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Feničanska trgovačka mreža

Feničanska trgovačka mreža


Biblija spominje Feničane kao "pomorske knezove"#8221 u odlomku iz Jezekilja 26:16 u kojem prorok izgleda predviđa uništenje grada Tira i čini se da je zadovoljan ponižavanjem onih koji su ranije bili tako poznati.

Fenička kultura nastala je u istočnomediteranskom regionu Levant (južna Sirija, Libanon i sjeverni Izrael) u 2. milenijumu prije nove ere (iako je ovo područje naseljeno još u doba neolita). Feničani su osnovali primorske gradove-države Biblos, Sidon i Tir (drevni Kanaan).


Aktivnost 1. Feničanska abecedna aktivnost

Govorite o opsežnoj trgovini Feničana po cijelom Mediteranu i pokažite svojim studentima neke slike feničkih brodova.

Sada upotrijebite svoju mapu da pokažete studentima Tire i Atinu, Grčka. (Ponovo ćemo koristiti Atinu u grčkom dijelu jedinice.) Zamolite djecu da se pretvaraju da su fenički trgovci koji mijenjaju ljubičastu tkaninu iz Tira za maslinovo ulje iz Atine. Oni su stacionirani u Atini i moraju ostati tamo da nastave sa svojim poslom. Ali također moraju izvijestiti Tire o tome koliko su prodali i koje će im nove zalihe biti potrebne. Kako će poslati poruku? (Odgovor: Morat će poslati pismo, vjerovatno sa sljedećim brodom.)

Zatim pitajte studente da li bi fenički trgovci mogli napisati pismo ako nemaju abecedu. Koristeći stranicu Feničanska abeceda EDSITEment, učitelj je mogao učenicima pokazati feničansku abecedu. Mogao je reći nešto poput: "Prije tri hiljade godina, kada su stari Feničani pisali slova, ovo je abeceda koju su koristili." Prepoznaju li djeca neko od starih feničkih slova? Nekoliko ih je lako prepoznati kad vidite da se oblik malo razlikuje od onoga na što smo navikli.

  • Ukažite na to A i S, na primjer, gotovo su isti kao što su sada, osim što leže bočno ["S" je pretposljednje slovo ove abecede].
  • Opet, nastavnik je to mogao pokazati učenicima O sada izgleda isto kao prije tri hiljade godina, a i izgleda T.

Ohrabrite svoje učenike da naprave dodatna poređenja. (Pitajte o slovima u „D”I„E”, Na primjer. Izgledaju li vam donekle poznato?)

Čestitajte djeci što mogu prepoznati slova stara oko 3.000 godina i dolaze s drugog jezika! Neka djeca prebroje slova i kopiraju neka čudna. Vidjet će da ova prva abeceda ima manje slova od naše, i primijetit će mnoge druge razlike.

Možete razgovarati s razredom o tome kako stvari mijenjaju oblik i izgled kako se razvijaju. Na primjer, možete pitati djecu misle li da će izgledati isto kad imaju 12 godina ili kad odrastu, kao što sada izgledaju. Kao i ljudi, abeceda s vremenom mijenja svoj izgled.

Mogući zadaci:

  • Zamolite djecu da napišu (ili napišu s njima) kratku priču ili opisni odlomak o feničanskom djetetu koje uči abecedu.
  • Alternativno, pišite s njima ili ih zamolite da napišu pismo koje su feničanski trgovci uputili u Tir. Mogli su reći o svom uspjehu u Atini i zatražiti više stvari za prodaju.

Završite lekciju tako što ćete zamoliti djecu da na karti identificiraju Fenikiju i Sredozemno more.

Mogu li djeca pratiti put od Tira do Atine? Mogu li prikazati feničke kolonije? Pitajte djecu kakvim su stvarima Feničani natovarili svoje čamce za trgovinu.

Na kraju, pitajte djecu koja su izmislila abecedu koja će jednog dana postati naša abeceda. Zašto bi trgovačkim ljudima bila potrebna abeceda? Mogu li se sjetiti nekih slova koja su Feničani izmislili, a koja i dalje koristimo?

Ako je netko od vaših učenika sugerirao da bi moglo biti jednako lako pisati slikama, postoje dvije prekrasne priče Just So od Rudyarda Kiplinga-putem internetske javne biblioteke pregledane na EDSITEmentu-koje na vrlo zabavan način pokazuju zašto je to toliko važno imati pisma. Zovu se "Kako je napisano prvo slovo" i "Kako je nastala prva abeceda". Također bi bile dostupne u bilo kojoj zbirci Kiplingovih priča za djecu.


Karta Fenikije u biblijsko doba

Biblija spominje & quotTyre & quot

1. Kraljevima 9:11 - ([Sada] Hiram kralj Tire opremio Solomona kedrovinama i jelkama, te zlatom, prema svoj svojoj želji), da je tada kralj Solomon dao Hiramu dvadeset gradova u zemlji Galileji.

2 Ljetopisa 2:14 - Sin žene od Danovih kćeri, a njegov otac je bio muškarac Tire, vješt za rad u zlatu, i u srebru, u mesingu, u željezu, u kamenu i drvu, u ljubičastoj, u plavoj boji i u finom platnu, te u grimizu i za grobljenje bilo kakvog načina gravure i da sazna sve naprave koje će mu se dati, s tvojim lukavim ljudima i s lukavim ljudima moga gospodara Davida, tvog oca.

Jošua 19:29 - I [zatim] obala se okreće prema Rami i do snažnog grada Tire a obala se okreće prema Hosi i njezini izlazi na moru od obale do Achziba:

1. Kraljevima 7:14 - On je [bio] sin udovice iz plemena Naftalijevog, a njegov otac [je bio] čovjek Tire, radnik u mesingu: i bio je ispunjen mudrošću, razumijevanjem i lukavošću da radi sva djela od mjedi. Došao je kralju Solomonu i obavio sav svoj posao.

Djela apostolska 12:20 - I Herod je bio jako nezadovoljan njima Tire i Sidon: ali oni su jednoglasno došli k njemu i, postavši Blastova kraljevim komornikom za prijatelja, poželjeli su mir jer je njihovu zemlju hranila kraljeva [zemlja].

2 Ljetopisa 2: 3 - I Solomon je poslao Hurama, kralja Tire, rekavši: "Kao što si postupio sa Davidom, mojim ocem, i poslao mu kedre da mu sagradi kuću u kojoj će prebivati, [tako se ponašaj i sa mnom].

2 Ljetopisa 2:11 - Onda Huram kralj Tire pismeno odgovorio, koje je poslao Solomonu: Budući da je Gospod ljubio svoj narod, postavio te je kraljem nad njim.

1. Kraljevima 5: 1 - I Hiram kralj Tire poslao svoje sluge k Solomonu jer je čuo da su ga pomazali za kralja u sobi njegova oca; jer je Hiram uvijek volio Davida.

Izaija 23: 5 - Kao i u izvještaju koji se odnosi na Egipat, [tako] će ih bolno povrijediti izvještaj iz Tire.

Luka 10:13 - Teško tebi, Horazine! jao tebi, Betsaida! jer da su moćna djela izvršena u Tire i Sidon, koji su učinjeni u vama, oni su se davno pokajali, sjedeći u vreći i pepelu.

2. Samuilova 5:11 - I Hiram kralj Tire poslali su glasnike Davidu, kedrovinu, stolare i zidare: i sagradili su Davidu kuću.

Joel 3: 4 - Da, i šta ti imaš sa mnom, o Tire, i Zidon, i sve obale Palestine? hoćete li mi uzvratiti? i ako mi nadoknadite, brzo [i] ću vam brzo uzvratiti na vašu glavu

Matej 11:21 - Teško tebi, Horazine! jao tebi, Betsaida! jer da su moćna djela koja su u vama učinjena bila učinjena unutra Tire i Sidona, odavno bi se pokajali u vreći i pepelu.

