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Je li Hitler zaista držao nacrte sadašnje zgrade Kapitola savezne države Nebraska u ladici svog stola?

Je li Hitler zaista držao nacrte sadašnje zgrade Kapitola savezne države Nebraska u ladici svog stola?

Nedavno sam naletio na članak u sada već ugašenom osvijetljenom magazinu Black Table u kojem autor utvrđuje necitiranu tvrdnju da je Hitler planirao da Lincoln, Nebraska postane novo sjedište CIJELOG Trećeg Reicha, koji su nacisti ikada napali i osvojili Sjedinjene Države. U članku se tvrdi da se Hitler divio dizajnu zgrade državnog Kapitola u Nebraski (koju je projektirao njemačko-američki arhitekta Bertram Goodhue) nad svim drugim američkim spomenicima i znamenitostima, pa je čak i zadržao kopiju nacrta pohranjenih na svom stolu. Zahvaljujući Lincolnovoj centraliziranoj geografskoj lokaciji, Hitler je mislio i da će poslužiti kao sjedište cijelog njegovog carstva.

Može li bilo koji povjesničar iz Drugog svjetskog rata posvjedočiti čak i trunku vjerodostojnosti za ovu tvrdnju?


Ovdje tražite da dokažete negativno, što zapravo nije moguće. Ko zna šta je sve tucalo po Hitlerovom mozgu? Samo zato što je gomila klovnova u OSS -u pronašla neke nacrte na jednom od njegovih stolova ne dokazuje da je planirao da preuzme Nebrasku. Hitler je bio nakaza arhitekture koji je satima, sa svojim glavnim arhitektom, proveo detalje o zgradama. Imao je mnogo nacrta. Nema ni u jednoj od dvije Speerove knjige o tome da je Hitler planirao premjestiti prijestolnicu Trećeg rajha u Nebrasku, niti postoji nešto takvo što znam za Tischensprach (iako nisam pročitao cijeli Tischensprach).

Ideja da će Hitler, fanatični njemački nacionalist, premjestiti glavni grad iz Njemačke, ni na koji način nije logična. Štaviše, Hitler je imao planove za izgradnju ogromnog super grada, zvanog Welthauptstadt Germania (u NJEMAČKOJ očigledno), koji je sadržavao ogromnu zgradu od 950 stopa, zvanu Volkshalle, toliko veliku da biste mogli smjestiti veliku piramidu unutar njene kupole. Ne zvuči kao da se neko sprema preseliti u Nebrasku. Welthauptstadt znači "svjetski kapital".


Robert Byrd

Robert Carlyle Byrd (rođ Cornelius Calvin Sale Jr. 20. studenog 1917. - 28. lipnja 2010.) bio je američki pravnik i političar koji je više od 51 godinu, od 1959. do svoje smrti 2010. godine, bio senator Sjedinjenih Država od Zapadne Virdžinije. Član Demokratske stranke, Byrd također je bio i šest godina je bio američki predstavnik, od 1953. do 1959. On ostaje najdugovječniji američki senator u istoriji. Bio je najdugovječniji član u istoriji Kongresa Sjedinjenih Država [1] [2] [3] [4] do nadmašio predstavnik John Dingell iz Michigana. [5] Byrd je jedini Zapadni Virdžinijac koji je služio u oba doma državnog zakonodavnog tijela i u oba doma Kongresa. [6]

Byrdova politička karijera trajala je više od šezdeset godina. Prvi put je ušao u političku arenu organizirajući i vodeći lokalno poglavlje Ku Klux Klana 1940 -ih, što je kasnije opisao kao "najveću grešku koju sam ikada napravio". Zatim je služio u Predstavničkom domu Zapadne Virdžinije od 1947. do 1950. godine, te Senatu države Zapadne Virdžinije od 1950. do 1952. godine. Prvobitno izabran u Predstavnički dom Sjedinjenih Država 1952. godine, Byrd je tamo služio šest godina prije nego što je izabran u Senat postao je jedan od najmoćnijih članova Senata, koji je bio sekretar Demokratskog kluba Senata od 1967. do 1971. i - nakon što je za taj posao pobijedio svog dugogodišnjeg kolegu Teda Kennedyja - kao bič većine u Senatu od 1971. do 1977. godine. narednih 12 godina, Byrd je predvodio demokratski klub kao vođa senatske većine i lider manjine u senatu. Odstupio je 1989. godine, pod pritiskom da ustupi mjesto novom partijskom rukovodstvu.

Kao predsjednik pro tempore - na poziciji koju je četiri puta u karijeri obnašao, kao senator s najdužim stažom iz Demokratske stranke - bio je treći u nizu predsjedničkog nasljeđa, nakon potpredsjednika i predsjedavajućeg Predstavničkog doma.

Služenje u tri različita mandata kao predsjednik Odbora za izdvajanja Senata Sjedinjenih Država omogućilo je Byrdu da usmjeri veliki dio federalnog novca na projekte u Zapadnoj Virdžiniji. [7] Kritičari su ismijavali njegove napore kao potrošnju svinjskog burad, [8] dok je Byrd tvrdio da mnogi savezni projekti na kojima je radio u Zapadnoj Virdžiniji predstavljaju napredak za stanovnike njegove države. Iako se borio protiv Zakona o građanskim pravima iz 1964. i podržavao rat u Vijetnamu ranije u svojoj karijeri, Byrdovi stavovi su se tokom života značajno promijenili. Potpuno se odrekao rasizma i segregacije, a govorio je i protiv rata u Iraku. Poznat po svom poznavanju presenatskih i parlamentarnih procedura u Senatu, Byrd je kasnije napisao kasniju istoriju Senata u četiri toma.

Pred kraj života, Byrd je bio u opadanju zdravlja i nekoliko je puta bio hospitaliziran. Umro je na dužnosti 28. juna 2010. u 92. godini i sahranjen je na groblju Columbia Gardens u Arlingtonu u Virdžiniji.


Sadržaj


Truman je rođen u Lamaru, Missouri, 8. maja 1884, kao najstarije dijete Johna Andersona Trumana i Marthe Ellen Young Truman. Ime je dobio po ujaku po majci, Harrisonu "Harry" Young. Njegov srednji inicijal, "S", odaje počast djedovima, Andersonu Shippu Trumanu i Solomonu Youngu. [7] [b] Ubrzo nakon Harryja rođen je brat John Vivian, a za njim i sestra Mary Jane. [8] Trumanovo porijeklo je prvenstveno englesko, s nekim škotsko-irskim, njemačkim i francuskim. [9] [10]

John Truman bio je poljoprivrednik i trgovac stokom. Porodica je živjela u Lamaru sve dok Harry nije napunio deset mjeseci, kada su se preselili na farmu u blizini Harrisonvillea, Missouri. Porodica se zatim preselila u Belton, a 1887. godine na farmu njegove bake i djeda na 240 hektara u Grandviewu. [11] Kad je Truman imao šest godina, njegovi roditelji su se preselili u Independence, Missouri, kako bi mogao pohađati nedjeljnu školu prezbiterijanske crkve. Nije pohađao konvencionalnu školu do svoje osme godine. [12] Dok je živio u Nezavisnosti, služio je kao šab goj za komšije Jevreje, obavljajući za njih zadatke na Šabat koje im je vjera toga dana onemogućila. [13] [14] [15]

