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Focke Wulf 152H

Focke Wulf 152H


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U jesen 1937. godine njemačko ministarstvo zraka odlučilo je da mu je potreban još jedan borbeni avion koji bi dopunio Messerschmitt Bf109. Dizajnerski tim predvodio je Kurt Tank, tehnički direktor Focke Wulf Flugzeugbau. Focke Wulf 190 je prvi put poletio 1. juna 1939., ali tehnički problemi su značili da je postao potpuno operativan tek u julu 1941.

Focke Wulf 190 bio je superiorniji od Messerschmitta Bf109 i do kraja Drugog svjetskog rata bio je najbolji borbeni avion u Luftwaffeu. Ukupno 13.367 je izgrađeno tokom rata. Čak su i piloti RAF -a prihvatili da je zbog svoje brzine i lakoće rukovanja nadmašio Supermarine Spitfire.

Kurt Tank sada je počeo raditi na novom avionu koji bi mogao letjeti na mnogo većim visinama. To je bilo važno zbog uvođenja B-29 Stratafortress-a koji je mogao letjeti više od bilo kojeg drugog bombardera u službi.

Focke Wulf 152H stupio je u akciju u januaru 1945. Imao je maksimalnu brzinu od 759 km / h i raspon od 1.215 km. Bio je dugačak 10,71 m, sa rasponom krila od 14,43 m. Avion je bio naoružan sa dva topa kalibra 20 mm i jednim topom kalibra 30 mm. Njegova brzina na velikoj nadmorskoj visini bila je veća od bilo kojeg neprijateljskog lovca u to vrijeme. Međutim, proizvedeno je samo 150, a vrlo mali broj njih vidio je akciju prije kraja Drugog svjetskog rata.


Focke Wulf 152H - Historija

Kurt Tank (Kurt Tank) predstavio je dvije ponude (Ra-2 i Ra-3) prve etaže na bazi Foke-Vulf FW-190D sa pokretnim Юmo-213, i treća (Ra-4D), — na bazi, u cijeni, na razvoju linija 190-h, ali sa bitnim konstrukcionim i aerodinamičkim poboljšanjima. Hotâ Messeršmit je takođe predstavio projekat Me-155B, vlasti su rešile, što je u kompanijama već previše projekata u radu, da bi mogli da podele nove zadatke dovoljno pažljive.

Projekti Ra-2 i Ra-3 predstavljaju sami FW-190D-9, pereonaŝënnyj моmo-213E s trëhskorostnym dvuhstupenčatnym turbokompressorom i interkulerom za poboljšanje visokih karakteristika, i primjenom sistema u visokoj metalno-metalnoj kombinaciji MW50. Gidravlika je morala biti zamenjena elektroprivodima zatvorenim i šasijama, aparat za podmazivanje je namenjen povećanju zapremine tečnosti i prevučen na 40 cm za kompenzacije mešanja centralne težine. Prototip ima jednu od 30-milimetarskih motornih puškica Mk 108 i par 20-milimetarskih pušeka MG 151 u korni krilca, a na prototipu Ra-2 dodatno se instalira još jedna paralelna sinhronizacija MG 151 u kapotu motora.

U ovom periodu vojnih zasluga Kurta Tanka je ocijenila u Lûftvaffeu visoko visoko, što je u njegovoj čestici, a po njegovom zahtjevu samolët je nazvan Ta-152 umjesto još jednog međusobnog prepoznavanja iz linije FW-190. Prototip Ra-2 je dobio obozačenie Ta-152B, a Ra-3 je stajao Ta-152H. Vremenom na osnovu projekta FW-190C započeli su razvoj predloga Ra-4D nad prototipom Ta-153. Osobito primjenjivo bilo je njegovo kristalo, koje je bilo potrebno, a moglo bi pretpostaviti i manje neznatne aerodinamičke nadogradnje, bilo je potrebno dodatno konstrukcijom i tehnologijom, kako bi predočilo značajno veći unutrašnji prostor za benzobakove. Ovaj napredak je doneo odluku da se izmeni ovo krilo i u projektu Ta-152, sa oboznačenom verzijom ‘H ’ verzija sa uvećanim razmahom krila.

Sboročna linija za Ta-152H nalazila se na zavodima u Kotbusu, a prva dva serijska protokola objavljena su u junu i julu 1944. Sa njime se pridružio i ostavio preostali prototip FW-190C, razobrannyh dlâ peredelki v Ta-152H. Otpad i testiranje ovih prototipova su se zatvarali do kraja novembra, do tog trenutka, kao što su već napravljeni, napravljeni su dva izdvojena pred-serijska Ta-152H-0, koja su izdvojena od posljednjih serijskih H-1 samo s nedostajućim kristalima benzobakova. Ta-152H je bio vooružen od jednog motornog puška Mk 108 sa 90 snaržama kalibra 30 mm i paralelno sinhronizovanih 20 mm pušeka MG 151 sa 175 snaržama na kormilu u krilima. Zapas benzina mogao bi biti uvećan podveskom 300-litarskog PTB-a na instalaciju koji se podiže pod fuselažem bombarder ETC-503. Vzlëtnyj ves H-0, sostavlâet 4726 kg, a v H-1 s dopolnitelʹnymi krylʹevymi bakami dohodil do 5217 kg.

S januara 1945 g. i do zaposlenja Kotbusa Sovjetske vojske Zavod je ispustio više od 150 perehvatčića Ta-152H-1. Ovo nije potpuno izuzeto kristalo koje nije u potpunosti prenosilo tehničke mašine, nekoliko iscrpnih uređaja koristilo je prenosni uređaj paralelno sa D-9, kao i stabna éskadrilʹskaâ gruppa JG 301, kakvu poznate, prikryvala na Ta-152H-1 aérodromnoj bazi Me-262. Bolja že čast perehvatčikov je bila, skoro sve, uništena na zemljinim šturgovima nalëtami Soûznikov v ožidanii priëmki lûtčikami Lûftvaffe.


Focke-Wulf Ta 152H

Focke-Wulf Ta 152H je dizajniran kao verzija na visokoj nadmorskoj visini standarda Ta 152, ali je kao rezultat niza loših odluka njemačkog ministarstva vazdušnog saobraćaja postao jedina verzija aviona koja je zaista stupila u borbu, a tek u mali broj i prekasno za bilo kakav utjecaj na tok rata.

Iako se Focke-Wulf Fw 190 pokazao kao odličan lovac nakon što je stupio u upotrebu 1941. godine, njegov dizajner Kurt Tank ubrzo je shvatio da njegov radijalni motor BMW 801 ima ograničen razvojni potencijal, a većina povećanja snage dolazi iz različitih sistema za pojačavanje koji je uključivao ubrizgavanje različitih dodataka u motor. Većina primjera Fw 190A koristila je isti motor BMW 801D-2, koji se dobro pokazao na malim i srednjim nadmorskim visinama, ali ne i na velikoj nadmorskoj visini. Sa savezničke strane, kasnije verzije Rolls Royce Merlina barem su se izjednačile s BMW -ovim motorom, s boljim performansama na velikoj nadmorskoj visini, dok su Rolls Royce Griffon izjednačile kada su bile nove, i nastavile su se poboljšavati. Tank je započeo radove na zamjeni Fw 190 koja bi koristila ugrađene motore sa boljim performansama na velikim visinama, u novom okviru. RLM (Ministarstvo zračnog prometa) ovom je dizajnu dodijelilo oznaku Ta 153 (jednu nižu od postojećeg Ta 154), prije nego što ga je odbacilo u travnju 1943. s obrazloženjem da bi to uzrokovalo previše poremećaja na proizvodnim linijama.

Tank je odgovorio ažuriranom verzijom Fw 190, koja bi koristila više komponenti iz ranijih aviona, ali sa Junkers Jumo 213 ili Daimler Benz DB 603 linijskim motorom. To je u svibnju 1943. dobilo oznaku Ta 152 i započeli su radovi na dvije verzije. Ta 152A trebao je koristiti Jumo 213A i bio je verzija na niskom i srednjem nivou, dok je Ta 152B trebao koristiti Jumo 213E, koji je imao trobrzinski dvostepeni međuhlađeni punjač i optimiziran za veće visine. Obje ove varijante motora bile su u razvoju u to vrijeme, pa je DB 603G izabran kao rezervni motor.

Rad na Jumo 213E napredovao je vrlo sporo, pa Ta 152B nikada nije prešao fazu prototipa. 213A je bio u naprednijoj fazi i proizvedeno je nekoliko prototipova Ta 152A. Ovo je imalo produženu verziju trupa Fw 190A-8, s dodatnih 77,2 cm ispred kokpita za nošenje većih inline motora i teških topova, a dio od 50 cm započinje trup i krilo se pomiče 42 cm naprijed kako bi se uravnotežila težina težih motora. Raspon krila povećan je sa 10,5 m na 11 m. Prvi prototip Ta 152A poletio je 7. jula 1943. Novi dizajn je izgledao obećavajuće, ali je u oktobru 1943. Ministarstvo vazduhoplovstva odbilo da mu da visok razvojni prioritet.

U međuvremenu su dva Messerschmittova dizajna za velike visine aviona, Bf 190H i Me 209, naišla na probleme. Me 209 je prvi put poletio 3. novembra 1943., a Bf 109H 5. novembra 1943., ali oba dizajna su bila neuspješna (kao i svi pokušaji Messerschmitta & rsquosa da zamijeni Bf 109).

