duffus is the author of six books spanning 500 years North Carolina’s incomparable maritime history, including :War Zone—World War II Off the North Carolina Coast.” He was named “2014 North Carolina Historian of the Year” by the North Carolina Society of Historians.


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