Trumana je zanimala muzika, čitanje i istorija, a sve je ohrabrila njegova majka, sa kojom je bio veoma blizak. Kao predsjednik, tražio je od nje političke i lične savjete. [16] Svako jutro ustajao je u pet kako bi vježbao klavir, koji je učio više od dva puta sedmično do svoje petnaeste godine, postajući prilično vješt svirač. [17] Truman je radio kao stranica na Demokratskoj nacionalnoj konvenciji 1900. u Kansas Cityju [18], njegov otac je imao mnogo prijatelja aktivnih u Demokratskoj stranci koji su pomogli mladom Harryju da dobije svoju prvu političku poziciju. [19]

Nakon što je 1901. završio srednju školu Independence, Truman se upisao na Spaldingov komercijalni koledž, poslovnu školu u Kansas Cityju. Studirao je knjigovodstvo, stenografiju i daktilografiju, ali je otišao nakon godinu dana. [20]

Truman je iskoristio svoje iskustvo na poslovnom fakultetu kako bi dobio posao mjeritelja vremena na željeznici Atchison, Topeka & amp. Santa Fe, spavajući u skitničkim kampovima u blizini željezničkih pruga. [21] Zatim je preuzeo niz činovničkih poslova i kratko se zaposlio u poštanskoj pošti Zvezda iz Kanzas Sitija. Truman i njegov brat Vivian kasnije su radili kao službenici u Nacionalnoj trgovačkoj banci u Kansas Cityju.

Vratio se 1906. na farmu Grandview, gdje je živio do ulaska u vojsku 1917. [22] Tokom tog perioda, udvarao se Bess Wallace. On je zaprosio 1911., ali ga je ona odbila. Truman je kasnije rekao da namjerava ponovo zaprositi, ali je želio imati bolji prihod od onog koji je ostvario poljoprivrednik. [23] U tom cilju, tokom godina na farmi i neposredno nakon Prvog svjetskog rata, postao je aktivan u nekoliko poslovnih poduhvata, uključujući rudnik olova i cinka u blizini Commercea, Oklahoma, [24] kompanija koja je kupila zemljište i dala u zakup prava na bušenje nafte rudarima [25] i špekulacije o nekretninama u Kansas Cityju. [26] Truman je povremeno ostvarivao prihod od ovih preduzeća, ali nijedno se nije pokazalo uspješnim na dugi rok. [27]

Truman je jedini predsjednik od Williama McKinleya (izabran 1896.) koji nije stekao fakultetsku diplomu. [28] Osim što je kratko pohađao poslovni fakultet, od 1923. do 1925. pohađao je noćne kurseve za LL.B. na Pravnom fakultetu u Kansas Cityju (sada Pravni fakultet Univerziteta Missouri - Kansas City), ali je odustao nakon što je izgubio ponovni izbor za okružnog sudiju. [29] Advokati u oblasti Kansas Cityja su ga obavijestili da su njegovo obrazovanje i iskustvo vjerovatno dovoljni za dobijanje licence za bavljenje advokaturom. Međutim, on se time nije bavio jer je pobijedio na izborima za predsjedavajućeg sudiju. [30]

Dok je 1947. bio predsjednik, Truman se prijavio za dozvolu za obavljanje advokature. [31] Prijatelj koji je bio advokat počeo je raditi na aranžmanima i obavijestio je Trumana da njegova prijava mora biti ovjerena kod javnog bilježnika. Do trenutka kada je Truman primio ove informacije, predomislio se, pa nikada nije tražio notarsku ovjeru. Nakon ponovnog otkrivanja Trumanove prijave, 1996. godine Vrhovni sud u Missouriju izdao je Trumanu posthumnu počasnu licencu za zakon. [32]

Nacionalna garda

Budući da mu je nedostajalo sredstava za fakultet, Truman je razmišljao o tome da pohađa Vojnu akademiju Sjedinjenih Država u West Pointu u New Yorku, koja nije imala školarinu, ali mu je odbijen termin zbog slabog vida. [29] On se 1905. prijavio u Nacionalnu gardu Missourija i služio do 1911. u bateriji B, 2. pukovnijskoj artiljerijskoj pukovniji Missouri, sa sjedištem u Kansas Cityju, u kojoj je stekao čin kaplara. [33] Prilikom uvođenja u rad, njegov vid bez naočara bio je neprihvatljiv 20/50 na desnom oku i 20/400 na lijevom (što je standard za pravno sljepilo). [34] Drugi put kada je polagao test, prošao je tajno pamćenje očne karte. [35] Opisali su ga kao 5 stopa 10 inča visokog, sijedih očiju, tamne kose i svijetlog tena. [36]

Prvi svjetski rat

Kada su Sjedinjene Države ušle u Prvi svjetski rat 1917. godine, Truman se pridružio bateriji B, uspješno regrutirajući nove vojnike za proširenu jedinicu, za koju je izabran za njihovog prvog poručnika. [37] Prije raspoređivanja u Francusku, Truman je poslan na obuku u kamp Doniphan, Fort Sill, blizu Lawtona, Oklahoma, kada je njegov puk federaliziran kao 129. poljska artiljerija. [38] Komandant puka tokom obuke bio je Robert M. Danford, koji je kasnije služio kao načelnik terenske artiljerije vojske. [39] Truman je kasnije rekao da je od Danforda naučio više praktičnih, korisnih informacija za šest sedmica nego za šest mjeseci službenih vojnih instrukcija, a kada je Truman kasnije služio kao instruktor artiljerije, svjesno je uzorkovao svoj pristup na Danfordovom. [39]

Truman je također vodio logorsku kantinu sa Edwardom Jacobsonom, službenikom u trgovini odjeće kojeg je poznavao iz Kansas Cityja. Za razliku od većine kantina koje financiraju članovi jedinica, koji su obično gubili novac, menza koju su vodili Truman i Jacobson ostvarila je profit, vraćajući početna ulaganja od 2 dolara i dividende od 10 000 dolara u šest mjeseci. [33] U Fort Sill -u Truman je upoznao poručnika Jamesa M. Pendergasta, nećaka Toma Pendergasta, političkog šefa Kansas Cityja, vezu koja je imala dubok utjecaj na Trumanov kasniji život. [40] [41]

Sredinom 1918. godine u Francuskoj je bilo oko milion vojnika američkih ekspedicijskih snaga. [42] Truman je unaprijeđen u kapetana 23. aprila [43], a u julu je postao zapovjednik novopristigle baterije D, 129. terenske artiljerije, 35. divizije. [44] [45] Baterija D bila je poznata po svojim disciplinskim problemima, a Truman je u početku bio nepopularan zbog svojih napora da uspostavi red. [33] Uprkos pokušajima muškaraca da ga zastraše da odustane, Truman je uspio tako što je svoje kaplare i narednike učinio odgovornima za disciplinu. Obećao je da će ih podržati ako budu radili sposobno, a ako to ne učine, svesti ih na privatne. [46] U događaju koji je u baterijama obilježen kao "Bitka onih koji trče", njegovi vojnici počeli su bježati tokom iznenadnog noćnog napada Nijemaca na planinama Vosges Truman je uspio narediti svojim ljudima da ostanu i bore se, koristeći psovke iz njegove željezničke dane. Muškarci su bili toliko iznenađeni kada su čuli da Truman koristi takav jezik da su ih odmah poslušali. [33]