Budući da se suparnički tim borio, 7. decembra 1943. Tank je podnio prijedlog za visinsku verziju Ta 152 & ndash Ta 152H. Ovo je koristilo isti okvir kao i Ta 152A/B, ali s kokpitom pod pritiskom i mnogo dužim krilima, s rasponom krila koji se povećao sa 34,5 5in (10,5m) na Fw 190A-8 na 47ft 3in (14,4m) na Ta 152H . Trebalo je da ga pokreće Jumo 213E sa standardnim sistemima za pojačavanje GM-1 i MW-50. Ministarstvo zračnog prometa odobrilo je razvoj ovog modela i naručilo šest prototipova. Trebalo je da bude naoružan topom od 30 mm u motoru i dva topa od 20 mm u korenu krila. Neobično za člana porodice Fw 190/ Ta 152 nije bilo odredbi za nošenje bombi.

Ta 152H ubrzo je postao jedina verzija aviona koja je imala ikakve šanse da uđe u službu. Iako je dovršeno još nekoliko prototipova Ta 152A, projekat je otkazan u julu 1944. Rad na Ta 152B je malo napredovao. Radovi na verziji Ta 602 sa pogonom DB 603, Ta 152C, počeli su 1944. godine, ali su tek došli do faze prototipa.

Ovo je upravo ostavilo Ta 152H. Kako bi ubrzao razvoj, Focke-Wulf je uzeo nekoliko postojećih prototipova koji su korišteni za testiranje DB 603A s Hirth turbopunjačem i dao im je Jumo 213E motore za proizvodnju V33/U1, V30/U1 i V29/U21. Drugi prototip proizveden je modifikacijom V32/U1, koji je kratko korišten kao prototip Ta 153, pretvarajući ga u V32/U2. V18/U1 je dodat u plan u proljeće 1944. kao V18/U2. U pokušaju da se ubrza razvoj aviona, radilo se i na puštanju u proizvodnju neprovjerenog dizajna, a prvi prototip Ta 152H koji je izgrađen od nule, V1 W.Nr.150001, dovršen je u junu 1944. godine, prije bilo koji od razvojnih aviona, iako vjerovatno nije letio nekoliko mjeseci.

Prvi prototip ovog dizajna, Fw 190 V33/U1, završen je u ljeto 1944. godine, a prvi let je obavljen 12. jula 1944. godine, ali je avion izgubljen 13. jula 1944. godine dok je letio sa gradilišta prototipa u Adelheide na poligon u Langenhagenu. Avion je pretrpio 70% oštećenja, što otežava istraživanje uzroka pada.

Drugi prototip, Fw 190 V30/U1, poletio je 6. avgusta 1944. godine. Ovo je korišteno za testiranje Jumo 213E, što se pokazalo problematičnim. Kompresor nije bio pouzdan, pa je 23. avgusta, ubrzo nakon što je avion prebačen na testni nišan RLM u Rechlinu, uništen nakon što se motor zapalio u letu. Testni pilot, Alfred Thomas, skoro je uspio sletjeti, ali je poginuo pri pokušaju slijetanja. Opet je šteta bila prevelika da bi se omogućila istraga.

Treći prototip, Fw 190 V29/U1, poleteo je 24. septembra 1944. godine, a u Rechlin je otišao 27. septembra. Prvi rezultati ispitivanja nisu bili užasno pozitivni i zrakoplovu su bile potrebne izmjene u opremi, bio je neugodan i brzina usporavanja te je bio nestabilan u okomitoj osi. S pozitivne strane, Jumo 213E je postajao sve pouzdaniji.

Četvrti prototip, Fw 190 V32/U2 ​​(W.Nr.0057), modifikovan je u Demlemhorstu, a zatim je potekao u Langenhagen 15. avgusta 1944.

Peti prototip, Fw 190 V18/U2 (W.Nr.0040), izvršio je svoj prvi let u ovoj konfiguraciji 19. novembra 1944.

Postojala su dva pokušaja izgradnje šestog prototipa. Prvi avion Ta 152 V25 (W.Nr.110025) nikada nije dovršen, a krila su mu tada postavljena na Fw 190 V32/U2, koji je u ovoj konfiguraciji prvi put poletio 15. decembra 1944.

Unatoč tim problemima, Ta 152H je naručen u proizvodnju. Serija H-0 izgrađena je u Cottbusu u Brandenburgu, opasno blizu Njemačke i sve ranjivijih istočnih granica. Radovi na prvom proizvodnom avionu počeli su u novembru 1944, a prvi serijski avion (W.Nr.150 001) je poletio 24. novembra 1944. Došlo je do kratkog kašnjenja kada je Luftwaffe odlučila sve postojeće avione pretvoriti u Ta 152E izviđačke vrste, ali je ovaj plan ubrzo napušten. Ovi avioni su završeni bez bilo kojeg od standardnih sistema za pojačavanje (MW 50 i GM 1). Zrakoplov još uvijek nije bio potpuno pouzdan, a prvi let prvog proizvodnog aviona završio je trbušnim slijetanjem nakon otkaza sistema za gorivo. Proizvodnja je bila spora, a do kraja 1944. dovršen je samo 21 H-0.

Kao i sa mnogim detaljima kasnije njemačke proizvodnje aviona, nema slaganja oko broja Ta 152H koji su završeni. Aviation Classics 26 daje ukupno 44 proizvodne mašine (uglavnom H-0, s nekim H-1 & ndash 21 u decembru 1943, 20 u januaru 1944 i 3 u februaru 1944) i 11 prototipova ili eksperimentalnih mašina, ukupno 54. Drugi izvori navode veće brojke, čak 26 prototipova i 67 proizvodnih aviona (možda navodeći podatke za sve varijante Ta 152 & ndash, čini se da je to slučaj u krupnom planu br. 24, koji daje ukupno 67 aviona svih tipova između oktobra 1944. i februara 1945., s vrhuncem od samo 23 aviona u januaru).

29. ožujka 1945. RLM je odlučio prekinuti proizvodnju Ta 152H i koncentrirati se na Fw 190D, ali do tog trenutka većina proizvodnih pogona već je pripala Sovjetima.

Prvi H-0 su stigli u Erprobungskommando Ta 152 u Cottbus, a stigli su u oktobru-novembru 1944. Testovi su pokazali da je Ta 152H brži od Fw 190, ali sa manjom brzinom kotrljanja zbog većih krila. Otkriveni su kvarovi na desnoj nozi stajnog trapa, kontrolama poklopca poklopca rashladnog sredstva motora, labavim komandama, loše dizajniranim umjerenim dizajnom i u nekim slučajevima lošom kvalitetom konstrukcije. Kokpit pod pritiskom bio je neefikasan, propuštao se na nekoliko mjesta i bez dovoljnog pritiska zraka. Kad je kompresor radio, pregrijao je kokpit. U borbi većina aviona radi sa isključenim pritiskom.

Neki od ovih aviona su krajem januara 1945. dosegli III./JG 301, pa se taj tip nakratko koristio u borbi. Nije potpuno jasno koliko je uspješan bio, jer pobjeda jedinice tvrdi da se pobjeda ne poklapa uvijek sa savezničkim gubicima. Čini se da su njegovi piloti bili impresionirani Ta 152H, ali njegova borbena karijera trajala je samo od sredine veljače do kraja rata.

Drugi H-0 su korišteni kao probni avioni. Peti proizvodni avion, W.Nr. 150005 je korišten za ispitivanja motora u Junkersu.

H-0 je bio naoružan jednim motorom montiranim topom 30 mm MK 108 i dva topa 20 mm MG 151/20 u korjenu krila. Trebalo je da bude opremljen sistemom za pojačavanje GM-1, ali ne i za MW-50. U praksi nijedan sistem nije ugrađen. Najmanje prvih dvadeset aviona proizvedenih u Cottbusu dovršeno je kao H-0, iako su neki korišteni kao prototipovi, pomalo zbunjujući sliku.

H-0 bi mogao biti opremljen kompletom R11 za sve vremenske uslove.

Ta 152H-1 je trebao biti glavna proizvodna verzija. Poput H-0, bio je naoružan jednim topom od 30 mm i dva topa od 20 mm, a pokretao ga je motor Jumo 213E. Najmanje desetak je završeno.

Glavna razlika između H-0 i H-1 bila je dodavanje šest dodatnih rezervoara za gorivo u krilima, jednog sa pojačanjem MW-50 i pet sa normalnim gorivom. Ovo je povećalo maksimalnu poletnu težinu aviona & rsquos za gotovo 500 kg. H-1 je trebao biti izgrađen sa sistemima za pojačavanje GM 1 i HW 50. Međutim, u praksi je sistem GM 1 stvarao previše problema i često je nedostajao. Standardni H-1 dovršen je sistem niskog pritiska MW 50, kasnije zamijenjen sistemom visokog pritiska u R21 i R31.

Proizvodnja H-1 trebala je započeti u siječnju 1945. u tvornici Focke-Wulf & rsquos Cottbus, te u ožujku 1945. u Erli i Gotha, ali samo su avioni Focke-Wulf ikada dovršili avione.