Djela apostolska 21: 3 - Kad smo otkrili Kipar, ostavili smo ga s lijeve strane, uplovili u Siriju i sletjeli u Tire: jer je tamo brod trebao snijeti njen teret.

Ezra 3: 7 - Davali su novac i zidarima, i stolarima, i meso, i piće, i ulje, njima iz Zidona, i njima Tire, da donesu kedrovinu iz Libanona u Jopsko more, prema donaciji koju je imao od persijskog kralja Kira.

Marko 3: 8 - I iz Jeruzalema, i iz Idumeje, i iz Jordana i oko njih Tire i Sidon, veliko mnoštvo, kad je čulo koje je velike stvari učinio, došlo mu je.

Marko 7:31 - I opet, odlazeći od obala Tire i Sidon, došao je do mora Galilejskog, posred obala Dekapolisa.

1. Ljetopisa 22: 4 - I kedrovog drveća u izobilju: za Zidonce i za njih Tire donio Davidu mnogo kedrovog drveta.

Luka 6:17 - I sišao je s njima i stao u ravnicu sa društvom svojih učenika i velikim mnoštvom ljudi iz cijele Judeje i Jeruzalema i s morske obale Tire i Sidona, koji su ga došli saslušati i izliječiti od svojih bolesti

Izaija 23:17 - I kad prođe sedamdeset godina, Gospod će posjetiti Tire, i ona će se obratiti svom najmu i učinit će blud sa svim kraljevstvima svijeta na licu zemlje.

Izaija 23: 1 - Teret Tire. Zavijte, vi taršiški brodovi jer je opustošeno, tako da nema kuće, nema ulaska: iz zemlje Chittima to im se otkriva.

1 Ljetopisa 14: 1 - Sada Hiram kralj Tire poslao je glasnike Davidu i drvo kedra sa zidarima i tesarima da mu sagrade kuću.

Nemija 13:16 - Tamo su živeli ljudi Tire takođe u njemu, koji je donosio ribu i sve vrste posuđa i prodavao se u subotu sinovima Judinim i u Jerusalimu.

Izaija 23: 8 - Ko je uzeo ovaj savet protiv Tire, krunski [grad], čiji su trgovci [prinčevi], čiji su trgovci [časni] na zemlji?

2. Samuilova 24: 7 - I došao do jakog uporišta Tirei u sve gradove Hivejaca i Hananejaca.

Psalam 87: 4 - Spomenut ću Rahabu i Babilon onima koji me poznaju: gle Filisteje i Tire, u Etiopiji je ovaj [čovjek] rođen tamo.

Psalam 45:12 - I kćerka Tire [bit će tamo] s darom [čak i] bogataši u narodu ustupit će vam naklonost.

Psalam 83: 7 - Gebal, Amon, i Amalek, Filistejci sa stanovnicima Tire

Marko 7:24 - Odatle je ustao i otišao u granice Tire i Sidona, i ušao je u kuću, i niko nije htio da zna za to: ali nije se mogao sakriti.

Dela apostolska 21: 7 - I kad smo završili [naš] kurs od Tire, došli smo u Ptolemais, pozdravili braću i jednog dana boravili s njima.

Biblija također spominje & quotSidon & quot i & quotSidonians & quot

1. Kraljevima 5: 6 - Sada ti zapovjedi da mi isjeku kedrovinu iz Libana i da moje sluge budu sa tvojim slugama; a tebi ću dati zajam za tvoje sluge prema svemu što odrediš: jer znaš da [ne postoji] među nama svako ko se može vještiti u sječenju drva poput onog Sidonci.

Sudije 3: 3 - [Naime] pet gospodara Filistejaca, svi Hanaanci, i Sidoncii Hiveji koji su živjeli na planini Libanon, od planine Baalhermon do ulaska u Hamat.

Ponovljeni zakon 3: 9 - ([Koji] Hermon the Sidonci nazovite Sirion, a Amorejci ga zovu Shenir)

Jošua 13: 6 - Svi stanovnici brdske zemlje od Libana do Misrefothmaima, [i] svi Sidonci, isterat ću ih ispred sinova Izraelovih: samo ih podijelite žrijebom Izraelcima za baštinu, kako sam vam zapovjedio.

Jošua 13: 4 - S juga, sva zemlja Kanaanaca i Meara koja se nalazi pokraj Sidoncido Afeka, do granica Amorejaca:

Djela apostolska 12:20 - I Herod je bio jako nezadovoljan njima iz Tira i Sidon: ali oni su jednoglasno došli k njemu i, nakon što su Blasta učinili kraljevim komornikom svojim prijateljem, poželjeli su mir jer je njihovu zemlju hranila kraljeva [zemlja].

Postanak 10:19 - A granica Hananaca bila je od Sidondok dolazite u Gerar, u Gazu dok idete, u Sodomu, Gomoru, Admu i Zeboim, čak do Lashe.

Luka 10:13 - Teško tebi, Horazine! jao tebi, Betsaida! jer da su moćni radovi obavljeni u Tiru i Sidon, koji su učinjeni u vama, oni su se davno pokajali sjedeći u vreći i pepelu.

Matej 11:21 - Teško tebi, Horazine! jao tebi, Betsaida! jer da su silna djela, koja su u vama učinjena, bila učinjena u Tiru i Sidon, odavno bi se pokajali u vreći i pepelu.

Marko 3: 8 - I iz Jeruzalema, i iz Idumeje, i [iz] iza Jordana i oni o Tir i Sidon, veliko mnoštvo, kad je čulo koje je velike stvari učinio, došlo mu je.

Marko 7:31 - I opet, polazeći od obala Tira i Sidon, došao je do mora Galileje, usred obala Dekapolisa.

Luka 6:17 - I sišao je s njima i stao u ravnicu sa društvom svojih učenika i velikim mnoštvom ljudi iz cijele Judeje i Jeruzalema, te s morske obale Tira i Sidon, koji su došli da ga čuju i da se izliječe od svojih bolesti

Dela apostolska 27: 3 - I sljedećeg dana smo se dotakli Sidon. Julije je ljubazno molio Pavla i dao mu slobodu da ode svojim prijateljima da se osvježi.

Luka 4:26 - Ali nikome od njih nije poslan Ilija, osim u Sareptu, [grad] Sidon, ženi [koja je bila] udovica.

Marko 7:24 - Odatle je ustao i otišao u granice Tira i Sidon, i ušao u kuću, i nijedan čovjek to ne bi znao: ali nije se mogao sakriti.

Postanak 10:15 - I Kanaan je rodio Sidon njegov prvorođeni i Heth,

Matej 15:21 - Zatim je Isus otišao odande, i otišao na obale Tira i Sidon.

Matej 11:22 - Ali kažem vam, bit će podnošljivije za Tira i Sidon na dan presude, nego za vas.

Luka 10:14 - Ali bit će tolerantnije za Tyra i Sidon na presudi, nego za vas.


Feničani i Zapad: politika, kolonije i trgovina. Drugo izdanje

Ovo je engleski prijevod drugog izdanja María Eugenia Aubet Semmler ’s Tiro y las colonias fenicias de occidente, koje je izdao Ediciones Bellaterra (Barcelona) 1994., prvo špansko izdanje objavljeno je 1987., a njegov prijevod na engleski 1993. Profesor Aubet je Feničansku arheologiju uspostavio kao živo područje koje se stalno mijenja u hispanskoj arheologiji, o čijim se otkrićima često izvještava u nacionalni mediji, a najzanimljiviji novi dijelovi drugog izdanja posljednji su odjeljci o zapadnom Mediteranu, uključujući Ibizu, Portugal i Maroko, kao i zadivljujuća otkrića nedavno istražena na obali Andaluzije. Ona piše sa zadivljujućom jasnoćom na granici ćelavosti, a engleska prevoditeljka Mary Turton uspijeva to učiniti, uprkos nekoliko naznaka prijevoda. Budući da je profesorica Aubet izvrsno zaključila da mora prikazati trenutnu sliku čitave feničke civilizacije i poduzeća kao okvir za razumijevanje prirode iberijskih naselja, rezultat je jednako dobar ukupan prikaz feničke civilizacije kao mogli smo se nadati da ćemo pronaći. Budući da se radi o polju koje se brzo kreće, a naizgled mala otkrića mogu preoblikovati procjenu arheologa cijelog razdoblja, malo je vjerojatno da će dugo izgledati definitivno. Već obilna bibliografija uvelike je proširena u ovom izdanju (str. 382-425), ali je bijesno zbog pokušaja korištenja gotovo nemoguće pronaći bilo kakvu posebnu studiju, budući da je cjelina podijeljena na toliko zasebnih pododjeljaka.