Trumanova jedinica pridružila se velikoj unaprijed dogovorenoj jurišnoj baraži 26. septembra 1918. na otvaranju ofenzive Meuse-Argonne. [47] S mukom su napredovali preko ukošenog terena kako bi slijedili pješadiju i postavili osmatračnicu zapadno od Cheppyja. [47] 27. septembra, Truman je kroz dvogled ugledao neprijateljsku artiljerijsku bateriju kako se postavlja preko rijeke u položaju koji im omogućava da pucaju na susjednu 28. diviziju. [47] Trumanova naređenja ograničila su ga na ciljeve okrenute prema 35. diviziji, ali on je to zanemario i strpljivo je čekao dok Nijemci nisu udaljili konje daleko od oružja, osiguravajući da se ne mogu premjestiti izvan dometa Trumanove baterije. [47] Zatim je naredio svojim ljudima da otvore vatru, a njihov napad je uništio neprijateljsku bateriju. [47] Njegove radnje pripisane su spašavanju života vojnika 28. divizije koji bi u protivnom bili izloženi paljbi Nijemaca. [48] ​​[49] Truman je dobio odjeću od svog zapovjednika puka, pukovnika Karla D. Klemma, koji je prijetio sazivanjem vojnog suda, ali Klemm to nikada nije učinio, a Truman nije bio kažnjen. [47]

U drugim akcijama tokom ofenzive na Meuse-Argonne, Trumanova baterija pružala je podršku tenkovskoj brigadi Georgea S. Pattona, [50] i ispalila neke od posljednjih ratnih hitaca 11. novembra 1918. Baterija D nije izgubila ljude dok je bila pod Trumanova komanda u Francuskoj. Kako bi pokazali svoju zahvalnost za njegovo vodstvo, njegovi ljudi su mu po povratku u Sjedinjene Američke Države nakon rata poklonili veliku šalicu ljubavi. [33]

Rat je bio transformativno iskustvo u kojem je Truman pokazao svoje liderske kvalitete. U službu je stupio 1917. godine kao porodični poljoprivrednik koji je radio na činovničkim poslovima koji nisu zahtijevali sposobnost motiviranja i usmjeravanja drugih, ali je tokom rata stekao lidersko iskustvo i rekord uspjeha koji su uvelike povećali i podržali njegovu poziciju -ratna politička karijera u Missouriju. [33]

Truman je odrastao u prezbiterijanskoj i baptističkoj crkvi [51], ali je izbjegavao preporode i ponekad ismijavao preporoditeljske propovjednike. [52] Rijetko je govorio o religiji, koja mu je prije svega značila etičko ponašanje prema tradicionalnim protestantskim linijama. [53] Većina vojnika kojima je komandovao u ratu bili su katolici, a jedan od njegovih bliskih prijatelja bio je kapelan 129. poljske artiljerije, monsinjor L. Curtis Tiernan. [54] Njih dvojica ostali su prijatelji do Tiernanove smrti 1960. [55] Razvoj liderstva i međuljudskih vještina koje su ga kasnije učinile uspješnim političarom pomogle su Trumanu da se slaže sa svojim katoličkim vojnicima, kao što je to činio s vojnicima drugih kršćanskih vjeroispovijesti i jevrejskim pripadnicima jedinice. članovi. [56] [57]

Oficirski rezervni korpus

Truman je časno otpušten iz vojske kao kapetan 6. maja 1919. [58] Godine 1920. imenovan je za majora oficirskog rezervnog zbora. Postao je potpukovnik 1925. godine, a pukovnik 1932. godine. [59] Dvadesetih i tridesetih godina prošlog stoljeća zapovijedao je 1. bataljonom, 379. terenskom artiljerijom, 102. pješadijskom divizijom. [60] Nakon unapređenja u pukovnika, Truman je prešao u komandu istog puka. [61]

Nakon što je izabran u američki Senat, Truman je premješten u Grupu za opće zadatke, jedinicu za zadržavanje manje aktivnih časnika, iako nije bio unaprijed konzultiran. [62] Truman je protestirao zbog njegove zamjene, što je dovelo do njegovog ponovnog zapovjedništva pukom. [62] Ostao je aktivan rezervista do ranih 1940 -ih. [63] Truman se dobrovoljno prijavio za aktivnu vojnu službu tokom Drugog svjetskog rata, ali nije prihvaćen, dijelom zbog godina, a dijelom zato što je predsjednik Franklin D. Roosevelt želio da senatori i kongresmen koji su pripadali vojnim rezervama podrže ratne napore ostajući u Kongresu ili okončanjem njihove aktivne službe i ponovnim preuzimanjem mjesta u Kongresu. [64] Bio je neaktivan rezervista od ranih 1940 -ih do penzionisanja kao pukovnik u tada redizajniranoj rezervi američke vojske 20. januara 1953. [65]

Vojne nagrade i odlikovanja

Truman je nagrađen medaljom za pobjedu u Prvom svjetskom ratu s dvije borbene kopče (za St. Mihiel i Meuse-Argonne) i kopčom za odbrambeni sektor. Bio je i dobitnik dvije rezervne medalje oružanih snaga. [66]


Ne dajte Capitol Rioters -u moć nad tehnikom i politikom policije

Učitelji uče sve pogrešne lekcije iz Kapitolskih pobuna. Uprkos jučerašnjem haosu, Joe Biden je sada dobio certifikat za izabranog predsjednika. Glasanje o potvrđivanju njegove pobjede završeno je jutros u 3:33. Usput je uobičajena standardna i neupadljiva procedura prekinuta prvim probojem američkog Kapitola otkad su Britanci spalili veći dio Washingtona tokom rata 1812. Do kraja rata četiri su osobe bile mrtve.

Šta se dovraga dogodilo juče i kako se to dogodilo će trebati neko vrijeme da pravilno odgovorite. No, kako to obično biva u vrijeme krize, ljudi se pokazuju željnima ugurati ovo iskustvo bez presedana u poznate okvire i iz njega uzeti dokaze za svoje prijedloge politike kućnih ljubimaca.

Dokaz A: techlash. Budući da su se grupe koje su jučer upale u Kongres organizirale putem internetskih platformi ili su ih motivirale informacije o njima, ljudi s vječnim sjekirama koji se bore protiv društvenih medija žele prebaciti krivicu na Big Tech.

Još jednom vidimo da neutralni komunikacijski alati padaju na stvari koje ljudi komuniciraju putem njih. No, da rulja od srijede nije imala Facebook Messenger, ili Parler, ili bilo što drugo što su navodno koristili za organizaciju, misli li itko zaista da bi sve to otkazali? Postoji mnogo privatnih web foruma i beskrajne mogućnosti za digitalni chat. Nema aplikacija, nema problema: tekstualne poruke, e -pošta i telefonski pozivi mogu dobro proširiti vijest.

Pripisivanje magičnog značaja i odgovornosti određenim platformama može učiniti da se ljudi osjećaju kao da rade nešto kako bi riješili zbunjujuću i uznemirujuću situaciju, a moglo bi pogoditi i entitete koje vodeći političari i njihova plemena ionako vole mrziti. No, ne bavi se nikakvim temeljnim uzrocima fenomena koji uznemirava ljude, i ostavlja američku politiku zaglibljenom u vječnoj igri lupetanja s kreatorima komunikacije koja jednostavno guši govorna prava ljudi koji poštuju zakone, odvlačeći pažnju od naporan rad na rješavanju temeljnih problema koji su pokrenuli tu komunikaciju.

Techlash je samo jedan od mnogih destruktivnih okvira koji se razvijaju oko jučerašnjih događaja. Mnogi ljudi pozivaju predsjednika Donalda Trumpa i druge republikanske zastupnike koji su osporili izborne rezultate i ohrabrili demonstrante da se pojave u DC -u kako bi bili procesuirani zbog huškanja.

Svakako nije pogrešno nazvati Trumpovu očiglednu ulogu u tome da se ovo dogodi, ili način na koji su senatori poput Teda Cruza (R -Teksas) i Josha Hawley -a (R -Mo.) Doprinijeli tome da teorije zavjere pokreću to. Ali mi apsolutno ne želimo otvoriti limenku crva koja je široka interpretacija podsticanja na zločin. Ili izdaja. Ili terorizam.