Većina H-1 je završena sa R11 R & uumlstsatz, s obzirom na sve vremenske mogućnosti. To im je dalo auto -pilot u smjeru PKS 12, odmrznuto vjetrobransko staklo, radio FuG 125 i autopilot LGW K 23. H-1 je patio od ozbiljnih problema s ravnotežom uzrokovanih dodatnim spremnicima goriva. Kao rezultat toga, 9. marta 1945. H-1/R11 je završen bez sistema GM 1.

H-1/R21 dobio je sistem visokog pritiska MW 50, ali mu je nedostajao GM 1.

H-1/R31 je imao balast u motoru i ograničio je količinu goriva koja se mogla prevoziti u zadnjim rezervoarima trupa, a imao je i sistem visokog pritiska MW 50 i sistem GM 1. Međutim, nije jasno je li ijedan od ovih aviona ikada stigao u borbu.

Ta 152H-2 bi bio isti kao i H-1, ali sa radijem FuG 15 umjesto FuG 16. Ta 152 V25 je trebao biti prototip ove verzije, ali je otkazan u decembru 1944.

Ta 152H-3 do H-9

Oni su vjerojatno imali različite kombinacije motora i pištolja, ali bile su to samo studije dizajna. .

H-10 je bila izviđačka verzija H-0. Prvobitni plan je bio proizvesti namjensku izviđačku verziju Ta 152, kao Ta 152E, s E-2 koristeći duga krila Ta 152H. Ovom projektu dodijeljen je jedan prototip, Ta 152 V26 (W.Nr.110021?). Ovaj avion nije bio dovršen kada je Ta 152E otkazan sredinom februara 1945. u korist proizvodnje izviđačkih verzija Ta 152C i Ta 152H. Kao prvi prototip H-10 vjerovatno je izveo u ožujku 1945. Kao i kod većine izviđačkih verzija porodice Fw 190/ Ta 152, nosio je kameru u stražnjem dijelu trupa, u ovom slučaju jednu od Rb 20/30, Modeli Rb 50/30 ili Rb 75/30. Ta 152 W.Nr.150167 je također mogao biti izabran za konverziju u konfiguraciju H-10.

H-11 bi bila izviđačka verzija H-1

H-12 bi bila izviđačka verzija H-2

H-1
Motor: Junkers Jumo 213 E/B dvanaestocilindrični linijski motor sa invertiranim V tečnim hlađenjem
Snaga: 1.880 KS na nivou mora, 2.250 KS sa MW-50
Posada: 1
Raspon: 47ft 6.75in
Dužina: 35ft 5.5in
Visina: 13ft 0in
Težina prazna:
Opterećeno: 10,472lb
Maksimalna težina pri polijetanju: 11,508lb
Maksimalna brzina: 431mph na 35.000ft 465mph na 30.000ft sa MW-50 472mph na 41.000ft sa GM-1 i MW-50
Brzina uspona:
Servisni plafon: 48,560ft
Normalni domet: 745 milja pri 372mpg na 32,800ft
Naoružanje: Jedan top 30 mm MK 108 u predilici, dva topa 20 mm MG 151/20 u korijenima krila


Povijesno pitanje: Nikad čuli za Focke-Wulf FW-190? Ti i#039re sretni.

Smatralo se da je Focke-Wulf FW-190 najbolji borbeni avion Drugog svjetskog rata.

Ključna tačka: Focke-Wulf FW-190 ne samo da je bio vrhunski lovac tokom dana, već se i široko koristio kao noćni lovac, presretač i kopneni jurišni avion na istočnom, zapadnom i italijanskom frontu.

28. jula 1943. godine, nadmoćnik Luftwaffea Erwin Clausen oborio je još dvije leteće tvrđave B-17 kako bi dodao dvije koje je oborio prethodnog dana. Bilo je još 15 pilota Focke-Wulf FW-190 koji su tvrdili da su oborili bombarder u odbrani avionskih radova u Kasselu i Oscherslebenu. Vjeruje se da je ovo bio prvi put da su jednomotorni lovci Luftwaffea uspjeli upotrijebiti podkrilne rakete protiv američkih bombardera.

Sljedećeg dana, dok je 15 grupa B-17 napadalo ciljeve na baltičkoj obali, vrijeme je bilo najbolje pokriće za bombardere. Odziv Luftwaffea bio je relativno slab, samo su četiri Jagdgruppena FW-190 poslana da se suprotstave silama bombardera. Grupa Focke-Wulf pripisana je četvorici od 12 za koje se tvrdi da su oboreni, što se složilo sa onim što su Amerikanci izjavili da su izgubili.

Sljedećeg dana B-17 su krenuli u drugi udar na tvornice aviona u Kasselu. Ovom prilikom Luftwaffe je reagirao snažnije nego prije. Među poslanim avionima bilo je najmanje pet jedinica Focke-Wulf FW-190. Focke-Wulfs iz Jagdgeschwader-a 1 nisu napali bombardere sve dok nisu napustili ciljno područje i namjeravali su se vratiti na holandsku teritoriju. U tom trenutku bili bi pod zaštitom savezničkih boraca koji bi ih otpratili natrag u Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo. Uprkos ovom razvoju događaja, piloti JG1 mogli su tvrditi da su uništena šest B-17 i dva neprijateljska lovca. Uspjesi su skupo plaćeni: gubitak sedam aviona. Među ubijenim pilotima bila su dva Staffelkapitane-a i tada vodeći četvoromotorni bombarderski as FW-190, Oberfeldwebel Hans Laun od 1.JG 1, koji je oboren u blizini Arnhema u Nizozemskoj.

Smatralo se da je Focke-Wulf FW-190 najbolji borbeni avion Drugog svjetskog rata. Kako je rat odmicao, FW-190 je proizveden u čak 40 različitih modela. Pojava novog aviona iznad Francuske 1941. bila je grubo iznenađenje za savezničke vazdušne snage. FW-190 je bio u službi tokom cijelog rata, zamijenivši niz drugih aviona, uključujući ronilački bombarder Junkers Ju-87 Stuka. Vjerojatno je najveći utjecaj aviona na saveznike bio taj što je potaknuo veći napredak u tehnologiji i dizajnu aviona kako bi se suprotstavio prijetnji FW-190.

Focke-Wulf FW-190 ne samo da je bio vrhunski lovac tokom dana, već se i naširoko koristio kao noćni lovac, presretač i kopneni jurišni avion na istočnom, zapadnom i italijanskom frontu. Uvođenjem FW-190 promijenjene su sposobnosti borbenih operacija Luftwaffea. To je posebno bio slučaj s predstavljanjem FW-190D 1944. Ovaj novi model nudi vrhunsko upravljanje s najvećom brzinom većom od 400 milja na sat.

Tokom prve dvije godine Drugog svjetskog rata, Messerschmitt Me-109 bio je najistaknutiji njemački borbeni avion, jednostavno nije postojalo ništa drugo. Ali 1941. godine, tokom zračnog ratovanja između Kanala između Kraljevskog ratnog zrakoplovstva i Luftwaffea, u borbu je ušao novi izazivač na njemačkoj strani. Od tog trenutka Me-109 bi imao novog partnera u zračnom ratu.

Istorija dizajna Fw-190

Razvoj FW-190 započeo je ugovorom 1937. godine iz Reichsluftfahrtministeriuma za novog lovca s jednim sjedištem. Novi avion dizajnirao je inženjer Focke-Wulf Kurt Tank, njemački vazduhoplovni inženjer i pilot pilot. Bio je glavni inženjer u Focke-Wulfovom odjelu za projektiranje od 1931. do 1945. On nije bio odgovoran samo za razvoj FW-190, već i lovca-presretača Focke-Wulf Ta-152 i FW-200 Condor. FW-190 je prvi put razvijen kao dva različita modela, jedan koji je koristio vodeno hlađeni Daimler-Benz DB 601 motor, a drugi sa radijacijom BMW 139 sa zračnim hlađenjem. BMW 139 izabran je za razvoj u ljeto 1938. Prvi prototip je poletio 1. juna 1939. BMW 139 proizveo je 1.550 konjskih snaga, postižući brzinu od 370 milja na sat. Kako je prototip dorađivan, BMW 139 zamijenjen je BMW 801, koji je bio teži, ali je imao veći potencijal za budući razvoj. Iako je motor ipak morao prevladati neke probleme, FW-190 pokazao je izvrsne karakteristike upravljanja, a njegovo široko podvozje učinilo je uzlijetanje i slijetanje manje opasnim. Pokretan novim BMW-ovim motorom, koji je proizvodio 1.600 konjskih snaga, FW-190A-1 bio je naoružan s četiri mitraljeza MG17 montirana na krila 7,92 mm.

Prvi utisci o novom motoru BMW 801 nisu bili dobri. “Novi dvoredni, 14-cilindrični, zračno hlađeni radijalni motor nije nam donio ništa osim bijede. Šta god bi s tim moglo poći po zlu, učinilo je. Jedva smo se usudili napustiti neposrednu blizinu aerodroma sa svojih šest prototipnih mašina ”, izvijestio je jedan pilot. Ova kritika novog aviona ponekad se pripisuje spašavanju projekta FW-190 od otkazivanja. Na kraju su problemi bili dovoljno ispravljeni da bi avion mogao biti odobren za upotrebu u julu 1941. Jedna od velikih promjena koje su napravili Tank i njegovi dizajneri bila je u naoružanju FW-190. Ugrađeni MG17 zamijenili su s dva topa FF od 20 mm. Modificirani lovac sada je imao oznaku FW-190 A-2 i potpuno je začudio Kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo s opisima aviona koje su britanske obavještajne službe odbacile.