Tema je posebno tema Feničana. O Kartaginjanima se govori u onoj mjeri u kojoj su podrijetlom fenička kolonija, ali period koji slijedi nakon pomrčine Feničana i uspona Kartažana (u šestom stoljeću prije nove ere) nije u fokusu ove knjige. Originalni naslov na španjolskom odnosi se na Tir, a ne na Feničane, a kad Tir prestane imati bilo kakvu vlast nad zapadnim Sredozemljem, događaji su izvan ovog sažetka studije. No, velika dužina knjige, koju prate mnoge izvrsne fotografije, ne samo s Pirinejskog poluotoka, gotovo bez umetanja i samo mala količina ponavljanja, pokazuje ono što se sada zna, ili se barem može zaključiti , o ovim izuzetnim ljudima.

Potreba za drugim izdanjem nije posljedica samo otkrića u Andaluziji, naravno, ne samo zato što su Tir i Libanon općenito bili dostupni za arheološka istraživanja od općeg okončanja tamošnjih neprijateljstava. Knjiga počinje pitanjem (naslov Poglavlja 1): "Ko su bili Feničani?" Ne manje značajne vrline ove knjige su mnoge odlične karte koje nam omogućuju da vizualiziramo geografiju i veze između ljudi različitih mjesta u nekoliko različitih vremena. Stoga karta na stranici 15 jasno pokazuje koliko su Feničani zaista bili ograničeni na mediteransku obalu, uprkos trgovini sa područjima na njihovom istoku. Njihove luke, njihova pomorska stručnost i kontakti prikazani su kao dominantni u njihovim odnosima sa susjednim civilizacijama tokom ovog perioda. Oni nisu bili jedinstvena država, zbog čega ima smisla širenje na zapad gledati kao poduzeće Tira, a ne cijele Fenikije.

Profesor Aubet ima pomiješana osjećanja o raspravi između modernih povjesničara i arheologa o različitim vrstama dokaza o datumima i događajima. Kontroverze između onih koji prihvataju rane datume koje su povjesničari dali (prije svega Velleius Paterculus, str. 195-97) za osnivanje Gadira (Cádiz), u drugom milenijumu prije nove ere, i arheološke dokaze za njegovo osnivanje u osmom stoljeću prije nove ere , čvrsto se vidi iz logora arheologa i#8217, a njeni vlastiti dokazi izgledaju manje -više uvjerljivi. Predlaže se da su stari historiografi htjeli da se osnivanje Gadira poveže direktno s opsadom Troje, a elastična nesavjesnost nad hronologijom bila je nusprodukt te umjetnički nadahnute želje. Ali isti klasični povjesničari također nam govore da je Feničansko carstvo bilo inspirisano trgovinom srebrom, a ovdje arheologija podržava njihovu procjenu. U stvari, pisani izvještaji mnogih vrsta promišljeno se eksploatiraju gdje mogu biti od pomoći u rekonstrukciji događaja, a nužno je tako, jer bez pisanih izvještaja ona i njene kolege su suočene s masom dekontekstualiziranih empirijskih informacija ” (27) . Zbog toga je zahvalna na i uvelike se oslanja na priču o putovanju Wen-Amona u Fenikiju iz Egipta vjerojatno 1070. godine prije Krista (preštampano na engleskom kao Dodatak I, str. 356-62). Biblijski izvještaji također se koriste kao historijski dokazi gdje mogu biti, imajući u vidu kako se Izraelci nisu često osjećali ljubazno prema Kanaancima, kao što je to bio Homer, kao i natpisi i umjetnička djela koja predstavljaju brodove i historijske događaje.

Sam Tir je osnovan iz Sidona i nije imao nikakvog značaja u svojoj zemlji sve do desetog vijeka p.n.e. Na vrhuncu svoje moći, vjerovatno je bio gušće naseljen nego što je to moderni grad sada. Znatna briga ulaže se u obnovu geografske prirode Tira do šestog stoljeća prije nove ere, i postaje neosporno jasno da vrsta otoka na moru i poluotočni teren u blizini ušća male rijeke karakteristične za većinu feničkih lokaliteta drugdje (uključujući, posebno, Cádiz) nisu slučajno nastali po uzoru na Tir, u smislu da su Feničani često birali naseljavanje na mjestima koja su ih podsjećala na dom, ne samo iz sentimentalnih razloga, već i zato što su razumjeli kako iskoristiti takva mjesta kako u odbrambene vojne svrhe, tako i iz prakse pitanja koja se tiču ​​njihovih skladišta i njihove trgovačke flote. Mnoga od ovih mjesta od tada su plima i oseka obilno zamuljena i preuređena, ali rekonstrukcije su obično moguće i otkrivaju. Nema sumnje da je glavni poticaj za širenje Tira na Zapad legao u želji za trgovinom, a posebno da profesor Aubet luksuznom robom pokazuje da su dominirali ovom trgovinom u istočnom Mediteranu do te mjere da je njihova ekonomija došla ovisiti o tome, zbog čega je tako ogroman napor uložen u razvoj već produktivnih rudnika srebra Tartessos na dalekom jugozapadnom Iberijskom poluotoku. “Samo ako roba ima stvarnu vrijednost, nadoknadit će ogromne transportne troškove ” (str. 95). Opsežna plodna zemljišta u unutrašnjosti grada Tira, koja su se širila tokom proučavanog perioda, opskrbljivala su ga hranom, drvom i pitkom vodom, što je činilo grad ranjivijim nego što je bilo prikladno u vrijeme rata. A takvih je bilo mnogo, iako su uspješni pregovori između vladara Tira i njihovih egipatskih, asirskih, izraelskih i drugih suparnika i susjeda ovdje rekonstruirani i, ako su točni, pokazuju da je Tir, barem, više volio mir i trgovinu nego rat .

Tumačenja stvarnih iskopavanja, kao i uvijek, uvelike ovise o grnčariji. Vrijedan je i nepobitan dokaz činjenice da keramika datira iz druge polovine osmog vijeka p.n.e. sam Tir je gotovo identičan onom koji je pronađen u najstarijim nivoima feničke okupacije koji je još pronađen na Pirinejskom poluotoku dovoljan je za razjašnjenje datuma potonjeg. Mnoga naselja koja je Tir napravio na Mediteranu, dok su se njegovi građani širili prema zapadu, pažljivo su i opširno proučeni u ovom izvještaju, što čini izvjesno ponavljanje jer su slijedili sličan obrazac na mnogim mjestima, ali je pažnja prema detaljima impresivna. Kartagina ovdje ima važnu ulogu, koju je možda osnovao Dido (Elissa Feničanima) 814/813. kako se “tradicija odnosi ” (str. 51) Kition na Kipru smatra se najznačajnijim naseljem u istočnom Sredozemlju, ali fenička umjetnička djela nalaze se diljem grčkih otoka, uključujući Knosos, vjerojatno kao posljedicu trgovine, a ne naseljavanja ili krađa. A kad su sami Tir ozbiljno oštetili Asirci i Vavilonci u sedmom i šestom stoljeću prije nove ere, starateljstvo nad feničanskim naslijeđem moralo je preći na zapad do njihovih kolonista. Spominju se i drugi dijelovi Fenikije, posebno sjeverno od samog Tira. Profesor Aubet je bio u pravu kada je uključio tako opsežnu analizu Tira prije proučavanja zapadnih kolonija najavljenih u naslovu njene knjige, priroda i istorija Tira objašnjava mnogo o tim kolonijama.