Svakako, krivično gonite određene osobe za određena krivična djela, poput vandalizma i fizičkih napada na policiju Kapitola. Ali ne moramo posezati za najvišim mogućim krivičnim prijavama, ili spriječiti demonstrante da odlete kući, niti krivično goniti doslovno sve koji su ušli u zgradu, niti težiti kažnjavanju izvan ljudi izravno odgovornih za loše ponašanje.

Andrew McCarthy je na Fox Newsu, rekavši da je, dok je bio federalni tužilac, procesuirao teroriste zbog istih stvari koje demonstranti rade u zgradi Capitol. "Predsjednik je ovo potaknuo."

& mdash Orin Kerr (@OrinKerr) 6. januara 2021

Još jedan uznemirujući i neproduktivan trend bile su tužbalice o tome zašto nije primijenjena veća sila.

Naravno, tamo bio upotrijebljena je neka ozbiljna, čak i smrtonosna sila. Jednu ženu koja je protestovala ubila je policija unutar Kapitola. "Do kraja dana četiri osobe bi bile mrtve: jedna iz vatrenog oružja i tri iz hitne medicinske pomoći još nisu objasnile", napominje Washington Post.

Svakako, još uvijek postoji mnogo nepoznanica o tome kako su izgrednici uspjeli prodrijeti duboko u srce Kongresa i ostati tamo dosta dugo bez velikog otpora. No, postoje i neka vjerodostojna objašnjenja, poput toga da je policija u Capitol -u brojčano nadjačana, da DC nije želio da se Nacionalna garda javi budući da je Trump kontrolira, te da su vlasti očekivale manju gomilu i pokušavale izbjeći pretjerano i potencijalno eskaliranje prisustvo.

"Zvaničnici Ministarstva odbrane ranije su rekli da očekuju da će oko 350 pripadnika Nacionalne garde DC -a biti dovoljno da podrži policiju Washington, DC tokom protesta ove sedmice, uglavnom za pomoć u kontroli prometa", izvještaji The Wall Street Journal. "Htjeli su izbjeći optiku da bilo kakvo američko vojno osoblje bude na stepenicama američkog Kapitola i naredili su oficirima da izbjegavaju zalutanje istočno od 9. ulice u centru Washingtona, blokovima od kapitela, rekli su zvaničnici."

Svakako se ne može dovoljno naglasiti kako su se tokom ljeta različito odnosili prema demonstrantima iz DC -a protiv policijske brutalnosti. No, međutim nepravedno nesrazmjerni odgovori su, nikada ne bismo trebali osuđivati ​​deeskalaciju i suzdržanost od vlasti. Poenta je da bi policija i odgovorni trebali pokazati svim demonstrantima - bez obzira na uzrok, boju kože ili uočeno savezništvo političkih stranaka - istu suzdržanost koju su (uglavnom) pokazali jučer.

Što nas dovodi do još jedne smiješne retorike koja se pojavljuje oko protesta, nereda i provala u Kapitolu jučer: IAko niste osudili vandalizam, pljačku i nasilje na ljetnim protestima Black Lives Matter -a, licemjeri ste zbog toga što ste sada užasnuti.

Mrzim što vam moram reći, ali skoro svi su trenutno licemjerni i hellip

Ljudi koji su ignorisali ili ponekad podsticali nerede i nazivali ih "mirnim protestima" sada ih mrze

Ljudi koji su voljeli red i mir i "quotback the blue" ohrabruju juriš na Kapitol SAD -a

& mdash Caleb Hull (I 'm With KPK Don 't Ban Me) (@CalebJHull) 6. januara 2021

Grupa ljudi koja je podržala Black Lives Matter i proteste protiv policijskog zlostavljanja općenito je to učinila ne suprotstaviti se nasilju i uništavanju je zapravo prilično malo. Dok mnogi protivnici protesta insistiralo je na tome da je podrška bilo kojem od protesta jednaka podršci svemu što se tokom njih dogodilo, velika većina ljudi (na protestima i komentarisanju izdaleka) nije odobravala, govorila o njima, pa čak i pokušala spriječiti one koji koristili su proteste kao izgovor za razbijanje sranja, krađu i početak haosa. Dakle, iako ova vrsta gocha nije baš namijenjena slamčarima, ona opisuje prilično malu grupu.

Ali ne moramo sve to rješavati da bi ova linija logike nedostajala. Masovni prodor u Kapitol SAD-a radi prekida predsjedničkog certifikata u ime čovjeka koji nije pobijedio je nešto više od nekoliko požara u kantama za smeće i spomenika obojenih sprejom, ili čak bilo čega ozbiljnijeg nasilja koje je izbilo u izoliranim dijelovima na ljetnim protestima. Horde MAGA -e jučer su sakrile cijeli Kongres i potpredsjednika. Prisilili su Kapitolsku policiju da zabarikadira Dom, kako bi ih spriječili da uđu. Razbili su prozore na Kapitolu i projurili urede poslanika. Morate biti namjerno tupi da to vidite kao da ste u rangu s nekim lokaliziranim aktima vandalizma.


Ko je više protiv nauke: republikanci ili demokrate?

U septembru je izbila stručna borba oko toga da li su tim Blue ili Team Red više "anti-naučni". Mikrobiolog Alex Berezow, urednik RealClearScience, zadao prvi udarac na stranicama USA Today. "Za svakog republikanca protiv nauke koji postoji", napisao je, "postoji najmanje jedan demokrata protiv nauke. Nijedna stranka nema monopol nad naučnom nepismenošću."

Zatim Chris Mooney, autor knjige Republikanski rat za nauku, osudio je Berezowovu kolumnu kao "klasičnu lažnu ekvivalentnost političke zloupotrebe nauke" na blogu Centra za američki napredak "Climate Progress". Mooney je optužio Berezowa da je pokušao "pokazati da liberali čine istu stvar" tako što je "pronašao nekoliko relativno rubnih stvari za koje se neki naprednjaci drže i koji bi se mogli nazvati anti-naučnim".

Berezow je priznao da mnogi istaknuti republikanski političari, uključujući nekoliko predsjedničkih kandidata, negiraju biološku evoluciju, skeptični su prema znanstvenom konsenzusu o globalnom zagrijavanju kojega je stvorio čovjek, i protive se istraživanjima koja koriste ljudske embrionalne matične stanice. Demokrati, tvrdio je Berezow, imaju tendenciju da budu više protiv cjepiva, protiv nuklearne energije, protiv biotehnologije i anti-biomedicinskih istraživanja koja uključuju ispitivanja na životinjama.

U prilog ovim tvrdnjama, Berezow je naveo podatke javnog mnijenja iz istraživanja koje je 2008. godine proveo Pew Research Center for People and Press, a koji je identificirao brojne stranačke podjele po naučnim pitanjima. Što se tiče biološke evolucije, istraživanje je pokazalo da se 97 posto znanstvenika slaže da su živa bića, uključujući i ljudska bića, evoluirala s vremenom, u usporedbi s 58 posto demokrata i 49 posto republikanaca.

Što se tiče klimatskih promjena, istraživanje Pew izvijestilo je da 84 posto naučnika vjeruje da je nedavno zagrijavanje rezultat ljudske aktivnosti, u usporedbi sa 64 posto demokrata i samo 30 posto republikanaca. To je zaista duboka podjela po naučnom pitanju.