U junu 1942. godine dogodio se slučajni događaj za saveznike. Pilot Luftwaffea je svojim neprijateljima slučajno poklonio netaknuti lovac FW-190A. Oberleutnant Armin Faber sletio je na, kako je mislio, aerodrom Luftwaffe na poluotoku Cotentin, za koje se ispostavilo da je RAF aerodrom u Pembreyu u Walesu. Dok je polako taksirao do zaustavljanja, Faber je bio jako iznenađen kada je neko skočio na krilo i uperio mu pištolj u glavu. Pilot je bio toliko očajan da je pokušao samoubistvo.

RAF je brzo iskoristio svoje neprilike prevozeći avion u Royal Aircraft Establishment u Farnboroughu. Okvir i motor su demontirani i temeljito analizirani prije ponovnog sastavljanja. Nakon probnog leta avion je isporučen Jedinici za razvoj zračnih borbi u Duxfordu u Cambridgeshireu, gdje je prošao kroz intenzivna ispitivanja performansi i letio konkurentno protiv nekoliko savezničkih tipova lovaca. Ispitivanja AFDU-a pokazala su ono što je RAF već znao, da je FW-190 izvanredan razvoj lovačkih aviona, ali daleko od toga da je nepobjediv.

Detaljno ispitivanje FW-190 imalo je veliki utjecaj na razvoj lovaca u Velikoj Britaniji. To je rezultiralo izravno specifikacijom F.2/43 prema kojoj je dizajniran Hawker Fury, koji je uključivao brojne značajke izravno kopirane iz FW-190A i F.19/43, koje su proizvele lovački projekt Folland Fd.118. Ne može biti veće pohvale od toga da neprijatelji kopiraju jedan od vaših nacrta. FW-190A bio je jedan od najboljih modela koji su mogli doći u posjed saveznika. FW-190A1 koristio je BMW 801C, motor od 1600 konjskih snaga, koji je pokretao trokraki propeler promjenjivog koraka koji je mogao postići najveću brzinu od 388 milja na sat. Stajni trap sa širokim gusjenicama sklopio se prema trupu trupa, koji je bio izuzetno jak da prilagodi budući rast težine i nudi dobru stabilnost na tlu. FW-190A1 je nosio četiri mitraljeza kalibra puške, dva u oklopu i dva u korjenu krila, a svi su ispaljeni kroz luk elise. Događaj koji je rezultirao zauzimanjem Focke-Wulfa najvjerojatnije je doprinio spašavanju života bezbroj pilota RAF-a.

1943. Luftwaffeu je bio potreban lovac s boljim performansama na visokim visinama. Odgovor na ovu potrebu bio je dugonosni "D" model ili "Dora". Prvi proizvodni model bio je FW-190 D-9 koji je proizvodni status stekao početkom ljeta 1944. Svrha novog aviona bila bi da se suoči sa savezničkim bombarderima, posebno američkim Boeingom B-29 Superfortress, za koji se znalo da dolazi u upotrebu. FW-190 D je bio prvi proizvodni FW-190 koji je koristio motor s tekućim hlađenjem i bio je vrlo dobar presretač na velikoj visini jednak sjevernoameričkom P-51 Mustang ili Supermarine Spitfire MK XIV bez ograničenja visine FW- 190 A. Isporuke FW-190D-9 počele su u avgustu 1944. Prva misija novog lovca bila je da obezbedi gornje pokriće za mlazne lovce Messerschmitt Me-262 tokom poletanja, kada su bili najugroženiji. Među pilotima FW-190D-9 prevladalo je mišljenje da je to najbolji lovac Luftwaffe-a pogonjen propelerom cijelog rata i da je to više od para za P-51 Mustang. D model je bio stepenica koja je vodila do visoravni Focke-Wulf Ta 152.

U čast tenka, oznaka FW-190 promijenjena je u Tank ili Ta-152. Lovački motorni lovac trebao je biti vrhunska verzija sada već poznatog lovca, ali su ga kašnjenja spriječila da se proizvedu u odgovarajućem broju. U posljednjoj kaotičnoj godini Trećeg rajha, samo je nekoliko Ta-152H i vjerovatno nekoliko Ta-152C ušlo u borbu.

Ubica bombardera

FW-190 je prvi put vidio akciju nad La Mancheom 1941. U veljači 1942. pružao je pokriće njemačkim bojnim krstašima Scharnhorst i Gneisinau i teškoj krstarici Prinz Eugen dok su pokušavali doći do luka na sjeveru Njemačke. U jednom angažmanu 190 -te su uništile svih šest napadajućih torpednih bombardera Kraljevske mornarice Fairey Swordfish. Novi lovac bio je šok za RAF, brži i agilniji od Spitfirea. FW-190 bio je čvrst protivnik u borbi protiv pasa sa izuzetno teškim naoružanjem. Piloti FW-190 radili su u paru, pružajući jedni drugima dobru taktičku podršku u borbi. Odlična preglednost koju pruža kabina aviona pomogla je pilotima da se međusobno podupiru. Kako je vrijeme prolazilo, FW-190 je postao užas savezničkih aviona u svim regijama u kojima je bila aktivna Luftwaffe. Naneo je ogromne gubitke posadama bombardera B-17 Flying Fortress i Konsolidovanog B-24 Liberator, i bilo ga je gotovo nemoguće zaustaviti sve dok dugoročni P-51 Mustang nije došao u upotrebu 1944. godine i počeo da prati bombardere do njihovih ciljeva.

Jedna od važnijih uloga FW-190 bila je u odbrani Reicha, strateške odbrambene zračne kampanje. Luftwaffe je uspostavio lanac borbenih baza u sjeverozapadnoj Evropi. Protezale su se od Biskajskog zaljeva do Kattegata. Krajem ljeta 1942. američko osmo zrakoplovstvo počelo je s prvim upadima u sjevernu Francusku. Prvi napad Osme godine dogodio se 27. januara 1943. Uprkos svom vremenu, trudu i sredstvima uloženim sa obje strane, prve borbe u odbrani Rajha bile su neuvjerljive. The FW-190s’ first attack was on several Liberators of the 44th Bomb Group. Two of the Liberators went down into the shallows between the Dutch coast and the offshore island of Terschelling. One source suggests that one of the bombers was lost as a result of a mid-air collision with a battle damaged FW-190, which tore off the B-24’s port wing and tail assembly. This action, like many of the claims made by pilots during the 27-month campaign, was never confirmed. If anything, this problem worsened as the number of aircraft involved in the never-ending air battles in the skies over Germany grew from dozens to the hundreds and eventually thousands.

The first month of the air campaign ended with the raid on Wilhelmshaven on February 26, 1943. In this phase of the campaign, the fighting ended in favor of the Luftwaffe, which downed 15 heavy bombers from the U.S. Eighth Air Force while it suffered seven pilots killed and one wounded. On March 4, the FW-190s played a major role in attacking a group of B-17s whose target was the marshaling yards at Hamm in North Rhine-Westphalia. Four of the five bombers were shot down in the Eighth Air Force’s first appearance over the Ruhr, Germany’s industrial heartland. On April 17, the Eighth Air Force returned to Bremen, but this time its target was the city’s Focke-Wulf aircraft factories. These were producing the very FW-190 fighters that the Americans were fighting in the air. During this raid the Americans lost 16 B-17s with 10 falling to the FW-190s. These losses were at least part of the reason that the Eighth Air Force did not reappear over the Reich for nearly a month. The attacks of June 25 brought to an end the first half of the fighting in the air campaign of 1943.

The opening rounds of the campaign had produced only mixed results. The overriding factor for this period was the absence of a fighter escort for the bomber formations. The final outcome was still far from certain. In the second half of 1943, the Eighth Air Force suffered catastrophic casualties, but the defenders’ losses would begin to escalate as the year wore on. In this period, the U.S. Army Air Forces lost 87 bombers and had more than 500 damaged mostly due to Luftwaffe attacks, many of which involved FW-190s.

The air campaign would soon become a different arena of battle entirely. The arrival of U.S. escort fighters in ever increasing numbers would dramatically change the situation. The Luftwaffe pilots would no longer have the luxury of remaining unmolested beyond the range of the bombers’ defensive fire and then deciding how to deliver the attack. Protected by their fighters, the bombers would be much more difficult to approach, and kills would become more difficult to achieve with losses inevitably becoming much higher.

The number of fighters escorting Eighth Air Force bombers was truly alarming to the Germans. The number would eventually exceed 500. One method which the Luftwaffe began to develop to counter the increased number of enemy fighters was to have the Me-109s keep the enemy fighters occupied while the FW-190s attacked the bombers. The Luftwaffe also transferred many of its most successful pilots closer to Germany to defend the Reich in the most critical campaign of the European air war.