Proširenje (prilično zbunjujuće nazivano dosljedno dijaspora “diaspora ”) predstavljeno je redoslijedom koji se kreće otprilike od istoka prema zapadu, iako je Ibiza posljednja. Dakle, imamo izvještaje o trenutnom arheološkom stanju (1994.) o naseljima na Malti, Siciliji (uključujući najzanimljivije, Motyu ili Moziju, koja je tada bila ostrvo kraj Marsale na krajnjem zapadu), Panteleriji, Kartagini ( neobično, jer je bila aristokratska kolonija “, str. 348) sa Utikom i Hadrumetom, Sardinijom (uključujući Noru, Caralis, Sulcis (tada ostrvo) i Tharros), Cádizom, Lixusom i Mogadorom (ostrvo udaljeno hiljadu kilometara od Cádiz) u modernom Maroku, Portugalu, Malagi, Almuñécaru, Abderi i na drugim mjestima na obali Andaluzije, kao i u nekim kontaktnim područjima u unutrašnjosti u području Gvadiane i doline Guadalquivir već postojećeg složenog društva za proizvodnju srebra u Tartessosu, i na kraju Ibiza. Kontakt s Tartešanima može se datirati otprilike u 750. godine prije Krista i završava oko 570. godine prije Krista, jer su posebno Feničani donijeli novu tehnologiju i tehnike u rudnike Río Tinto. Profesor Aubet neočekivano nije impresioniran načinom na koji su Feničani postupili s Tartešanima njihova trgovina je kategorizirana kao “primjer nepravedne razmjene ” (str. 285-91), iako dokazi također ukazuju da je Tartešanima tada bilo bolje nego pre ili posle ovog perioda. Odnos obalnih naselja međusobno, morem, pomno je razrađen, a plovidba duga i nepredvidiva, a tirijska morska ekspedicija na zapadno Sredozemlje često bi trajala više od godinu dana između vanjskog i povratna putovanja ” (str. 172). Njihove ekspedicije u Crvenom moru također se spominju, ali nisu detaljno ispitane, a kao ćelava činjenica navodi se da su obišli Afriku, iako dokazi za to nisu izvedeni, a navodno fenički kornijski rudnici kalaja koje su voljeli britanski povjesničari ne prave uopšte pojava.

Značajna domišljatost ulazi u prikaz doba kao da ima trgovačku ekonomiju izuzetno napredne, čak i srednjovjekovne vrste. Sve u svemu, slika naslikana Feničkog carstva na Mediteranu upečatljivo podsjeća na Sredozemno carstvo krune Aragona (to jest na Katalonce) između trinaestog i petnaestog stoljeća nove ere, u svakom slučaju, obalna naselja nastala su duž svoje rute kroz Sredozemlje kako bi zaštitili svoje ekonomski vitalno tržište luksuzne robe, koje je ovisilo o sigurnom prijevozu skupocjenih i ranjivih materijala s jednog kraja mora na drugi, što je trgovina bila jedino održiva u praksi dok su držali svoje značajne vodeći u brodogradnji i dok su mornari i njihovi diplomatski zaštitnici mogli spriječiti napade susjednih sila u kontekstu gdje nije postojala jasna linija razdvajanja između piratstva i trgovačkog brodarstva, svako je bilo carstvo koje je konačno propalo zbog nemira u kući i uspješnih rivala u more. Budući da profesor Aubet ima sjedište u Barceloni, u iskušenju je zapitati se je li u pozadini njeno znanje i razumijevanje srednjovjekovne prošlosti vlastite zemlje uvjetovalo njezinu perspektivu na njezino akademsko područje, ali čini se jednako razumnim zaključiti da joj je to dalo prednost u razumijevanju potreba i zahtjeva međusredozemne trgovine, brodarstva, strujanja, vjetrova, morskih puteva, trgovačkih punktova, luka ulaska, naseljavanja i srodnih praksi, jer bi neki od problema koji su uključeni i njihovo rješenje bili približno isto (kao što je važno mjesto na Balearima). Profesor Aubet nikada ne pravi ovo poređenje. Ona, međutim, uspoređuje potragu za srebrom sa potragom španskih istraživača u Boliviji, zbog čega je River Plate dobio ime (Río de la Plata, “Srebrna rijeka ”, str. 82).

Pogled na Fenikiju koji su iznijeli Rimljani neizbježno je obojen njihovom odbojnošću prema Kartaginjanima, koja je u rimskim izvještajima predstavljena kao varvarska. Značajke ljudskog žrtvovanja i moderno otkriće onoga što izgleda kao mjesto žrtvovanja djece u Kartagini i drugdje dovelo je do mnogih rasprava. Profesor Aubet čini sve da ih predstavi u što je moguće boljem svjetlu, nagovještavajući da su to možda samo mjesta spaljivanja djece koja su ionako umrla, ali vjerojatno postoji još dosta argumenata na tu temu. Feničani Bog Melqart snažno se pojavljuje u izvještaju, čak i tako, a ponekad se prikazuje kao pravi (“Melqart ne samo da je proširio svoju zaštitu nad trgovačkim poduhvatima, već se i postavio kao zaštitnik kolonista u stranoj zemlji &# 8221, str. 278). Herodot je doveden u okvir (str. 152-53) kako bi objasnio kultno porijeklo, a Melkartin hram u Cádizu možda je čak prethodio izgradnji samog grada. Čak i tako, radio je u službi trgovine koja je opisana kao “Melqartin hram, centar za zaštitu trgovine ” (str.273), a “ime boga pozivano je u zakletvama koje su sankcionisale ugovore &# 8221 (str. 277).


Istorija trgovine je istorija civilizacije. U njegovom varvarskom stanju čovjekove su želje male i jednostavne, ograničene na njegovo fizičko postojanje, poput hrane, odjeće i skloništa, ali kako napreduje na ljestvici inteligencije, njegove se želje povećavaju i nisu mu potrebne samo udobnosti i pogodnosti života, već čak luksuz. Civilizirani čovjek nikada nije zadovoljan, jer se želja ne ispuni čim se umjesto nje pojavi druga, i pod tim poticajem postiže moćna osvajanja nad silama prirode i postiže visok stupanj razvoja karaktera. Trgovina je jedno od sredstava pomoću kojih su različiti narodi u različito vrijeme nastojali zadovoljiti svoje potrebe.

Nijedna civilizirana zajednica ne proizvodi sve stvari koje troši. Dio svojih potreba mora se podmiriti razmjenom proizvoda s drugim zajednicama ili narodima i to je početak trgovine, bilo domaće ili strane. Štoviše, može biti nemoguće da nacija proizvede sve što joj je potrebno za konzumiranje, zbog fizičkih posebnosti zemlje, nedostatka ugljena, drva ili rude, klime itd. Stoga Engleska ne može uzgajati dovoljno kukuruza za prehranu ljudi, ali proizvodi više tkanine nego što je potrebno za njihovu odjeću. Topla zemlja ne može uspješno uzgajati pšenicu, ali može proizvesti obilje pamuka ili pirinča.