Istraživanje Pew je zatim postavilo pitanje o federalnom finansiranju istraživanja ljudskih embrionalnih matičnih ćelija, koje su demokrate favorizirale za 71 posto u odnosu na samo 38 posto za republikance. Ali odgovor GOP -a vjerovatno je vezan za dva pitanja: (1) uvjerenje da embriji imaju isti moralni status kao i odrasli ljudi i (2) opće uvjerenje da je potrošnja dolara poreznih obveznika na istraživanje suboptimalna. To su prije političke razlike nego naučne razlike.

Ali što je s Berezowovim primjerima lijeve pristranosti? Mooneyjeva osnovna tvrdnja je da je demokratska anti-nauka rub bez snage, za razliku od aktivista čajanke koji ne znaju ništa koji utiču na republikansku politiku. Na primjer, Mooney tvrdi da Ljudi za etički tretman životinja "nisu liberalna grupa koja ima široki pristanak za svoje stavove na ljevici, ne pokreće mainstream demokratsku politiku itd." Pošteno. Međutim, istraživanje Pew izvještava da se 48 posto demokrata protivi korištenju životinja u naučnim istraživanjima, dok to čini samo 33 posto republikanaca. Poput matičnih stanica, korištenje životinja u istraživanju često je uokvireno kao moralno pitanje.

Što se tiče nuklearnog oružja, istraživanje Pew pokazalo je da se 70 posto naučnika zalaže za izgradnju više nuklearnih elektrana, u usporedbi sa 62 posto republikanaca i samo 45 posto demokrata. Ova razlika odražava različita gledišta o nuklearnoj sigurnosti: Gallupova anketa iz 2009. pokazala je da, iako je 73 posto republikanaca uvjereno u sigurnost nuklearnih elektrana, slaže se samo 46 posto demokrata.

Šta je sa stavovima stranaka prema genetski poboljšanim usjevima i životinjama? Istraživanje Pew Trusts iz 2006. otkrilo je da 48 posto republikanaca vjeruje da je biotehnološka hrana sigurna u odnosu na 42 posto demokrata. Imaju li pravo biti ležerni? U izvještaju Nacionalne akademije nauka iz 2004. navodi se: "Do danas nisu zabilježeni štetni učinci na zdravlje genetskom inženjeringu u ljudskoj populaciji." Tako je i danas.

Mooney se slaže da "postoji određeni progresivni otpor i neka zloupotreba nauke u ovoj oblasti", ali insistira da "to nije mainstream pozicija". Međutim, to vrijedi samo ako se grupe koje se protive biotehnološkoj hrani - poput Sierra Cluba, Unije potrošača i Greenpeacea - mogu smatrati rubovima politike Demokratske stranke.

Šta je sa vakcinama? Berezow spominje podatke koji pokazuju da su odbijanja cjepiva najveća u zloglasno plavim državama poput Washingtona, Vermonta i Oregona. Zapravo, strah od vakcine/autizma djelomično su potaknuli istaknuti ljevičari poput Roberta F. Kennedyja Jr., koji su pisali u popularnim publikacijama kao što su Kotrljajući kamen i Salon. Osim toga, takvi likovi koji nisu rubni kao tadašnji Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.) Izjavio je stvari poput: "Vidjeli smo samo skokovitu stopu autizma. Neki ljudi sumnjaju da je to povezano s vakcinama. Ta osoba uključuje. Nauka trenutno nije konačna, ali moramo istražite to. " Senator John McCain (R-Ariz.) Dao je slične izjave.

Inače, istraživanje Pew pokazalo je da 71 posto republikanaca i demokrata podržava obaveznu vakcinaciju u djetinjstvu.

Proširujući svoju argumentaciju na DeSmogBlogu, Mooney tvrdi da ljevica ne zloupotrebljava nauku, već samo ima neslaganja u pogledu politike. Kao primjer, on navodi naklonost principu predostrožnosti. "Uvijek postoji mnogo naučne nesigurnosti, a industrija tvrdi da je sigurna, ali ekolozi uvijek žele biti oprezniji-npr. Usvajajući princip predostrožnosti", primjećuje on, dodajući: "Princip predostrožnosti nije stav protiv nauke, on je pogled politike o tome kako smanjiti rizik. "

Ali, kako je profesor prava na Univerzitetu u Čikagu i trenutni administrator Ureda za bijelu kuću za informacije i regulatorne poslove primijetio u radnom dokumentu iz 2003. pod naslovom "Izvan principa predostrožnosti", ova ideja "nameće teret dokazivanja onima koji stvaraju potencijalne rizike, i zahtijeva regulaciju aktivnosti čak i ako se ne može pokazati da će te aktivnosti vjerojatno nanijeti značajnu štetu. " Posebno obratite pažnju na ovu drugu tačku.

Nadalje, primijetio je Sunstein, princip opreza sada je sveprisutan, primjenjujući se na globalno zagrijavanje, nuklearnu energiju, pesticide i biotehnološke usjeve. Ograničenje u eksperimentisanju nije naučno u smislu da zahtijeva nemoguće: Istraživači nikada ne mogu unaprijed pokazati da bilo koja tehnološka ili naučna aktivnost nikada neće nanijeti značajnu štetu.

Osim toga, profesor prava Dan Kahan i njegove kolege na projektu Yale's Cultural Cognition Project pokazali su da je snažna težnja da se izbjegne naučni i tehnološki rizik daleko karakterističnija za ljude koji imaju egalitarne i komunitarne vrijednosti, odnosno lijevo orijentirane ljude .

Svi imaju vrijednosti koje žele zaštititi i svi se, uključujući liberale (i libertarijance!), Bore s pristrasnošću potvrde. Rad znanstvenog procesa jedini je učinkovit način koji je čovječanstvo smislilo za prevladavanje pristranosti i otkrivanje stvarnosti. U većini slučajeva naučna metoda može smanjiti, ali ne i ukloniti, neizvjesnosti i ispraviti greške. Nažalost, kako pokazuje strah od autizma/vakcine, neznanstveni pristupi, poput principa predostrožnosti, zapravo utječu na pristrasnosti u potvrđivanju povezane s ljevičarskom ideologijom.

Pa ko je više protiv nauke, demokrate ili republikanci? Što se tiče gore navedenih pitanja, zaključujem da su republikanci više protiv nauke. Međutim, Berezow je u pravu da je "neznanje poprimilo razmjere epidemije unutar Beltwaya".

Ronald Bailey je razlog's science correspondent.


‘Law & Order: Organized Crime’ (Renewed)

Stabler is sticking around New York City. NBC has renewed “Law & Order: Organized Crime,” which marked the return of Chris Meloni as his iconic character from “Law & Order: SVU.” According to TVLine, season two will likely consist of three eight-episode arcs for a total of 24 episodes and feature more crossovers with “SVU.”


6. Historical origins of gang stalking: COINTELPRO, MKUltra, red squads, & the Stasi

American high school and college students would be well-served by a deeper study of government conspiracies such as the Teapot Dome scandal, Operation Mockingbird, Operation Northwoods, the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, and Iran-Contra. No one can participate intelligently in America’s republic without such an historical background.

The strategies and tactics used in organized stalking have their roots in earlier programs and agencies in America and elsewhere. Among the subjects of particular relevance to contemporary counterintelligence crimes in the U.S. are the following:

COINTELPRO was a secret program of FBI counterintelligence operations against American citizens orchestrated under the leadership of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover.

Project MKUltra was a secret program run by the CIA from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, in which mind control and interrogation experiments were performed on U.S. and Canadian citizens.