By the end of 1942, the FW-190 was fighting in North Africa, on the Eastern Front, and in Western Europe. In the Soviet Union, the FW-190 was effective in low-flying ground attacks on vehicle convoys and tanks. In this theater, the FW-190 carried 250- and 500-pound bombs, either of which could knock out a tank. One major issue on the Eastern Front was keeping the FW-190s and other aircraft supplied. This was at a time when many of the planes were flying up to eight sorties a day. On the Eastern Front, the FW-190’s reliable air-cooled engine and wide-track landing gear were well suited for service in the extremely harsh conditions. Operations on the Eastern Front led to a number of changes that resulted in the FW-190F fighter-bomber designed with a special emphasis on ground attack. This particular version carried 794 pounds of armor, which included sections of steel plate located behind the pilot’s head, on the lower engine cowling, and in the wheel well doors. The F-8 version turned out to be the most important model of the “F” series. Frontline units, using kits supplied by the factory, could adapt these aircraft to carry various combinations of heavy cannons, bombs, rockets, and even torpedoes.

As the war went on, the different models of the FW-190 were in almost constant contact with enemy bombers. This led to improvements in the form of more cannons and underwing rockets. Later, bomb racks were fitted to the FW-190 airframe under the fuselage and under the wings to broaden the capability of the fighter for attacking ground targets. By the end of the war, German fighter airfields were forced back closer to Berlin for fear of being bombed, which resulted in the FW-190 becoming more of a ground attack and support aircraft as German air power dwindled in the final days of the war. In spite of this situation, the beleaguered German air crews fought on with their FW-190s despite mounting losses. The Allied bombing campaign reduced the number of FW-190s, and the added issue of pilot attrition only made the situation for the Luftwaffe much worse. In the end, the FW-190 had played its role well in defeat as the war came to a close.

20,000 FW-190s Built

By the end of the war, more than 20,000 FW-190s had been built for the Luftwaffe. At peak production, 22 FW-190s were being produced daily. When hostilities ended in Europe, the Luftwaffe had more than 1,600 FW-190s, of which more than 800 were ground-attack variants. After the war, Tank, the primary developer of the FW-190, negotiated with the United Kingdom, the Nationalist government of China, and the Soviet Union for his services. However, negotiations with all three countries proved to be unsuccessful. He later accepted an offer from Argentina to work at its Aeronautical Institute under the pseudonym Dr. Pedro Matthies. Tank spent two decades designing aircraft abroad, including work in India, before returning to Germany in the late 1960s to work as a consultant for Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm. The heavy demand for his services was a testament to his genius as an aircraft designer.


Focke Wulf 152H - History

    The Fw 190 was armed to the teeth. Four 20 mm cannon plus two machine guns. Later versions could carry a 30 mm cannon firing through the propeller boss. Early Fw 190s, powered by an air-cooled BMW radial, were Germany's first radial-engined monoplane fighters. Shown above is the FW-190 of I./JG 54 Feldwebel Karl Schnorrer.

    The BMW 801 engine tended to overheat, but this fault was rectified by improvements to the cooling fan and, in general, the Fw 190A was highly praised by the test pilots. They particularly favored the wide-track undercarriage which tremendously improved ground stability as compared with the Bf 109. One of the unusual features of the fighter commented on by test pilots was the fact that, at high altitude and high speed, the BMW 801 engine produced a pair of contrails which started immediately behind the exhaust exits and completely hid the wings.

    The Fw 190 prototype first flew on June 1, 1939 and production deliveries began in late 1940. Within a year, Fw l90s were making low-level sweeps over southern England in daylight, against which the Spitfire Vs, then in service, achieved little success. The situation did not improve until the Royal Air Force received more powerful Spitfire IXs, in partnership with four-cannon Typhoons.

    In the autumn of 1937, the Reichluftministerium (RLM) placed an order with the Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau for the design development of a new single-seat fighter to supplement the Messerschmitt Bf 109. A second "iron in the fire" as RLM officials referred to the order at the time. The contract was placed with Focke-Wulf primarily because this company was not extensively committed to the development of other combat aircraft and possessed a highly qualified design team headed by Dipl.Ing.Kurt Tank. Tank's design team prepared two proposals one based upon the use of the Daimler-Benz DB601 liquid-cooled engine and the other upon the use of the BMW 801 air-cooled radial engine. At that time the radial engine was not favored as a fighter power plant owing to its drag and the restrictions that its bulk placed upon forward view during taking-off and landing and in consequence, General Ernst Udet's decision to proceed with the development of the radial-engined fighter came as a profound surprise to Tank and his colleagues.

The FW-190 of II./JG 1 Maj. Heinz Bar.

    The BMW 801 was a considerably heavier engine than its predecessor, although the overall dimensions differed little, and necessitated a stiffer engine mount and extensive structural strengthening. The re-design involved gave Blaser an opportunity to rectify one of the few faults that had manifested themselves in the first prototype. Test pilots had objected to proximity of the engine to the cockpit which resulted in extremely high cabin temperatures, sometimes reaching 55 degrees C. (131 degrees F.) which as Sander said, felt as though he had his "feet in the fireplace." In addition, exhaust gases found their way into the cockpit and necessitated the continuous use of an oxygen mask. Therefore in the next prototypes the cockpit was relocated further aft, a move also suggested by the c.g. problems presented by the heavier engine.

    Most of the Fw 190A-0s were sent to Rechlin Roggenthin for pre-service tests. During intensive flight testing, it was discovered that the engine cowlings frequently flew off at high speeds and internally stressed cowlings with stronger locks were requested. Some re-stressing was also proved necessary and it was found that above 250 mph, the cockpit canopy could not be released in an emergency. The latter problem was solved by fitting two standard 20 mm cartridges which blew the rear end of the canopy backward far enough to let the slipstream get under it and pull it away. Pilots also complained that there was a serious risk of hitting the tail assembly when baling out and requested the fitting of some form of ejector seat which would throw them clear. However, in view of the serious weight penalty imposed by an ejector seat, the engineers refused to install this equipment, resulting in a serious disagreement between the test pilots and the manufacturers.

The FW-190 of 9./JG 2 Haupt. Siegfried Schnell, Vannes 1943.

    The Focke-Wulf was not only faster but its superior handling and faster roll rate gave it an edge in the hands of even less experienced pilots. Such sparkling performance combined with the 190's superior armament presented Allied pilots with a real challenge until German pilot training began to drop in quality. The standard Fw 190A was quickly modified to perform a number of roles, particularly that of fighter-bomber in the F and G versions. These deleted the outer 20 mm cannon in favor of various combinations of bomb racks or cannon pods for the MK 103 30 mm cannon. Later versions of the FW 190A featured up to six 20 mm cannon (FW 190A6R1) the A-6/R-6 had two 210 mm (8.27 in) unguided rockets with which to attack US heavy bombers. The wide track landing gear assured ease of handling on takeoff and landing, unlike the twitchy Messerschmitt 109. The 190 was also one of the first fighters to feature a clear rear canopy, allowing pilots to keep an excellent lookout for enemy fighters.

    Meanwhile, the Fw 190 was also proving a good fighter-bomber carrying a reasonable bomb load or, in some cases, rocket projectiles. The new war started by Hitler on the Eastern Front resulted in most of the new production Fw 190s being thrown into the fighting against the Russians. Others were needed equally urgently by Rommel in North Africa to combat the Western Desert Air Force and Allied ground forces, who by the latter part of 1942, were pressing hard at Alamein.

    As RAF and USAAF bombing raids got heavier and heavier in Europe, new tactics were employed by some German fighter units flying Fw 190s. Against US heavy bombers on daylight raids, several Fw 190s would form a queue and approach from the rear of the bomber formation. At very close range, the fighters would then 'open up,' so giving the rear gunners in the bombers very little chance of firing methodically at all the attackers.

    During 1943, the Fw 190 was encountered frequently in Europe while performing night fighter missions. About the same time, the first Fw 190s came off the production line fitted with inline, rather than radial, engines. General appearance stayed the same, because of the use of an annular radiator at the nose.

    The long-nosed Fw 190D was also developed into the Ta 152 after its designer, Kurt Tank-in which the installation of a 2,300 hp (with boost) DB 603 engine pushed the speed up to 745km/h (463 mph). Had the Ta 152H been built in enough numbers and been flown by expert pilots it could have taken its place alongside the Me 262 as a near unbeatable air superiority fighter and bomber killer.

    The new Junkers Jumo 213 powerplant made the aircraft once again, the fastest Luftwaffe operational fighter and those pilots with the skill to use such advantages did very well. Unfortunately, excellent fighter designs could not compensate for poor production standards, lack of fuel, poor pilot training and overwhelming Allied numerical superiority.

    In honor of designer Kurt Tank, the Fw 190's designation was changed to Tank or Ta 152. This beautiful inline-engined fighter was to be the ultimate version of the famous fighter but delays resulted in the stopgap Fw 190D, in itself an outstanding aircraft. In the chaotic final year of the Third Reich, the D ended up being the major inline engine version with only a few Ta 152Hs, and possibly a few Ta 152Cs, getting into combat.

    The extended wing (14.5m), high altitude Ta 152H was indeed a sterling performer with a top speed of 755 km/h (472 mph) and a service ceiling of 15,000 m (49,215 ft). It was armed with a 30 mm cannon in the nose and two 20 mm cannon in the wing roots. Had it been built in enough numbers and been flown by expert pilots it could have taken its place alongside the Me 262 as a near unbeatable air superiority fighter and bomber killer. The lower altitude version, the Ta 152C, barely made it out of the test phase before the war ended. Between October 1944 and February 1945, when production ended, Focke-Wulf managed to roll 67 completed Ta 152 aircraft (H-0, H-1, and C-1 models) off the line. By the end of the war, more than 20,000 Fw 190s had been built about one-third as fighter bombers.