Trgovina u određenoj mjeri ovisi i o nacionalnoj vještini ljudi u proizvodnji robe. Švicarci su odavno poznati po proizvodnji satova, satova i fine čipke, Francuzi za proizvodnju vina i svile. Druga nacija možda ima nedostatak posjedovanja prirodnih proizvoda i vještine proizvođača, ali ima posebnu vještinu kao navigator i postaje nosilac robe. Takvi su bili talijanski gradovi koji su u srednjem vijeku bogato rasli od profita trgovine. Onda opet nacija može kombinirati sve tri ove funkcije, te u većoj ili manjoj mjeri postati proizvođači, proizvođači i prijevoznici, ubirući profit od svake, kao što to trenutno čine glavne nacije Europe i Sjedinjenih Država. Drevna svjetska trgovina odvijala se uglavnom na obalama Sredozemnog mora. Kad u Postanku čitamo da su Josipa njegova braća prodala za dvadeset srebrnjaka "društvu izmaelita koji dolaze iz Gileada sa svojim devama s začinom i melemom i smirnom, koje će ga odnijeti u Egipat", imamo uvid u to drevna trgovina tog najstarijeg carstva, Egipta, crpila je zalihe iz štedljivih naroda na istoku Mediterana. Karavani kamila natovarenih robom i srebrom prešli su pustinju i nosili u Egipat vunu, bjelokost, zlatnu prašinu, začine i robove iz Arabije i sa dalekog istoka. U zamjenu je Egipat isporučio velike količine pšenice, ječma, pirinča, pamuka i lana iz plodne doline Nila, osim količina lana i pamučnog platna, kao i posuđa i posuđa. Po prirodi uslova, Egipat je oduvijek u suštini bio poljoprivredna zemlja. Široka, ravna dolina Nila, koja se svake godine obogaćivala izlivanjem, donosila je obilne usjeve, a ljudi su očigledno bili zadovoljni žetvom, ali su se malo posvetili proizvodnji ili trgovini. Morska obala bila je niska, bez dobrih luka, stoga nije privlačila trgovinu, dok je nestašica drveta činila brodogradnju praktičnom nemogućnošću. Egipćani su njegovali umjetnost i nauku, a njihovi kraljevi su se bavili podizanjem tih divnih spomenika u obliku grobnica, koji su još uvijek u velikoj mjeri ostali. Iako marljivi kod kuće, nisu izgledali skloni odlasku u inozemstvo ili vanjskoj trgovini, a to su uglavnom provodili Arapi i Grci. After the conquests of Alexander the Great, the port of Alexandria became the great commercial metropolis of the world, and Greek merchants settled there in large numbers.

The first navigators and carriers of goods by water, of which we read, were the Phoenicians who inhabited the narrow strip of coast land along the east of the Mediterranean Sea. Having a large sea frontage with little interior distance, these people were naturally attracted to seafaring occupations. Their coast abounded in good harbors, and their abundant forests supplied the materials for ship building, while agriculture was difficult on account of the hilly and rocky nature of the land. Here we see the natural conditions exactly reversed from those of Egypt, with the effect of developing a nation of navigators and traders instead of farmers, as in Egypt. The enterprise and activity of the Phoenicians were wonderful. They founded the cities of Tyre and Sidon and built up a large and profitable system of commerce. Intellectual activity and diligence in business led these people to many discoveries, among which were the making of glass, the art of dyeing purple and writing by means of letters. They were also distinguished by their skill in casting metals, weaving, architecture and in various other directions. Sidonian garments, Tyrian purple, Phoenician glass and articles of ivory, gold and other metals were precious and coveted wares in all antiquity. The forests of Lebanon, along the eastern border, supplied them with material for ship-building, and with their oared barks they navigated the coast and islands of the sea, trading in their own productions and those of the far east, spices, frankincense, oil, wine, wheat and slaves. They made their way along the coast, and out as far as Cyprus, where they founded a colony, then to the islands of the Aegean Sea and Greece to the north, and to Egypt and Africa in the south. They ventured west as far as Spain, which they found rich in minerals, especially silver. The discovery of Spain with its rich mines brought immense wealth to the Phoenicians, and they proceeded to develop the resources of the country with vigor. It is said that the Phoenicians drew such vast wealth from the mines of Spain that their ships carried silver anchors. Besides silver they received from Spain considerable quantities of tin, lead, iron and even gold, as well as a large yield of wheat, wine, oil, wax, fruit and fine wool.

The Phoenicians used their possessions in Spain as a basis for trading voyages farther west. They passed the straits of Gibraltar and went northward among the British isles, where they obtained large quantities of tin. Proceeding still farther, they entered the Baltic Sea, and visited the rude people in northwestern Europe, purchasing wool, hides, furs, copper and other metals, and giving in exchange their own manufactures, such as purple dyed robes, carpets, and fine cloths, works in gold, silver, ivory, amber and glass. The Phoenicians imported largely raw materials, which they made up in Tyre and Sidon, and then exported the finished product either by their own ships seaward or by caravans to the east. Thus they were a manufacturing as well as a maritime nation. They are said to have rounded the Cape of Good Hope on voyages to India about the year B. C. 600.


1 Alphabet Without Vowels

The earliest known Phoenician alphabetical writing is from Byblos (now Jubayl) around 1000 B.C. The word “byblos” meant “papyrus” and became identified with writing and books. The Phoenician writing system was the ancestor of the Greek alphabet and is the root of Western alphabets. The 15th-century B.C. Proto-Canaanite writing system supplanted a cuneiform-type script. The Phoenician alphabet may have been the first alphabetic script to be widely adopted. As Phoenician traders sailed throughout the Mediterranean, they carried their writing system to southern Europe and northern Africa. The most notable features of the alphabet were “abjad,” or consonant alphabet with no vowel indication, right to left direction in horizontal lines, 22 letters and “acrophonic” letters, meaning derived from the initial sound of an object. Egyptian hieroglyphs pictured various objects and the Phoenicians developed the names and shapes of the letters from these hieroglyphs. For example, the first letter, “aleph,” meant “ox” and originally looked very much like an ox’s head.


Phoenician Trade Network - History


Examples of Trade and Cultural Diffusion:

1. The Phoenicians are often referred to as the “carriers of civilization” because they traded goods and spread ideas throughout the Mediterranean region.
The Phoenicians were an early trading civilization located in present day Libanon i Sirija along the Mediteran. They produced various products, such as staklo, papyrus scrolls , i dyes, and established trade across the entire Mediterranean Sea.

2. Silk Road: Trade route from China to the Middle East. Called the Silk Road due to China’s most important export.
--The Silk Road was important because it allowed for the exchange of goods between Asia and the Middle East.
--The exchange of silks and spices and the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads are examples of cultural diffusion.
--The technology of paper-making traveled from China to Baghdad along the Silk Roads.
--Over time the trade route reached 4,000 miles. Most merchants never traveled the entire route, but instead traded their goods at one of the many tržišta established along the way.

3. Alexander the Great’s conquests caused the expansion of Hellenistic culture. The blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures u Hellenistic culture demonstrates cultural diffusion.

5. Marco Polo + Ibn Battuta
The travels of Marco Polo and of Ibn Battuta were similar in that these travels stimulated the expansion of trade. Marco Polo’s visit to China resulted in increased trade between Europe and China.

7. Chinese ideas spread into Korea and Japan.

Practice Questions!
1- Kushites adapted Egyptian art and architecture.
-Greeks adopted Phoenician characters for an alphabet.
-Arabs used the Indian mathematical concept of zero.
These actions are examples of

(1) filial piety
(2) cultural diffusion
(3) scientific research
(4) ethnocentrism

2. What was one result of large armies traveling great distances during the Crusades?
(1) Europe’s population severely declined.
(2) Democracy in the Middle East grew.
(3) Cultural diffusion increased.
(4) Slavery was eliminated.

3. Which circumstance best describes a long-term result of the Crusades?
(1) Muslim control of Jerusalem ended.
(2) Feudalism began in western Europe.
(3) Cultural exchanges between the Middle East and Europe grew.
(4) Christians and Muslims achieved a lasting peace.