“Red Squads” – now called “Law Enforcement Intelligence Units” (LEIUs), are elements of local police departments. They spy on criminals, but they also conduct counterintelligence activities – including infiltrating and disrupting organizations deemed to be subversive, such as labor groups and civil rights groups. Red Squads have been used – especially by urban police departments – since the late 1800s. Historically, Red Squads have taken very seriously the protection of business interests and the disruption of political movements. They have been rather more casual in their attitudes about complying with the law and principles of morality.

The Stasi – communist East Germany’s secret police agency – enforced the political control over East Germany’s citizens through a combination of surveillance and psychological terrorism. Core elements of that system of spying and psychological torture, called zersetzung, are used in gang stalking in the U.S. today.

Anyone who doubts that the U.S. government could be sanctioning a widespread conspiracy involving illegal surveillance and harassment of targeted citizens should read the basic facts about these programs. You don’t even need to explore obscure sources of information simply read the established mainstream accounts of the undisputed facts.


Understanding Uncertainty

by James Wallace Harris, 5/1/21

Most people are binary in their thinking. They don’t like juggling shades of gray. We want to know yes or no, it is, or it isn’t, is it good or bad, friend or foe, us versus them, and so on. For several decades now science has been under attack because it confuses people with complicated and even contradictory results.

Reality is not simple. It contains infinite variables working through infinite combinations. Science is about statistics. It looks for patterns, making hunches to test. And the results are never absolute. Last night I came across a film that visually illustrates this better than anything I’ve seen before.

This video is well worth 25 minutes it takes to watch. Actually, it’s worth watching over and over again. Don’t be put off because the film uses climate change as a teaching example if you’re burned out on the topic. Just watch it for how science works.

Digesting the daily news has become a survivalist skill. That skill should be combined with reading, writing, and arithmetic as part of every K-12 curriculum. Even though we’ve all had a lifetime of practice consuming new information, most of us would fail this subject, even the most studious would only be getting Ds and Cs. I’m no exception, failing most tests.

It’s not a matter of knowing the right answers, but learning to live with uncertainty. It’s developing an intuition for data, both numerical and narrative. We need to consume our daily information like Sherlock Holmes, always looking for clues. In the old days, teachers would talk about developing a rule of thumb for rough guessing. Other people talk about bullshit detectors. The trouble is humans aren’t rational, but rationalizing creatures. We constantly fool ourselves with false assumptions. We feel we’re being logical, and sometimes we are, but all too often we’ve started our chain of logic after making a bad initial assumption. If you’ve ever played the game MasterMind, you’ll understand this basic trait.

Learning to think clearly is unnatural for human beings because we tend to make up our minds quickly and stick to our decisions. We decide in childhood, when we’re uneducated, on many beliefs we choose to defend for the rest of our lives. Science is all about constantly reevaluating data, and that goes against common human habits. Humans aren’t Vulcans, but we all need to think like Mr. Spock, but that requires constant effort, constant vigilance. Always learning new insights feels like we’re always swimming against the current, when the urge is to relax and to drift with the current. That’s as natural as entropy. But understanding reality is anti-entropic, it is swimming against the current.


Sadržaj


Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. He was named for his maternal uncle, Harrison "Harry" Young. His middle initial, "S", honors his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. [7] [b] A brother, John Vivian, was born soon after Harry, followed by sister Mary Jane. [8] Truman's ancestry is primarily English with some Scots-Irish, German, and French. [9] [10]

John Truman was a farmer and livestock dealer. The family lived in Lamar until Harry was ten months old, when they moved to a farm near Harrisonville, Missouri. The family next moved to Belton and in 1887 to his grandparents' 600-acre (240 ha) farm in Grandview. [11] When Truman was six, his parents moved to Independence, Missouri, so he could attend the Presbyterian Church Sunday School. He did not attend a conventional school until he was eight. [12] While living in Independence, he served as a Shabbos goy for Jewish neighbors, doing tasks for them on Shabbat that their religion prevented them from doing on that day. [13] [14] [15]

Truman was interested in music, reading, and history, all encouraged by his mother, with whom he was very close. As president, he solicited political as well as personal advice from her. [16] He rose at five every morning to practice the piano, which he studied more than twice a week until he was fifteen, becoming quite a skilled player. [17] Truman worked as a page at the 1900 Democratic National Convention in Kansas City [18] his father had many friends active in the Democratic Party who helped young Harry to gain his first political position. [19]

After graduating from Independence High School in 1901, Truman enrolled in Spalding's Commercial College, a Kansas City business school. He studied bookkeeping, shorthand, and typing but left after a year. [20]

Truman made use of his business college experience to obtain a job as a timekeeper on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, sleeping in hobo camps near the rail lines. [21] He then took on a series of clerical jobs and was employed briefly in the mailroom of The Kansas City Star. Truman and his brother Vivian later worked as clerks at the National Bank of Commerce in Kansas City.

He returned in 1906 to the Grandview farm, where he lived until entering the army in 1917. [22] During this period, he courted Bess Wallace. He proposed in 1911, but she turned him down. Truman later said he intended to propose again, but he wanted to have a better income than that earned by a farmer. [23] To that end, during his years on the farm and immediately after World War I, he became active in several business ventures, including a lead and zinc mine near Commerce, Oklahoma, [24] a company that bought land and leased the oil drilling rights to prospectors, [25] and speculation in Kansas City real estate. [26] Truman occasionally derived some income from these enterprises, but none proved successful in the long term. [27]

Truman is the only president since William McKinley (elected in 1896) who did not earn a college degree. [28] In addition to having briefly attended business college, from 1923 to 1925 he took night courses toward an LL.B. at the Kansas City Law School (now the University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law) but dropped out after losing reelection as county judge. [29] He was informed by attorneys in the Kansas City area that his education and experience were probably sufficient to receive a license to practice law. He did not pursue it, however, because he won election as presiding judge. [30]

While serving as president in 1947, Truman applied for a license to practice law. [31] A friend who was an attorney began working out the arrangements, and he informed Truman that his application had to be notarized. By the time Truman received this information he had changed his mind, so he never sought notarization. After the rediscovery of Truman's application, in 1996 the Missouri Supreme Court issued Truman a posthumous honorary law license. [32]

Nacionalna garda

Because he lacked the funds for college, Truman considered attending the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, which had no tuition, but he was refused an appointment because of poor eyesight. [29] He enlisted in the Missouri National Guard in 1905 and served until 1911 in the Kansas City-based Battery B, 2nd Missouri Field Artillery Regiment, in which he attained the rank of corporal. [33] At his induction, his eyesight without glasses was unacceptable 20/50 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left (past the standard for legal blindness). [34] The second time he took the test, he passed by secretly memorizing the eye chart. [35] He was described as 5 feet 10 inches tall, gray eyed, dark haired and of light complexion. [36]

World War I

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Truman rejoined Battery B, successfully recruiting new soldiers for the expanding unit, for which he was elected as their first lieutenant. [37] Before deployment to France, Truman was sent for training to Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, near Lawton, Oklahoma when his regiment was federalized as the 129th Field Artillery. [38] The regimental commander during its training was Robert M. Danford, who later served as the Army's Chief of Field Artillery. [39] Truman later said he learned more practical, useful information from Danford in six weeks than from six months of formal Army instruction, and when Truman later served as an artillery instructor, he consciously patterned his approach on Danford's. [39]

Truman also ran the camp canteen with Edward Jacobson, a clothing store clerk he knew from Kansas City. Unlike most canteens funded by unit members, which usually lost money, the canteen operated by Truman and Jacobson turned a profit, returning each soldier's initial $2 investment and $10,000 in dividends in six months. [33] At Fort Sill, Truman met Lieutenant James M. Pendergast, nephew of Tom Pendergast, a Kansas City political boss, a connection that had a profound influence on Truman's later life. [40] [41]