Specifikacije:
Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-8
Dimenzije:
Raspon krila: 34 ft 5.5 in (10.49 m)
Dužina: 29 ft (8.84 m)
Visina: 13 ft (3.96 m)
Težina:
Prazno: 7,055 lbs (3,200 kgs)
Operativno: 10,800 lbs (4,900 kgs)
Performanse:
Maksimalna brzina: 408 mph (653 km/h)
Servisni plafon: 37,400 ft (11,410 m)
Raspon: 560 miles (900 km)
Elektrana:
BMW 801D 1,700 hp 14-cylinder radial engine.
Naoružanje:
Two 13 mm machine-guns plus four 20 mm cannon or
two 20 mm and two 30 mm cannons.

© The Aviation History On-Line Museum. Sva prava zadržana.
Created November 28, 2001. Updated October 18, 2013.


Focke Wulf 152H - History

Focke Wulf TA-152H 1/5th scale Plan Set

This is a full size printed set of Plans and other Documentation


For accessories needed to complete the model,

such as Cowls, Canopies, Gear etc., go to mnbigbirds.com


David's 1/5th Exact Scale Focke Wulf TA 152H goes beyond just enlarging his previous successful 1/6th scale version. This design is an exact scale version which brightens the aircrafts flight characteristics and incorporates several enhancements that allow you to use a broader range of equipment and transportation options.

The 114" wingspan allows for greater flight visibility, while the scale airfoil lets you feel why Dr. Kurt Tank's original design was considered to be the finest performing propeller driven aircraft ever delivered to the Luftwaffe!

The Set Includes All of David Andersen Focke Wulf TA-152H 1/5th scale Downloads Printed Full Size:


FlightLine Focke-Wulf Ta 152H 1300mm (51") Wingspan - PNP

FlightLine proudly presents the remarkable Ta-152H! Never before seen in foam electric format, FlightLine has once again delivered a rare warbird to expand its exciting line of premier affordable model aircraft.

Designed by Kurt Tank in 1944, the original Ta-152 was in many ways the ultimate version of Tank's famed FW-190 Wurger. One of the fastest piston engine aircraft of World War II, the sleek Ta-152H was optimized as a high altitude interceptor. Its stretched nose and fuselage, stretched wings, and iconic forward fuselage elements gave the Ta-152 a distinctive appearance that also showed Tank's inventiveness even as the war drew to a close.

FlightLine's 1310mm wingspan Ta-152H depicts the stark beauty of this deadly machine in 1/11 scale with the convenience of electric power. This model has quickly become one of our favorites at the flying field! Prepare to be amazed by the Ta-152's wide flight envelope, from vertical climbs to tall loops, from high speed passes at 80+mph to slow soaring like a glider. Carbon reinforcements strengthen the aircraft to withstand the rigors of sport RC flight. Screws assemble the model in minutes, and make wing removal fast for convenient transport.

As with all FlightLine model aircraft, the Ta-152H features many scale details to bring your model to life including an accurate outline, plastic cowl and intake, cannon, exhaust stacks, correct canopy shape and forward fuselage contours, and gear doors. Split flaps, large wheels, and a wide stance on metal trunion retractable main landing gear make landings predictable and stable. This is easily one of our best handling aircraft on grass under the 1350mm class size. A beautiful base paint job with 18 included tail number decals gives you multiple options to stand out at your flying field!

To further expand its versatility, our Ta-152H is the first aircraft from FlightLine specifically designed to accommodate a 3s or 4s battery. Fly at scale speeds with as small as a 3s 2200mAh battery, or enjoy spirited flying with the recommended 4s 2500 battery. We flight tested 3s 1800 batteries up to 4s 3300. On the recommended Admiral 4s 2500mAh battery, we fly a comfortable 5-7 minutes of mixed throttle sport flying on the stock PNP's three bladed scale power system with nearly unlimited vertical climbing power. The optional High Speed two blade power system requires the recommended 4s 2500 battery to achieve 90mph speeds.

Own a rare piece of aviation history by adding this Ta-152H to your fleet today!

Visit the Official FlightLine Focke-Wulf Ta 152H Discussion Thread on HobbySquawk.com for additional photos, videos, reviews, and customer Q&A.


Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger

The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger is a one-seat, one-engine fighter aircraft widely used throughout World War II and designed by Kurt Tank in the late 30s. Early development Genesis In autumn 1937, the German Ministry of Aviation asked various designers for a new fighter to fight alongside the Messerschmitt Bf 109, Germany’s front line fighter.

Though flown well before World War II this trim little fighter was unknown to the Allies and caused a nasty surprise when first met over France in early 1941. Indeed, it was so far superior to the bigger and more sluggish Spitfire V that for the first time the RAF felt not only outnumbered but beaten technically. Fortunately, a Fw 190 landed by mistake in England in June 1942, and the RAF was given a heaven-sent opportunity for testing the aircraft in direct comparison to their beloved Spitfire. However, the Fw 190 turned out to be even better than expected.

It was faster than any other Allied fighter in service at that time, had far heavier armament (at that time the standard on Fw 190’s was two 7.92mm MG 17’s on the engine, two of the previously unknown Mauser cannon inboard and two 20mm MG FF outboard), was immensely strong, had excellent power of manoeuvre and good pilot view. It was also a subtle target, much lighter than any Allied fighter and had a stable wide-track landing gear (unlike the Bf109). Altogether it gave Allied pilots and designers an instant inferiority complex. Though considered in most circles to have been a better aircraft than the Messerschmitt Bf109, it never supplanted the 109 but was subsequently made in a profusion of different versions by many factories.

The A series included many fighter and fighter-bomber versions, some having not only the increasingly massive internal armament but also two or four 20 mm cannon or two 30 mm cannon in underwing fairings. Most had an emergency power boost system, using MW 50 (methanol/water) or GM-1 (nitrous oxide) injection, or both. Some were two-seaters, and a few had autopilots for inclement weather and night interceptions.

The F series were close-support attack aircraft, some having the Panzerblitz array of R4M rockets for tank-busting (also lethal against heavy bombers). The G was another famous series of multi-role fighter/dive bombers, but by 1943 the main effort was devoted to what the RAF called the “long-nosed 190”, the 190D. This was once more the fastest fighter in the sky, and late in 1943, it was redesignated Ta 152 in honor of the director of Focke-Wulf’s design team, Professor Kurt Tank.

The early 152C series were outstandingly formidable, but the long span H sacrificed guns for speed and height. Tank himself easily outpaced a flight of P-51D Mustangs which surprised him on a test flight, but only ten of the H sub-type had flown when the war ended. Altogether 20,051 Fw 190’s were delivered, plus a small number of Ta 152’s (67, excluding development aircraft). It is curious that the Messerschmitt Bf109, a much older and less attractive design with many shortcomings, should have been made in greater quantities and also been the aircraft of choice of nearly all the Luftwaffe’s aces.

A structurally redesigned and lighter wing was introduced and the normal armament was increased to two mg 17 fuselage machine guns and four 20 mm mg 151/20e wing root and outer wing cannon with larger ammunition boxes.

Fw 190 Production History

Fw 190 a-7 The a-7 entered production in November 1943, equipped with the bmw 801 d-2 engine, again producing 1,700 ps and two fuselage-mounted 13 mm mg 131s, replacing the mg 17s.

Fw 190 a-8 The a-8 entered production in February 1944, powered either by the standard bmw 801 d-2 or the 801q.

The 801q/tu, with the &quotT&quot signifying a Triebwerksanlage unitized powerplant installation, was a standard 801d with improved, thicker armour on the front annular cowling, which also incorporated the oil tank, upgraded from 6 mm on earlier models to 10 mm.

Changes introduced in the Fw 190 a-8 also included the C3-injection Erhöhte Notleistung emergency boost system to the fighter variant of the Fw 190 a, raising power to 1,980 ps for a short time.

Fw 190 a-8/r2 – The a-8/r2 replaced the outer wing 20 mm cannon with a 30 mm mk 108 cannon.

Fw 190 a-8/r8 – The a-8/r8 was similar to the a-8/r2, but fitted with heavy armor including 30 mm canopy and windscreen armor and 5 mm cockpit armor.

Fw 190 a-9 First built in September 1944, the Fw 190 a-9 was fitted with the new bmw 801s rated at 2,000 ps the more powerful 2,400 ps bmw 801f-1 was still under development, and not yet available.

Fw 190 a-10 Late in the war, the a-10 was fitted with larger wings for better maneuverability at higher altitudes, which could have allowed additional 30 mm calibre, long-barreled mk 103 cannon to be fitted.

A total of 13,291 Fw 190 A-model aircraft were produced.