4. What was one effect of Alexander the Great’s conquests?

(1) expansion of Hellenistic culture
(2) formation of the Christian church
(3) decreased importance of the Silk Roads
(4) increased support of the Mayan leaders

5. The Phoenicians are often referred to as the “carriers of civilization” because they
(1) introduced Islam and Christianity to Central Africa
(2) established colonies throughout northern Europe
(3) developed the first carts with wheels
(4) traded goods and spread ideas throughout the Mediterranean region

6. Which concept is most closely related to the main idea of the illustration?
(1) isolation
(2) cultural diffusion
(3) armed conflict
(4) urbanization

7. Which leader is most closely associated with the accomplishment shown by the illustration?

(1) Charlemagne
(2) Mansa Musa
(3) Alexander the Great
(4) Suleiman the Magnificent

8. The Phoenicians are often referred to as the “carriers of civilization” because they
(1) introduced Islam and Christianity to Central Africa
(2) established colonies throughout northern Europe
(3) developed the first carts with wheels
(4) traded goods and spread ideas throughout the Mediterranean region

9. The exchange of silks and spices and the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads are examples of
(1) cultural diffusion
(2) self-sufficiency
(3) ethnocentrism
(4) desertification

10. Which statement about cultural diffusion in Asia is most accurate?

(1) Byzantine traders brought the Justinian Code to China.
(2) Roman legions introduced Christianity to India.
(3) Indian monks brought Islam to the Middle East.
(4) Chinese ideas and practices spread into Korea and Japan.

11. Which two cultures most influenced the development of early Japan?
(1) Greek and Roman
(2) Chinese and Korean
(3) Egyptian and Mesopotamian
(4) Indian and Persian

12. One way in which the African kingdoms of Ghana and Mali are similar is that they

(1) established their wealth through trade
(2) improved their military strength with the use of gunpowder
(3) opened trade routes to the Americas
(4) adopted Christianity as their major religion

13. The economies of the western African civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai relied on

(1) industrial growth
(2) shipbuilding
(3) textile production
(4) trans-Saharan trade routes

14. Which description best characterizes the city of Timbuktu?

(1) port on the water route to East Asia
(2) major urban and industrial center on the Silk Road
(3) commercial and cultural center of West Africa
(4) inland city of the Hanseatic League

15. What was a significant effect of Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca?
(1) The African written language spread to southwest Asia.
(2) Military leaders eventually controlled Mali.
(3) Islamic learning and culture expanded in Mali.
(4) The trading of gold for salt ended.

16. Much of the wealth of the West African kingdoms of Ghana and Mali was gained from the

(1) sale of slaves to Europeans
(2) creation of colonies on the Mediterranean coast
(3) taxation on goods brought by Indian merchants
(4) control of the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt

17. The journals of early travelers such as Ibn Battuta of Morocco, Zheng He of China, and Mansa Musa of Mali are examples of
(1) primary sources describing observations of the travelers
(2) works of fiction intended to describe the adventures of the travelers
(3) secondary sources that record the travelers’ interpretations of history
(4) outdated resources for historical research

18. The spread of Islam into the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali resulted from

(1) imperialism
(2) ethnocentrism
(3) cultural diffusion
(4) self-determination


Phoenicians overview

From 1200 to 800 B.C. the Semitic-speaking Phoenicians lived and prospered on the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine. Their chief cities were Tyre and Sidon. They gained fame as sailors and traders. They occupied a string of cities along the Mediterranean coast, in what is today Lebanon and Syria.

Contributions to Civilization Manufacturing and trade. The coastal land, though narrow, was fertile and supported farming. Still, the resourceful Phoenicians became best known for manufacturing and trade. They made glass from coastal sand. From a tiny sea snail, they produced a widely admired purple dye, called “Tyrian purple” after the city of Tyre, which became their trademark. It became the favorite color of royalty.

Phoenicians also used papyrus from Egypt to make scrolls, or rolls of paper, for books. The words Bible and bibliography come from the Phoenician city of Byblos. Phoenicians traded with people all around the Mediterranean Sea. To promote trade, they set up colonies from North Africa to Sicily and Spain. A colony is a territory settled and ruled by people from a distant land.

Missionaries of Civilization .Due to their sailing skills, the Phoenicians served as missionaries of civiliization, bringing eastern Mediterranean products and culture to less advanced peoples. A few Phoenician traders braved the stormy Atlantic and sailed as far as England. There, they exchanged goods from the Mediterranean for tin. About 600 B.C., one Phoenician expedition may have sailed down the Red Sea and then followed the African coast around the southern tip. That historic voyage was forgotten for centuries. (In the late 1400’s, Europeans claimed to be the first to round the southern tip of Africa.)

The Alphabet . As merchants, the Phoenicians needed a simple alphabet to ease the burden of keeping records. They therefore replaced the cumbersome cuneiform alphabet of 550 characters with a phonetic alphabet, based on distinct sounds, consisting of 22 letters. After further alterations by the Greeks and Romans, this alphabet became the one we use today!


Phoenician Trade Network - History

Frankincense from Arabia, silks from China, spices of southeast Asia.

Important trade routes, known collectively as the "Incense Route" were mostly controlled by the Arabs, who brought frankincense and myrrh by camel caravan from South Arabia. The network of routes also served as a channel for trading of Indian, Arabian, African and East Asian goods. The incense trade flourished from South Arabia to the Mediterranean between roughly the 3rd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. This trade was crucial to the economy of Yemen . Frankincense and myrrh trees were seen as a source of wealth by its rulers.

The demands for scents and incense by the empires of antiquity, such as Egypt, Rome and Babylon, made Arabia one of the oldest trade centers of the world.

Frankincense was a product traded along the Incense Route. It is an aromatic resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia and is used in incense , as well as in perfumes . Although it is known as "frankincense" to westerners, the resin is also known as olibanum, which is derived from the Arabic al-lubān (roughly translated: "that which results from milking"), a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree. It was in Lebanon that the resin was sold and traded with Europeans. Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa for more than 5,000 years. In Christian tradition, the Magi (also referred to as the Three Wise Men, or Three Kings from the East) are said to have visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Više.

Myrrh, a reddish-brown resinous material collected from the dried sap of certain trees, was a product traded along the Incense Route. The original myrrh species is Commiphora myrrha, which is native to Yemen, Somalia , and the eastern parts of Ethiopia . The related Commiphora gileadensis, native to Israel , Palestine and Jordan , is now accepted as an alternate source of myrrh. Myrrh has been traditionally used by many cultures as a perfume, incense, medication, or embalming ointment. In addition to its pleasant scent, it also has antimicrobial properties. Myrrh originated from the Arabian Peninsula, where the gum resins were first collected. Its trade route reached Jerusalem and Egypt from modern Oman (then known as the Dhofar region) and Yemen, following the Red Sea coast of Arabia. Herodotus wrote in the 5th century BC, "Arabia is the only country which produces myrrh, frankincense, cassia and cinnamon." Diodorus Siculus wrote in the second half of the first century BC that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." The Ancient Egyptians imported large amounts as far back as 3000 BCE. Myrrh was to embalm the dead, as an antiseptic, and burned it for religious sacrifice (archeologists shiny black or dark brown deposit that analysis believe is chemically closest to myrrh). In Ancient Rome , myrrh was priced at five times higher than frankincense. Pliny the Elder refers to myrrh as one of the ingredients of perfumes, and specifically as the "Royal Perfume" of the Parthians. It was also used to fumigate wine jars before bottling, and as a luxurious flavoring for wine. Više.

Trade Routes between Africa, Arabia, Europe and Asia

Trans-Saharan Trade Routes stretched across the Sahara Desert between Mediterranean countries and sub-Saharan Africa. While existing from prehistoric times, the peak of trade extended from the 8th century until the late 16th century, and included trade between Europe and Africa. Before the Phoenicians took control of vast areas, three ancient routes connected to the Mediterranean coast of Africa (the herdsmen of the Fezzan of Libya , known as the Garamantes , controlled these routes as early as 1500 BC). From the 5th century BCE to the 5th century of the modern era, the Fezzan was home to the Garamantian Empire , a city state which operated the Trans-Saharan trade routes between the Carthaginians -- and later the Roman Empire -- and Sahelian states of west and central Africa. Više.