In mid-1918, about one million soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces were in France. [42] Truman was promoted to captain effective April 23, [43] and in July became commander of the newly arrived Battery D, 129th Field Artillery, 35th Division. [44] [45] Battery D was known for its discipline problems, and Truman was initially unpopular because of his efforts to restore order. [33] Despite attempts by the men to intimidate him into quitting, Truman succeeded by making his corporals and sergeants accountable for discipline. He promised to back them up if they performed capably, and reduce them to private if they did not. [46] In an event memorialized in battery lore as "The Battle of Who Run", his soldiers began to flee during a sudden night attack by the Germans in the Vosges Mountains Truman succeeded at ordering his men to stay and fight, using profanity from his railroad days. The men were so surprised to hear Truman use such language that they immediately obeyed. [33]

Truman's unit joined in a massive prearranged assault barrage on September 26, 1918, at the opening of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. [47] They advanced with difficulty over pitted terrain to follow the infantry, and set up an observation post west of Cheppy. [47] On September 27, Truman saw through his binoculars an enemy artillery battery setting up across a river in a position allowing them to fire upon the neighboring 28th Division. [47] Truman's orders limited him to targets facing the 35th Division, but he ignored this and patiently waited until the Germans had walked their horses well away from their guns, ensuring they could not relocate out of range of Truman's battery. [47] He then ordered his men to open fire, and their attack destroyed the enemy battery. [47] His actions were credited with saving the lives of 28th Division soldiers who otherwise would have come under fire from the Germans. [48] [49] Truman was given a dressing down by his regimental commander, Colonel Karl D. Klemm, who threatened to convene a court-martial, but Klemm never followed through, and Truman was not punished. [47]

In other action during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Truman's battery provided support for George S. Patton's tank brigade, [50] and fired some of the last shots of the war on November 11, 1918. Battery D did not lose any men while under Truman's command in France. To show their appreciation of his leadership, his men presented him with a large loving cup upon their return to the United States after the war. [33]

The war was a transformative experience in which Truman manifested his leadership qualities. He had entered the service in 1917 as a family farmer who had worked in clerical jobs that did not require the ability to motivate and direct others, but during the war, he gained leadership experience and a record of success that greatly enhanced and supported his post-war political career in Missouri. [33]

Truman was brought up in the Presbyterian and Baptist churches, [51] but avoided revivals and sometimes ridiculed revivalist preachers. [52] He rarely spoke about religion, which to him, primarily meant ethical behavior along traditional Protestant lines. [53] Most of the soldiers he commanded in the war were Catholics, and one of his close friends was the 129th Field Artillery's chaplain, Monsignor L. Curtis Tiernan. [54] The two remained friends until Tiernan's death in 1960. [55] Developing leadership and interpersonal skills that later made him a successful politician helped Truman get along with his Catholic soldiers, as he did with soldiers of other Christian denominations and the unit's Jewish members. [56] [57]

Officers' Reserve Corps

Truman was honorably discharged from the Army as a captain on May 6, 1919. [58] In 1920 he was appointed a major in the Officers Reserve Corps. He became a lieutenant colonel in 1925 and a colonel in 1932. [59] In the 1920s and 1930s he commanded 1st Battalion, 379th Field Artillery, 102d Infantry Division. [60] After promotion to colonel, Truman advanced to command of the same regiment. [61]

After his election to the U.S. Senate, Truman was transferred to the General Assignments Group, a holding unit for less active officers, although he had not been consulted in advance. [62] Truman protested his reassignment, which led to his resumption of regimental command. [62] He remained an active reservist until the early 1940s. [63] Truman volunteered for active military service during World War II, but was not accepted, partly because of age, and partly because President Franklin D. Roosevelt desired Senators and Congressman who belonged to the military reserves to support the war effort by remaining in Congress, or by ending their active duty service and resuming their Congressional seats. [64] He was an inactive reservist from the early 1940s until retiring as a colonel in the then redesignated U.S. Army Reserve on January 20, 1953. [65]

Military awards and decorations

Truman was awarded a World War I Victory Medal with two battle clasps (for St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne) and a Defensive Sector Clasp. He was also the recipient of two Armed Forces Reserve Medals. [66]


Happy Birthday Wolfgang Halbig!

Howdy, folks. Blade here. I’ve been hard at work polishing up Get Rich or Lie Trying: The Life of Wolfgang Halbig, in between shifts down at the warehouse. But I wanted to make sure we don’t go too long without acknowledging a very important event that happened in the meantime: Wolfgang Halbig turned 74 years old this past month!

Happy Birthday, Wolfgang! (It was August 10th, to be precise.)

Now we all know that when birthdays roll around, it’s a good opportunity to reflect on our lives, and where our path has taken us over the years. So today I thought we could take a look back at Wolfgang’s life, and see how things were unfolding during three of his previous birthdays. Sound good? Let’s go!

Wolfgang Halbig’s Favorite Position

First, let’s go all the way back to around the time of Wolfgang’s 24th birthday, in the summer of 1971. He was just getting into playing college football at Abilene Christian College at the time, after getting out of the Air Force. The local newspaper, the Abilene Report, mentioned this among a bunch of updates in their college-sports coverage, with the reporter noting that Wolf should be able to perform in that position “if the coaches leave him there.”

What I like about this (this very, very unremarkable article) is that it results in the very first time that Wolfgang Halbig was ever quoted in the press, at the age of just 24, and already, it’s him being butt-hurt and whining over basically nothing. One gets the impression that Wolfgang was actually waiting at the newspaper stand with bated breath, all amped to read about himself and how much the team valued him… then saw what the article said, and immediately went to a nearby payphone to start his cry-fest.

The next week, the paper issues a correction there’s only this little fragment available online, but you can tell the reporter was annoyed at what a little baby Wolfgang was about the whole thing:

Wolfgang Halbig of Abilene Christian College telephoned to report he WILL be the Wildcats’ fullback this fall. We had reported that Halbig had been shifted to fullback and should add power “if the coaches leave him there.” Halbig was somewhat upset over the statement as he is confident he will be at fullback. We did not know anything Wolfgang didn’t know so will confess, Wolfgang, that you [fragment ends]

It must have seemed odd, that this big tough-looking dude would call the waaahmbulance over something so minor. But a few weeks later, we learn why Wolfgang was so sensitive about these details: because he only got his last position after someone better got hurt:

Halbig, 25, recently was sidelined with a bruised kidney and didn’t return to drills until Monday, although he’s been running through some passing patterns in shorts. His main challenge this year, he said, is to make the starting lineup. “I don’t want to make it this year because somebody is injured. I did it last year and I think it’s a poor way to have to start.”

So, he knew his actual abilities on the field had relatively little to do with his success so far, and the suggestion that he might get moved to another spot from fullback, or that he was somehow untested in that role, triggered his insecurities. (These sorts of paranoid thoughts likely played a role in his surprise career change a few years later: he had been talking about going into coaching, or teaching, but then suddenly, quit the school district to go be a cop. He wasn’t any good at that either, but it would come in handy later when he got into the “school safety” racket.)

Vote for Wolfgang

For our next Wolfgang milestone, let’s jump forward to the 1980’s. It’s August of 1982 in Florida, and perhaps if Wolfgang had stuck with the law enforcement career track, he’d be busting cocaine smugglers while wearing a pastel blazer and loafers with no socks, like his colleagues down in Miami around that time. But no, after ‘ol Halbig quit coaching to join the Florida State Patrol, it wasn’t even 2 years before he turned in his badge. (His reasons for doing so are… let’s just say questionable. But that’s another post.)