Video Documentary Footage of the Fw 190

Fw 190 Specifications

Puno ime: Focke-Wulf Fw 190

Varijante: Fw 190A series, D series, F series, Ta 152H

Tip: Single-seat fighter bomber

Country of Origin: Njemačka

Manufacturer: Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH

First Flight: (Fw 190V-1) June 1, 1939 (production Fw 190A-1) September 1940 (Fw 190D) late 1942

Engine(s): (A-8, F-8) one 1,700 hp (2,100 hp with emergency boost) BMW 801Dg 18-cylinder two-row radial (D-9) one 1,776 hp (2,240 hp with emergency boost) Junkers Jumo 213A-1 12-cylinder inverted-vee liquid-cooled (Ta152H-1) one 1,880 hp (2,250 hp with emergency boost) Junkers Jumo 213E-1

Raspon krila: (A-8, F-8 and D-9) 34 ft 5.5 in (10.49 m) (Ta152H-1) 47 ft 6.75 in (14.5 m)

Dužina: (A-8, F-8) 29ft (8.84 m) (D-9) 33 ft 5.25 in (10.2 m) (Ta 152H-1) 35 ft 5.5 in (10.8 m)

Visina: (A-8, F-8) 13 ft (3.96 m) (D-9) 11 ft 0.25 in (3.35 m) (Ta 152H-1) 11 ft 8 in (3.55 m)

Težine: Empty: (A-8, F-8) 7,055 lb (3,200 kg) (D-9) 7,720 lb (3,500 kg) (Ta 152H-1) 7,940 lb (3,600 kg)
Loaded: (A-8, F-8) 10,800 lb (4,900 kg) (D-9) 10,670 lb (4,840 kg) (Ta 152H-1) 12,125 lb (5,500 kg)

Maksimalna brzina: With boost: (A-8, F-8) 408 mph (653 km/h) (D-9) 440 mph (704 km/h) (Ta 152H-1) 472 mph (755 km/h)

Initial Climb: (A-8, F-8) 2,350 ft (720 m)/min (D-9, Ta 152H-1) about 3,300 ft (1,000 m)/min

Service Ceiling: (A-8, F-8) 37,400 ft (11,410 m) (D-9) 32,810 ft (10,000 m) (Ta 152H-1) 49,215 ft (15,000 m)

Raspon: On internal fuel: (A-8, F-8 and D-9) abot 560 miles (900 km) (Ta 152H-1) 745 miles (1,200 km)

Naoružanje: (A-8, F-8) two 13 mm MG 131 above engine, two 20 mm MG 151/20 in wing roots and two MG 151/20 or 30 mm MK 108 in outer wings (D-9) as above, or without outer MG 151/20s, with provision for 30 mm MK 108 firing through propellor hub (Ta 152H-1) one 30 mm MK 108 and two inboard MG 151/20 (sometimes outboard MG 151/20s as well) Bomb load: (A-8, D-9) one 1,100 lb (500 kg) on centerline (F-8) one 3,968 lb (1,800 kg) on centerline (Ta 152H-1) none normally carried


The Focke Wulf Fw 190D and Ta 152 Book Review

Valiant Wings is back with their third title - the Fw 190D & Ta 152. In their first title, the Me 262, Richard Franks pulled together all of the information useful for the modeler as well as aviation enthusiast into one book. This information ranged from the different versions of the Me 262, the visible details that distinguish each version, the camouflage used on these aircraft, versions that never left the drawing board, and then a look at the kits, details and decals available for this subject. Richard repeated this formula in the Typhoon/Tornado title and provided more excellent matieral all under one cover.

The Focke Wulf Fw 190D and Ta 152 continues in the same footsteps of their previous titles and provides that one-stop knowledge inside one cover. Take a look at their coverage:

  • Airframe Chapters
    • Evolution: Fw 190D
    • The Fw 190D Series
    • The Ta 152C Series
    • The Ta 152H Series
    • Projects and Drawing Board Designs
    • Camouflage and Markings
    • Colour Profiles
    • Fw 190D & Ta 152 Kits
    • Building a Selection
    • Building a Collection
    • In Detail: The Focke Wulf Fw 190D and Ta 152
    • Fw 190D and Ta 152 Kit List
    • Fw 190D and Ta 152 Accessory List
    • Fw 190D and Ta 152 Decal List
    • Bibliografija

    I have a particular interest in the long-nosed Focke Wulf/Tank designs as a friend of mine had flown the Mosquito during World War II and was never really concerned about Luftwaffe interceptors as their 'reconnaissance' Mossie could outrun anything the Luftwaffe could get up to their altitude - until the Ta 152H and they nearly bought it on their first encounter. The engineering that went into the interim design that would become the Fw 190D was impressive as was its performance but the Fw 190D was only an interim step toward what would be the Ta 152C. When you add the high altitude engine with the long wings of the Ta 152H, there was no better interceptor available over Europe. Fortunately these aircraft came online too late in the war to make a difference and there was insufficient time for the surviving Luftwaffe pilots to transition into this new type effectively.

    Coverage starts with a look at the later Fw 190V series which employed converted Fw 190A airframes with different Jumo 213 engine and propeller combinations until definitive variants were developed (Fw 190D-9 through D-15). The title continues through the Fw 190V and now Ta 152V series with different combinations of DB 603 engine and propeller combinations until successful combinations of powerplant and armament configurations defined the Ta 152C series. This coverage extends through the Fw 190V and Ta 152V variants that married up the Jumo 213E with a highly modified airframe with cockpit pressurization and long wings to render the ultimate high-altitude interceptor - the Ta 152H series.

    Next, the author walks you through the important aspects of these aircraft from a modeler's point of view before taking you through the kits and then those all-important details you'll want to capture or highlight in your own builds. In their 'Build a Selection' section, they review a number of kits in each scale that are currently available including the definitive Zoukei-Mura 1/32 Ta 152H and Hasegawa 1/32 Fw 190D series. This is followed by an innovative 'Build a Collection' concept which goes through the various prototypes, production, and drawing board projects, highlight the details/changes needed to replicate each variant, then provide recommended kits in each scale to get your started.

    In the 'In Detail' section, the title walks you through the differences in these aircraft from a modeler's perspective with nice photos either pulled from the history files or contemporary photographs of the National Air and Space Museum's Ta 152H in storage as well as Paul Allen's restored Fw 190D-11.

    While you might find much of this information online or in the various titles out there on the Fw 190D/Ta 152, getting to the information you might need quickly and efficiently may be like the optimistic child in the famous tale who is digging through the pile of poo looking for the pony. While I pride myself on having a great research library, digging through various titles to try to pull together some useful information takes time and that is time away from the hobby bench. Useful titles like this one gather all of that information useful to the scale modeler and transforms it into knowledge at your fingertips.

    This title is well done and should be on your bench before you undertake your next Fw 190D or Ta 152 build. I look forward to seeing what is coming next from this team as this format continues to be very useful as well as an excellent value.


    Focke-Wulf Ta 152

    Authored By: Captain Jack | Last Edited: 04/29/2021 | Sadržaj i kopija www.MilitaryFactory.com | Sljedeći tekst je ekskluzivan za ovu web lokaciju.

    The Focke-Wulf Ta 152 was a short-lived, high-level interceptor fielded by the German Luftwaffe in the latter part of World War 2. She was developed from the existing Fw 190 fighter series family and incorporated a new wing, lengthened fuselage, high-altitude/high-performance capabilities utilizing a nitrous oxide power boosting system (one of the first known uses of such a system) and powerful cannon armament to contend with the ever-growing presence of Allied bombers wreaking havoc against German interests across Europe. Unfortunately for the Luftwaffe, the Ta 152 was rushed into service in January of 1945 before all of her developmental issues had been ironed out. That action, coupled with the deteriorating situation for Germany as a whole, ensured that only about 43 production examples (sources vary on the exact number) were ever delivered for the war for the Reich was over by June of 1945.

    Stopping the Blood Loss
    By 1944, German infrastructure and manufacturing capabilities were being ravaged on a daily basis by hundreds, sometimes thousands, of American bombers in the day and British bombers at night. Additionally, word of the new high-altitude, long-range Boeing B-29 Superfortress had soon spread throughout the German authority and a pressing matter for defense of its war industry soon became critical. As such, the Air Ministry (RLM) looked to fulfill a new requirement for a high-altitude interceptor and tapped both the proven Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf firms for a viable solution. To this point, Messerschmitt had proven their mastery of the skies with their Bf 109 single-seat fighter - one of the most produced military aircraft of her time - and, later, the Me 262 Schwalbe jet-powered fighter. Likewise, the Focke-Wulf bureau delivered a potential war-winner with their development and subsequent production of the excellent Fw 190 single-seat fighter.

    The Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9
    Taking the Fw 190D-9 as its starting point, Focke-Wulf and fabled German aircraft engineer Kurt Tank set to work. The Fw 190D ("Dora") was a long-nose production fighter of the base Fw 190 with improvements throughout and clearly identified from earlier Fw 190 forms by her streamlined design and annular cowling. The Fw 190D-9 became the definitive Fw 190 production fighter version for the German Luftwaffe in the fall of 1944 and was highly-regarded by both sides in the post-war years as Germany's best piston engine entry, reaching speeds of 426 miles per hour and armed with a pair of cannons and further backed by a pair of machine guns. Water-methanol was used to boost engine performance out of the Junkers Jumo 213A to an impressive 2,240 horsepower, allowing for high-altitude, high-performance work.