Phoenicia centered in modern-day Lebanon and the coast of Syria, was an ancient civilization. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the period 1550 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians often traded by means of a galley , a man-powered sailing vessel. Više.

Carthage located in Tunisia, existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis , becoming a large and rich city, and thus a major power in the Mediterranean. Its central location in the Mediterranean enabled it to control of the waters between Sicily (Italy) and Tunisia. Carthaginian commerce covered vast sea and land routes throughout the Mediterranean, far into the Atlantic, and by land across the Sahara desert. Carthage's massive merchant fleet, which surpassed even those of the cities of the Levant, visited every major port of the Mediterranean, Britain, the coast of Africa, and the Canary Islands. Merchants at first favored the ports of the east: Egypt, the Levant, Greece, Cyprus, and Asia Minor (Turkey). However, after Carthage's control of Sicily brought it into conflict with Greek colonists, it established commercial relations in the western Mediterranean, including trade with the Etruscans. Carthage traded in almost every commodity wanted by the ancient world, including spices from Arabia, Africa and India. Carthage also sent caravans into the interior of Africa and Persia, while its ships traversed the maritime trade routes. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon founded Carthage in 814 BC (led by Queen Elissa, "Alissar," an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre). Carthage was an international metropolis, and relied heavily on foreign mercenaries, especially in overseas warfare. The core of its army was from its own territory in north Africa (such as ethnic Libyans and Numidians ). These troops were supported by mercenaries from different ethnic groups and geographic locations across the Mediterranean who fought in their own national units Celtic , Balearic , and Iberian troops were especially common. The navy of Carthage was one of the largest in the Mediterranean. The sailors and marines of the Carthaginian navy were predominantly recruited from the Punic citizenry, unlike the multi-ethnic allied and mercenary troops of the Carthaginian armies. Više.

Palmyra The city of Palmyra, located in Syria, is an ancient oasis city of the Silk Road where the Incense Trail, and overland subsidiaries of the Spice Route once met. Silk Road traders detoured to Palmyra on their way to the Mediterranean coast in search of Phoenicia s royal purple dye. Purple silk was so expensive by the time it reached Rome that even the wealthiest could afford only a decorative colored strip on their clothes. The city s ancient ruins date to the first and second centuries. Više.

Spice Routes As trade between India and the Greco-Roman world increased spices became the main import along the Spice Routes from India to the Western world, rivaling silk and other commodities. The Indian commercial connection with South East Asia proved vital to the merchants of Arabia and Persia during the 7th century and the 8th century. The Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta, Aden and Siraf as entry ports to India and China. Moluccan products of Indonesia (from the "Spice Islands"), which were shipped across the ports of Arabia to the Near East, passed through the ports of India and Sri Lanka. After reaching either the Indian or the Sri Lankan ports, spices were sometimes shipped to East Africa, where they were used for many purposes. On the orders of Manuel I of Portugal, four vessels under the command of navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, continuing to the eastern coast of Africa to Malindi to sail across the Indian Ocean to Calicut. Once the wealth of the Indies was discovered by the Europeans, the Portuguese Empire was one of the early European empires to grow from the spice trade.

Spice Trade was a commercial activity of ancient origin. Civilizations of Eurasia were involved in the spice trade since ancient times (see Greco-Roman world and Incense Route of Roman-India Trade ). Over the centuries many centers of trade flourished, including the maritime trading nation of Axum in northeastern Africa, and cities in the Levant , the Republic of Venice , and the Ottoman Empire . Although the spice trade was dependent on overland ancient routes , maritime trade routes led to the rise of commercial activities. During the medieval periods Muslim traders dominated maritime spice trading routes throughout the Indian Ocean, linking regions in the Far East, and shipping spices from trading centers in India westward to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea , from which overland routes led to Europe. Trade was transformed by the European Age of Discovery . The route from Europe to the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope was pioneered by the Portuguese explorer navigator Vasco Da Gama in 1498, resulting in new maritime routes for trade, which eventually ushered in an age of European domination in the East, as well as increased cultural and commercial exchanges between diverse cultures, while nations struggled to gain control of the trade along the many routes. Više.

Trade Routes between Europe and Asia during Antiquity

Long-distance trade played a major role in the cultural, religious, and artistic exchanges that took place between the major centers of civilization in Europe and Asia during antiquity. Some of these trade routes had been in use for centuries. The trade routes served principally to transfer luxury goods, raw materials, and foodstuffs between the East and West. Some areas had a monopoly on certain materials or goods. China, for example, supplied West Asia and the Mediterranean world with silk, while spices were obtained principally from South Asia. These goods were transported over vast distances either by caravans and pack animals overland, or by seagoing ships along the Silk and Spice Routes, which were the main arteries of contact between the various ancient empires of the Old World. Another important trade route, known as the Incense Route, was controlled by the Arabs, who brought frankincense and myrrh by camel caravan from South Arabia. The demands for scents and incense by the empires of antiquity, such as Egypt, Rome and Babylon, made Arabia one of the oldest trade centers of the world. Cities along these trade routes grew rich providing services to merchants who rested in oasis towns (similar in function to a roadside inn, known as a "caravanserai"). These centers served as international marketplaces, and areas where knowledge was also exchanged. Cities such as Palmyra and Petra, on the fringes of the Syrian Desert, flourished mainly as centers of trade supplying merchant caravans and policing the trade routes. They also became cultural and artistic centers, where peoples of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds could meet and intermingle. The trade routes were the communications highways of the ancient world. New inventions, artistic styles, religious faiths, cultures, languages, and social customs, as well as goods, were transported.

Trade between the Romans and the Empires of Asia

By the end of the first century BC, there was a great expansion of international trade involving five contiguous powers: the Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire, the Kushan Empire, the nomadic confederation of the Xiongnu, and the Han Empire. Although travel was treacherous and knowledge of geography limited, numerous contacts were made as these empires expanded, while preading ideas, beliefs, and customs. Items and commodities were moved over long distances through trade, barter, scholarship, religious teachings, gift giving, and the payment of tribute. Transport over land was accomplished using river craft and pack animals, notably the sturdy Bactrian camel. Travel by sea depended on the prevailing winds of the Indian Ocean, and upon the monsoons (winds which blow from the southwest during the summer months, and from the northeast in the autumn). A vast network of strategically located trading posts (emporia) enabled the exchange, distribution, and storage of goods. From the Greco-Roman metropolis of Antioch in the Mesopotamian region, routes crossed the Syrian Desert via Palmyra to Ctesiphon (the Parthian capital) and Seleucia on the Tigris River. The city of Palmyra was an ancient oasis city of the Silk Road where the Incense Trail, and overland subsidiaries of the Spice Route once met. From Palmyra the route led east across the Zagros Mountains to the cities of Ecbatana and Merv, where one branch turned north via Bukhara and Ferghana into Mongolia and the other led into Bactria. The port of Spasinu Charax on the Persian Gulf was a great center of seaborne trade. Goods unloaded there were sent along a network of routes throughout the Parthian empire (up the Tigris to Ctesiphon up the Euphrates to Dura-Europos and on through the caravan cities of the Arabian and Syrian Desert). Many of these land routes ended at ports on the eastern Mediterranean, from which goods were distributed to cities throughout the Roman Empire. Other routes that crossed the Arabian desert may have ended at the Nabataean city of Petra, where new caravans traveled on to Gaza and other ports on the Mediterranean, or north to Damascus or east to Parthia. A network of maritime routes linked the incense routes and ports of South Arabia and Somalia with ports in the Persian Gulf and India in the east, and to ports on the Red Sea, from which goods was transported overland to the Nile and then to Alexandria.

The Silk Routes (or the Silk Road ) are a network of ancient overland trade routes that extended across the Asian continent and connected China to the Mediterranean Sea.