So now, at age 36, Wolfgang is back in the education game, and has become a family man. He’s teaching Driver’s Ed at Vanguard High School, but as always whenever he’s teaching, he has little side-hustle project going on too. (It seems like teaching was all he was left with after his coaching gig crashed and burned — see the chapter Hurricane Fail from the archived Hoax of a Lifetime — but he couldn’t ever see teaching students as more than a foot in the door to obtain something more lucrative, so he just goes from failing at one scheme to failing at another, until his retirement.)

At this time, his side project was to try and get involved in local politics. This started when he was just trying to get a law passed that would make Driver’s Ed mandatory (basically guaranteeing himself employment). He succeeded there, and it must have been a real thrill, because then he started running for office!

On August 26, 1982, the candidates for the District 5 School Board seat assembled for a public forum (which was held at a funeral home for some reason). Wolfgang had some public speaking experience from his years coaching, but little more than that at this point. And he didn’t have long to make the case that change was needed at the school board. So, he chose to argue that the district was afraid to give failing grades to bad students… and used sebe as the example:

“When it came time to attend college, Halbig said, he did not have the grades. ‘The school board is responsible. They have to answer to you.’ They had their chance now it’s time to put a teacher in there who knows the needs’ of local students, Halbig said.”

It’s a bit difficult to parse exactly what point Halbig is trying to make here — especially since he did not “fail” as the black students he cites did, and he did go on to college. I guess his pitch is “as revenge for letting me graduate with failing grades, now you should elect me to the school board.” It’s a bold strategy, highlighting your lack of genuine achievement as a qualification all by itself. Perhaps it’s no surprise that this strategy was not enough to get Wolfgang into a position of power. He lost, and lost so badly that the newspaper didn’t even report his vote totals. But it wouldn’t be the end of his battles with school boards in Florida — or elsewhere.

The Buzzkill Conspiracy

For our last stop on memory lane today, let’s jump ahead 16 years and see what Wolfgang was up to in August of 1998: he’s just turned 52, and has secured a position as the District Security Chief for Seminole County Schools. This is probably the height of his professional achievements, a role with a lot of visibility and responsibility… so of course, Wolfgang sees it as a stepping stone to something more lucrative, and he starts figuring out how he can exploit it. He and some of his buddies in the school safety racket are already making plans to shift over to the private sector (to collect some of that sweet, sweet, independent-contractor money that Wolfgang already has plenty of experience appropriating). But that’s a competitive industry, and they know they need an edge.

In addition to his role as Director of Security for all schools, Wolfgang is also an administrator at one specific school, Project Excel — an alternative school, for the district’s discipline cases. And one day that August, he learned that none other than the governor of Florida, Jeb Bush, was going to be visiting his school!

At this point, something happens. Here’s how Wolfgang put it, when he wrote about the event in a later article, Breaking the Code of Silence :

One central Florida school district operates a Save-A-Friend hotline 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The service is contracted out through a private company, which has people manning the phones at all hours. One morning, a call was received from a high school student, who anonymously reported that drugs were being sold in the high school parking lot before the start of the school day.

Under the protocol in place, the company contacted the district’s security director — who, in turn, alerted the high school resource officer. The officer went to the parking lot, where he saw someone talking with students arriving for classes. After the man was approached by the officer and questioned, he became defensive and left. The officer pursued and ultimately arrested the man. He was taken to the administrative office of the school, where he was searched. The search showed he was carrying 22 bags of marijuana.

That morning, a top political leader in Florida was visiting the school. Television reporters were covering his visit. When the district security director received the details of the incident, he immediately informed the principal. Unfortunately, fearing the glare of perceived negative publicity that would be associated with the confiscation of drugs on campus, the principal did not share what had just happened with his visitors. As a consequence of the principal’s silence, state legislative leaders were not made aware of how well the Save-A-Friend hotline worked that morning.

Note that the “private company” that Wolfgang does not name is in fact Sonitrol, a company he also will go to work for, and that several of his business partners also work for. By 2000, when Wolfgang and said partners have launched the National Institute for School and Workplace Safety, Halbig is still pissed about this lost opportunity, retelling the story to a newspaper reporter… but oddly, the amount of seized cannabis shifts from 22 bags, to 28:

Halbig said the entire community needs to recognize that children will do illegal things, and come together to take preventive measures. An example: Around six months ago, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush was to visit a high school campus. The morning of his visit school officials got a call from a student warning them that another student would be selling marijuana in the parking lot. Officials caught the student with 28 bags of marijuana, but the principal didn’t want Gov. Bush – and the hordes of reporters following him – to know about the bust. That frustrated Halbig, who thought it would have made a good learning opportunity about the value of working together to promote safety and lawful behavior in school. “Now Jeb Bush left that day thinking there’s not a problem. We have to share the good as well as the bad and not be afraid of it,” Halbig said.

This is another question that Wolfgang MUST answer, now that I think about it — what happened to the other 6 bags of contranband? Why is Wolfgang hiding this information? Did he smoke it? Did he sell it? Plant it on an innocent student? Personally i t’s the not-knowing that really keeps me up at night… but Wolfgang refuses to answer these questions, so what else can we do but speculate?

Anyway, one thing you have to keep mind here is that the company Wolfgang was tied up with, Sonitrol, already had a contract for “tip lines” with the district, and was trying to expand that contract at the time. So in other words, on the day that the governor is visiting that specific school, the tip line that Wolfgang’s buddies profit from got an “anonymous” call that some drug dealing was going on, right where there’d be a chance that Jeb could witness the aspiring-contractor Halbig’s heroic actions in person. Serendipity!

Do you buy that? Because I don’t. I mean… it mogao be true, I wasn’t there after all. But it sounds to me like a more likely story is simply that Wolfgang knew there were dealers there every day, had failed to do anything about it so far, and then just called in the “tip” himself. Hell, it might even have been weeks or months prior when he first found out about this massive drug-dealing operation going on outside his school, and he chose to sit on it until he knew Jeb was in town.

Also, none of the articles name the person who was supposedly arrested, which is unusual. So maybe it’s completely made up? Maybe he just threw a few dozen ziploc baggies of lawn clippings in a drawer and told his boss he made a bust? Who knows!

Anyway, look, the weed wasn’t even the important thing: the REAL crime was that Jeb never even found out about Wolfgang’s heroism. That’s the part that really stuck with Wolfgang. He would stay mad about it for years.

And so in the years that follow, Wolfgang and his Sonitrol pals would repeatedly and shamelessly email Jeb, essentially begging for a contract (I’ll have to do a separate post just about those emails, they’re hilarious), trying to revive that opportunity that was lost in the parking lot of Project Excel that fateful morning. Maybe if things had gone differently, the National Institute for School and Workplace Safety could have landed that crucial bid, and flourished into a successful business. Wolfgang’s whole life could have gone differently after that… maybe he’d even be wealthy by now, and he’d have every school board in the state begging for his help. He could get back at all those professional educators who laughed at him over the years, and dominate them with his incredibly valuable and consistent ability to keep schools safe.

But it just wasn’t to be. He’d have to find another way to exact revenge on the education system that had so spurned his gifts. Yeah…. someday he’d show everyone…. somehow…

..Well, that’s all for today! Take care, fellow wolf-watchers, and one more time: Happy Birthday Halbig, from your biggest fan!

Austin “Blade” Tompkins is a certified forklift and order-picker operator located in the province of Ontario. He was an active Sandy-Hook “hoaxer” from 2013 to 2014. He has been sober since 2015.


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