    The Focke-Wulf Ta 152
    The Fw 190D-9 was reconstituted by Focke-Wulf for the new RLM requirement in three distinct prototypes - a fighter, high-altitude fighter and a ground-attack platform. Only the high-altitude prototype survived further evaluation and evolved into the Ta 152C prototype. The fighter and ground attack versions were cancelled outright and the Messerschmitt submission - the Bf 109H (based on the Bf 109G with a pressurized cockpit and lengthened wings) - was not accepted by the RLM and dropped from consideration on July 18th, 1944, the Ta 152 and upcoming Me 262 proving the better high-altitude alternatives.

    The Ta 152 received its "Ta" designation from the first two letters of designer Kurt Tank's last name to honor his earlier contributions to the Focke-Wulf company (the "152" portion of the designation was rather generically assigned by the RLM). From the outset, the Ta 152 family would, itself, have encompassed three distinct production variants - the Ta 152C lower-altitude fighter, the Ta 152E fighter-reconnaissance platform and the Ta 152H high-altitude fighter.

    At its core, the Ta 152 was nothing more than a heavily modified Fw 190. The fuselage was kept largely intact though noticeably lengthened to adapt the revised airframe to its new center of gravity. The wings were also noticeably altered and lengthened beyond the original Fw 190's 35 feet, 5 inches (H-model was 48 feet, 6 inches while the C-model was 36 feet, 1 inch). All tail surfaces were increased in area and the flaps and undercarriage were now hydraulically-controlled (as opposed to electrically). Additional features included a pressurized cockpit (H-model) upgraded radio equipment, navigation systems, an autopilot and heated forward armored windscreen (the latter to combat the freezing temperatures to be encountered at higher altitudes). Within the wings resided tanks to hold fuel, the MW 50 methanol-water solution (for lower-altitude work - this rated under 32,800 feet) and GM-1 nitrous oxide (required for high-performance, high-altitude flight).

    Ta 152 Power
    Kurt Tank had initially wanted the Ta 152 to be powered by the Daimler-Benz DB 603 series engine but a previous mating of said engine with the Fw 190C proved too temperamental in the eyes of the German Air Ministry, forcing Tank to put his design efforts into using the Junkers Jumo 213E series liquid-cooled, inverted V12 engine that could deliver up to 1,750 horsepower. The Junkers Jumo 213E series was a high-altitude version of the Jumo 213A/C series already being utilized by the Fw 190D models. This powerplant worked off of a two-stage, three-speed supercharger that relied on an MW 50 methanol-water mixture to boost overall engine performance, particularly at high-altitudes where air ran thinner. Top speed of the Ta 152 was a reported 472 miles per hour, a grand increase from the 426 as exhibit by the similar Fw 190D-9 - putting her on par with, or beyond, anything the Allies could field by this time. Range was equally impressive at 1,240 miles and the Ta 152's service ceiling could top 48,550 feet when using the integrated GM-1 boost. Rate-of-climb was approximately 3,445 feet per minute allowing the aircraft to speed up to height quickly to counter incoming bombers and fighters. In the end, the Ta 152 design proved to be one of the fastest piston-powered aircraft of the entire war.

    Focke-Wulf Ta 152 Armament
    As the Ta 152 was intended to kill enemy bombers, she would require a heavy "punch" in the armament department. Kao takvo, naoružanje je centrirano oko topa serije 30 mm Mk 108 montiranog u glavčinu elise i namještenog za gađanje kroz središte rotirajućeg propelera. Ovo je dodatno potkrijepljeno parom topova MG 151/20 od 20 mm, po jednim montiranim na prednjoj ivici krila i smještenim na korijenima krila. Ovaj komplet naoružanja osigurao je da pilotu Ta 152 treba samo brz rafal svih topova protiv kritične komponente neprijateljskog bombardera (na primjer kokpita ili motora), a cilj će biti izbačen iz borbe ili potpuno uništen.

    Focke-Wulf Ta 152 Operativna služba
    Sa sve lošijim ratnim naporima širom njemačkog carstva, Ta 152 je stavljen u proizvodnu i operativnu službu što je brže moguće. Naravno, ovo se loše snašlo projektu Ta 152 u cjelini zbog brojnih vitalnih pitanja u njenom dizajnu, uskoro su se pojavila brojna vitalna pitanja u njenom dizajnu - komplicirano postavljanje motora i sistem hlađenja pokazali su se općenito nepouzdanima, a kokpit pod pritiskom nije uvijek bio pod pritiskom zbog curenja u brtvi. Ipak, očajni Luftwaffe isporučio je najmanje 20 predprodukcijskih modela u studenom 1944. s Erprobungskommandom na operativnu ocjenu. III./Jagdgeschwader 301 je u januaru 1945. premješten u Ta 152s (jedina eskadrila Luftwaffea koja je izbacila Ta 152), ali je njima upravljao samo u ograničenim količinama i s ograničenim uspjehom, općenito zadužen za zaštitu zračnih baza za mlazne lovce u razvoju . JG 301 pokazao se kao jedna od posljednjih vrhunskih eskadrila Luftwaffea koja se pojavila i sastojala se od naprednih Ta 152 zajedno sa zbirkom asova koji su uključivali Waltera Loosa, Josepha "Juppa" Keila i Willija Reschkea.

    Mnogi faktori su na kraju djelovali protiv Ta 152 i njenih pilota, a borba se neko vrijeme pokazala nedostižnom. U jednom takvom slučaju, Ta 152 kojim je upravljao Reschke bio je prisiljen napustiti potragu za dvomotornim Royal Air Force de Havilland DH.98 Komarcem kada su problemi s motorom izbacili Ta 152 iz borbe. Daljnje akcije su kasnije uhvatile barem jednog brzog novozelandskog lovca Hawker Tempest za Reschke, a Ta 152 su korišteni u ulozi podrške tokom kritične bitke za Berlin protiv invazije sovjetskih snaga, gdje je Reschke oborio par sovjetskih jaka -9 boraca u procesu. Keil je zaslužan za obaranje sjevernoameričkog P-51 Mustanga i republičkog P-47 Thunderbolta i najmanje tri druga ubistva dok je letio s Ta 152-iako neki izvori ograničavaju Keil-ov zbroj na samo četiri zrakoplova tokom leta Ta 152.

    Vjeruje se da je ukupno Ta 152 avijatičara prikupilo prilično oskudnu količinu ukupnih zračnih pobjeda (izvori variraju, ali se kreću između 7 i 10 neprijateljskih zrakoplova) do gubitka četiri njihova vlastita zrakoplova. U vrijeme formalne predaje Njemačke, bila su poznata samo dva Ta 152 primjera. Rezervni dijelovi, obučeni piloti i zalihe goriva/ulja pokazali su se kao teška roba u doba snaženja savezničkih snaga, osvajanja aerodroma, pokrivanja ključnih mostova i posjedovanja vitalnih puteva opskrbe. Rečeno je da su avioprevoznici Ta 152 jedva primili 20 minuta leta u Ta 152 pre nego što su pritisnuti u aktivnu službu sa svojim novim nosačima - teško da je to bio recept za uspeh, ali takva je situacija bila sa Luftwaffeom.

    Focke-Wulf Ta 152 varijante
    Ta 152 je proizveden u nekoliko verzija note - prototipovi uključeni. Ovo je počelo s predprodukcijskim modelom Ta 152 C-0 od kojeg je izgrađen samo jedan primjer. Ovaj model je opremljen Daimler-Benz DB503LA motorom od 2.100 konjskih snaga. Ta 152 C-1 je pratio i nosio 30-milimetarski top postavljen na motor sa topovima 4 x 20 mm-jedan par u poklopcu motora, a drugi u korjenima krila. Ta 152 C-2 je dobio poboljšanu radio opremu. Ta 152 C-3 bio je sličan C-1. Ta 152 E-1 je bila namjenska platforma za izviđanje fotografija zasnovana na modelu lovca Ta 152C. Ta 152 E-2 je bila varijanta na velikoj nadmorskoj visini opremljena motorom Junkers Jumo 213E i dužim rasponom krila za rad na visokom nivou. Na kraju je dovršen samo jedan proizvod. Model Ta 152 H-0 pojavio se u dvadeset pretprodukcijskih oblika s visokim krilom na velikoj nadmorskoj visini. Ta 152 H-1 ostao je jedini službeni proizvodni model porodice Ta 152. Ponovo je ovaj model dobio dugačka krila na velikoj nadmorskoj visini, a naoružanje se sastojalo od centraliziranog topa od 30 mm sa samo 2 x 20 mm topova.

    Japanski Ta 152
    Kao i druge njemačke tvorevine tokom rata, saveznički Japan želio je nabaviti najnovije i najveće vojno oružje koje su Nijemci morali ponuditi kako bi poboljšali svoju pogoršanu situaciju na Pacifiku. U travnju 1945. Carstvo je otkupilo dozvolu za proizvodnju novog lovca Kurt Tank na japanskom tlu. Međutim, smatra se da nije došlo do poznate proizvodnje japanskog Ta 152 jer je rat za Njemačku bio završen u maju 1945. godine, a Japan je uskoro uslijedio u kolovozu. Kao takva, Njemačka je ostala jedini stvarni aktivni operater Ta 152 tokom cijelog trajanja aviona.


    Pogledajte video: Focke-Wulf Ta 152 H-1 Extreme Speed At High Altitudes. (Decembar 2022).

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