The "Silk Routes" are collectively known as the "Silk Road." For almost 3,000 years, the Silk Routes were important paths for commercial, cultural, and technological exchange between traders, merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, soldiers, rulers, nomads and urban dwellers from Ancient China, India, Persia, Asia Minor, and countries of the Mediterranean. Extending over 6,000 miles, the routes enabled people to transport goods, especially luxuries such as silk, slaves, satin and other fine fabrics, musk, perfumes, spices, medicines, jewels, glassware and porcelain. The routes served as a conduit for the spread of knowledge, ideas, religions, cultures, and disease between different parts of the world (along with maritime routes from China, India, Asia Minor, Europe, Arabia, North Africa, and the Mediterranean). Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, India, Egypt, Persia, Arabia and Rome, and in several respects helped lay the foundations for the modern world. Although the term the Silk Road implies a continuous journey, very few who traveled the route traversed it from end to end. For the most part, goods were transported by a series of agents on varying routes, and were traded in the bustling mercantile markets of the oasis towns. During the Han Dynasty (206BC 220AD) t he central Asian sections of the trade routes were expanded, largely through the missions and explorations of Zhang Qian who traveled upon the Silk Routes between 138 BC to 139 BC . In the late Middle Ages, transcontinental trade over the land routes of the Silk Road declined as sea routes increased and maritime trade developed. Though silk was certainly a valued trade item from China, many other products were traded, and various inventions, religions and philosophies traveled along the Silk Routes.

For centuries silk has been sought after by many peoples and countries. The silk trade began even before recorded travel took place on the Silk Road. The discovery of an Egyptian mummy with silk (in the village of Deir el Medina near Thebes and the Valley of the Kings) serves as evidence that the silk trade from east to west can be dated to about 1070 BC, although the Silk Road was known to be open during the days of the Han and Roman empires (the Chinese emperor Han Wu is credited for sending envoys to Persia and Mesopotamia during the second century BC for diplomatic purposes, with gifts that included silk).

Historical records suggest that sericulture developed as early as c. 4000-3000 BCE. It is certain that by the second century BC, silk-making had spread throughout southern China. For more than a thousand years, silk was so valuable that it was often used as currency. The process of making it was also a jealously guarded secret which the Chinese managed to keep until the fifth century. Although the Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture a secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly, mass production of silk today has reached over 30 countries. However, the major center of production is still China.

Silk Industry/Production The silk industry began in China sometime before the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE , according to historic Chinese records. It became an important feature of the Chinese rural economy. Silk weaving became a major industry and one of China's chief exports in the Han dynasty. The caravan route across Central Asia, known as the Silk Road, took Chinese silk to Syria, and on to Rome. According to legend, about 140 BCE, sericulture as well as silk had spread overland from China to India. By the 2nd century CE India was shipping its own raw silk and silk cloth to Persia (a few centuries later, Japan, also developed in sericulture). Persia became a centre of silk trade between East and West under the Parthians (247 BCE 224 CE). Silk dyeing and weaving developed as crafts in Syria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Although some raw silk from East Asia was used, most yarn was derived by unraveling silk fabrics from the East -- and Silk culture remained a secret of Asia. Eventually a strong demand for the local production of raw silk arose in the Mediterranean area. It is said that Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (from 527 to 565) persuaded two Persian monks who had lived in China to return there and smuggle silkworms to Constantinople (now Istanbul) in the hollows of their bamboo canes (c. 550 CE). Thus, many believe that these silkworms were the beginning of all the varieties that stocked and supplied European sericulture until the 19th century. Silk culture flourished in Europe for many centuries, especially in the Italian city-states, and from 1480 in France. Silk continues to be an important luxury item of trade.

As it extends westwards from the ancient commercial centers of China, the overland, intercontinental Silk Road divides into the northern i southern routes bypassing the Taklamakan Desert and Lop Nur.

The northern route began in China at Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an). The route travels northwest through the Chinese province of Gansu from Shaanxi Province, and splits into three further routes, two of them following the mountain ranges to the north and south of the Taklimakan Desert to rejoin at Kashgar and the other going north of the Tian Shan mountains through Turpan, Talgar and Almaty (in what is now southeast Kazakhstan). The routes split west of Kashgar with one branch heading down the Alai Valley towards Termez and Balkh, while the other traveled through Kokand in the Fergana Valley, and then west across the Karakum Desert towards Merv, joining the southern route briefly.

One of the branch routes turned northwest to the north of the Aral and Caspian seas and on to the Black Sea. Yet another route started at Xi'an, passed through the Western corridor beyond the Yellow Rivers, Xinjiang, Fergana (in present-day eastern Uzbekistan), Persia and Iraq before joining the western boundary of the Roman Empire. It has been recorded that the northern Silk Road caravan route brought to China many goods such as "dates, saffron powder and pistachio nuts from Persia frankincense, aloes and myrrh from Somalia sandalwood from India glass bottles from Egypt, and other expensive and desirable goods from other parts of the world."

The southern route is mainly a single route running from China, through Karakoram. Today there exists an international highway connecting Pakistan and China, known as "Korakoram Highway." The route then continues to the Turkestan Khorasan region, Mesopotamia, and into Anatolia, with southward routes enabling the journey to be completed by sea from various points.

The bra nch which crosses the high mountains, then passes through northern Pakistan, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Afghanistan, rejoins the northern route briefly near Merv. From there it follows a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant, where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy, and land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa. Another branch road traveled from Herat through Susa to Charax Spasinu at the head of the Persian Gulf and across to Petra and on to Alexandria and other eastern Mediterranean ports from where ships carried the cargoes to Rome.

Silk Road (Silk Routes) Chinese Section of the Silk Road

The Chinese Section of the Silk Road began in the city of Xi'an in Shaanxi Province, passed through the provinces of Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and continued westward through Xinjiang into Central Asia. More than half of the Silk Road (which stretched between Xi'an in China to the Mediterranean Sea and Turkey) was located in China.

The Xinjiang region is strategically located at the junction where the most ancient branch of the famous Silk Route joining China and the West meets with one of the main routes from ancient India and Tibet, crossing from Central Asia to other areas of China. Xinjiang was the crossroads for not only goods, but also was home to the northern and southern routes which enabled technologies, philosophies, and religions to be transmitted from one culture to another.

As much as 1,400 years ago, during China's Eastern Han Dynasty, a sea route, although not part of the formal Silk Route, led from the mouth of the Red River near modern Hanoi, through the Malacca Straits to Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India, and then on to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea kingdom of Axum, and eventually to Roman ports. From ports on the Red Sea, goods including silks, were transported overland to the Nile and then to Alexandria from where they were shipped to Rome, Constantinople and other Mediterranean ports.

Another branch of these sea routes led down the East African coast, called "Azania" by the Greeks and Romans in the 1st century CE, as described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (and perhaps 澤散 Zesan in the 3rd century by the Chinese), at least as far as the port known to the Romans as "Rhapta," which was probably located in the delta of the Rufiji River in modern Tanzania (commonly referred to as Zanzibar).

Cities such as Istanbul, Venice, and Guangzhou were key transportation hubs and trading ports which could be considered maritime cities of the Silk Road. Thus, European and Asian ports were indirectly connected to caravan routes of the Silk Road.

Maritime t rade between East and West developed across the Indian Ocean between Alexandria in Egypt and Guangzhou in China. From Guangzhou, the Silk Road extends from China, to present day Brunei, Myanmar (Burma) Thailand, Malacca, Ceylon, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Iran and Iraq. In Europe it extends from Israel, Lebanon (collectively, the Levant), Egypt, and Italy (Venice) in the Mediterranean Sea to other European ports or caravan routes such as the great Hanseatic League Fairs via the Spanish road and other Alpine routes. This water route has been called by some sources as the Indian Ocean Maritime System. (See also Roman-India routes)


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